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Action research and OD

 Action research is essentially on the spot

procedure designed to deal with concrete
problem located in an immediate situation.
Cohen and manion

It is an enquiry which is carried out in order to

understand ,to evaluate and then to change ,in
order to improve educational practice.
 1.problem focus
 2. Action oriented
 3. Cyclical process
 4.Collabrative
 5.Experimental
 6.Learning and capability building to tackle
future problem.
 1.Problem identification
 2.consultation with a behavioral science
 3.Data gathering and preliminary diagnosis.
 4.Feedback to a key client or group.
 5.joint diagnosis of the problem
 6. joint action planning
 7.Action
 8.Data gathering after Action
Objective Action step 1 Action step 2

planning Fact
Phase 1. Diagnosis

Phase w: Action Planning

Programme Management
 1.Tentative problem areas identified.
 2.collect Data
 3.Analyse Data
 feedback
 5.problem areas identified
 6.client target motivated to work on problem.
 7.diagnosis work on problem result in
 8.Results monitored.
 Marvin Weisbord’s Six-box model
 A diagnostic framework published in 1976 widely
used to diagnose organisational problems
 Weisbord identifies six critical areas:
1. Purposes
2. Structure
3. Rewards
4. Helpful mechanisms
5. Relationships
6. Leadership
 The model can be used as a cognitive map to
systematically examine the processes and activities
of each box, and to look for signs of trouble
 It focus on action potential ,system of whole
rather than part ,the future and on
structuring task that people can do for
 Useful practices for third wave consultant:
 1)Access the potential for action.
 2)Get the whole system in room.
 3)Focus on the future
 4)Structure that people do for themselves
 Employee surveys /Questionnaires

 Direct observation

 Interview

 Unobtrusive measures
 A)historical data
 B)Official documents
 C) Databases
 D)Physical
 1.Tool for OD practitioners.
 2.Emerges as event moves.
 3Learn and action aspect as goals.
 4.Focuses on real problems
 5. Depends of learning models.
 6.Necessity for rights goals and actions
 7.Existence of change agents.
 It represents where the organization should be ?
 A performance gap may also occur when the
organization fails to adopt changes in its external
 Self assessment version of gap analysis using
questionnaires to gather information in four key
 1. Organization’s Strengths
 2.What can be done to take advantage of the
 3.the organisation’s weakness
 4. what can be done to alleviate the weakness.
 1.Entry
 2. Contracting
 3. diagnosis
 4.Feedback
 5.Planning change
 6. Intervention
 7.Evaluation
 According to Cummings and Worley have
suggested five areas where change is required
 1.Motivating change
 i) Sensitise people about the pressure of change.
 ii) show deficiency between present situation and
the future.
 iii) Highlight advantage of change.
 IV)create pains in the mind of the people in the
 V)Involve members right from beginnings of
change efforts planning and implementing
 2) Creating a vision:-creating vision is
visualizing how the future will look.
 a) It must be realistic.
 b) It should be beneficial to the majority of
people in the organization .
 C) It should be attainable.
 D) suitable mission statement backed up by
organization values and making available the
inputs required for achieving change is the
essence of achieving the desired vision.
 3) Developing political support :
 Here identify the key players whose support
is required for the success of implementing
the change.
 4) Managing the transition:
 It relates to maintaining momentum of
various activity till the end is achieved. We
have to involve with new form and avoid old
activities to avoid it.
 5. Sustaining Momentum
 1. Regular meeting to review progress of
work done.
 2.Problem solving
 3.Ensuring that resources are made available.
 4.Close interaction with specialist /Change
 5.Instituting reward system in the
organization .
 6Highlighting the gains.
 7.It must be group/team effort.
 1.Define the purpose and Scope .
 2. Form a steering Committee.
 3.Communicate with organization members.
 4.Form employee solving groups.
 5. Address the problem solving groups.
 6.Implement and evaluate the changes.