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Concrete and Masonry

Section 13
Unit 39

1
Introduction

• Most buildings have concrete and/or masonry


components.
• The ability to use concrete and masonry materials is an
essential skill for construction and, repair and
maintenance of buildings.

2
Concrete

3
Concrete

• Concrete is “a mixture of stone aggregates, sand, Portland


cement, and water that hardens as it dries.”*
 Concrete does not dry, it goes through a chemical reaction
called hydration.

*Agricultural Mechanics, Herren

4
Concrete - cont.

Concrete is truly a versatile building material. It can be formulated


with very specific performance characteristics in mind and include
lightweight, heavyweight, porous, fiber-reinforced, mass, high-
performance and cellular concretes.

Advantages
– Fireproof – Attractive

– Insect & rodent proof – UV resistant


– Doesn’t require expensive
– Decay resistant
equipment.
– Storm resistant
– Available locally
– Wear resistant
– Low original and maintenance
– Waterproof (water costs
resistant) – Sanitary and easy to keep clean
– Strong – Recyclable

5
Concrete - cont.

Disadvantages
– Labor intensive
– Requires moving a lot of weight
– Requires forms
– Dense material
– Special skills required to place and finish

6
Seven (7) Characteristics of Concrete

2. Resists attack by water


1. Durable

3. Resists manures and most chemicals.

4. Fire resistant
5. Very strong in compression

6. Weak in tension

7. Resistant to freezing and thawing

7
Characteristic 1
Durability

Def: The ability of concrete to resist weathering action,


chemical attack and abrasion while maintaining its
desired engineering properties.

Concrete ingredients, their proportioning, interactions between them,


placing and curing practices, and the service environment determine
the ultimate durability and life of concrete.

8
Characteristic 2
Resists Attack by Water

Two characteristics;
watertightness and permeability.

Watertightness: the ability of concrete to hold back or retain water


without visible leakage.

Permeability: the amount of water migration through concrete


when the water is under pressure or the ability of
concrete to resist penetration by water or other
substances.

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Characteristic 2
Resists Attack by Water -cont.
The same properties of concrete that make it less permeable also
make it more watertight.

Low permeability concrete requires a low


water-cement ratio.
Factors that affect
Moist curing also reduces permeability.
permeability and water
tightness include:
1. Permeability of the paste
2. Permeability and gradation of the aggregate
3. Quality of the paste
4. Quality of the paste--aggregate transition zone
5. Relative proportion of paste to aggregate

10
Characteristic 3
Resists manures and most chemicals.

1. Good quality concrete is resistant to the acids of manure.


2. Concrete is very alkaline, pH is usually greater than 12.5.
3. Resistance can be increased with surface treatments.
4. Concrete is susceptible to deterioration by sulfates.

11
Characteristic 4
Fire Resistant

1. Concrete provides the best fire resistance of


any building material.
2. It does not burn, it cannot be 'set on fire' like
other materials in a building and it does not
emit any toxic fumes, smoke or drip molten
particles when exposed to fire.
3. Concrete and its mineral constituents enjoy
the highest fire resistance classification.

The strength of concrete will deteriorate with high temperatures.

12
The compressive strength depends
Characteristic 5
on:
1. The strength of the aggregate Strong in Compression
2. Proportion of aggregate sizes
3. Type of Portland cement
4. Purity of water
5. Uniformity of mixture
6. Procedures used in placing, Compress ive
finishing and curing Material Stren gth
(lb/in 2 )
Concrete 2 5 ,0 00
Wood* 2 – 4 ,00 0
Stone
Granite 1 0 ,0 00
Limestone 1 0 ,0 00
Marble 1 0 ,0 00
Sandst one 5 ,00 0
* Parallel to th e g rain

13
Compressive Strength Influenced by Water/cement Ratio

14
Characteristic 6
Concrete is weak in tension

Does this table and picture show why steel reinforcement is use in
concrete?

Tension Stren gth


Material (lb/in 2 )
Concrete 2,50 0
Wood* 1 0 – 15, 00 0
Steel 5 0 – 70, 00 0
* Parallel to th e g rain

15
Characteristic 7
Concrete is resistant to freezing and thawing
 The resistance decreases as the permeability increases.
 When concrete spaces are 91% or more full of water, freezing
will damage the concrete.
 When water freezes to ice it occupies 9% more volume than
that of water.
 Air entrained concrete is less permeable.
 Example of freezing damage:

16
Concrete Constituents

17
Concrete Constituents

Concrete: a mixture of aggregate and Portland cement paste.

Aggregate: usually sand, gravel and/or crushed stone.

Paste: Portland cement and water

Process: the paste binds the aggregates into a rocklike mass as the
paste hardens because of the chemical reaction (hydration)
of the Portland cement and water.

18
Proportion of Constituents

• Basic concrete mix:


– Air 6%
– Portland cement 11%
– Coarse aggregate 41%
– Fine aggregate 26%
– Water 16%

19
Admixtures

“Admixtures are materials other than cement,


aggregate and water that are added to concrete
either before or during its mixing to alter its
properties, such as workability, curing temperature
range, set time or color.” (http://www.toolbase.org/)

“Admixtures cannot compensate for bad practice and low


quality materials.”

20
Admixtures - cont.

Common admixtures Additional admixtures


 Retarding admixtures
 Bonding,
 Accelerating admixtures
 Shrinkage reduction,
 Super plasticizers
 Damp proofing and
 Water reducing admixtures
 Coloring.
 Air-entraining admixtures

• Addition of fiber to concrete makes it tough and fatigue resistant.


Such type of admixtures are used extensively in important
engineering projects.

21
Types of Cement

Different types of Portland cement are manufactured to meet


many different applications of concrete.

Type I Normal

Type IA Normal, air-entrained

Type II Moderate sulfate resistance (MSR)

Type IIA MSR, air-entrained

Type III High early strength (HES)

Type IIIA HES, air-entrained

Type IV Low heat of hydration

Type V High sulfate resistance

Types I & IA are the most common.

22
Air Entrained

Developed during the 1930’s

Produced by using air-entraining


cement or by using an air-
entraining admixture.

Recommended for nearly all concretes that are


exposed to freezing and thawing, and deicing
chemicals.

Spalding is a characteristic of
using concrete without air
entrainment.

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1. Increased freeze-thaw resistance

2. Increased deicer-scaling resistance

3. Improved sulfate resistance

4. Equivalent Strength

5. Improved workability

24
Aggregate

25
Aggregate

• Concrete should include at least two different sizes of


aggregate--fine and coarse.
– Fine = 1/4 inch or less (not to include fines)
– Coarse = 1/4 to 2 inch
• Standard practice is to crush stone and the use screens to
separate the sizes.
– The correct proportion of fine aggregate and coarse aggregate can
then be mixed together.
• Aggregate should be 60 to 80 % of the volume. (cheapest
material).
• Stream bank aggregate must be tested for excessive silt and
clay. (page 557, Fig 39-2)

26
Aggregate-cont.
Aggregate diameter must not exceed 1/3 of slabs that
do not use rebar.

Aggregate diameter must not exceed 1/5 of void in


forms were rebar is used.

The largest recommended aggregate size is 2 inches


for most applications.
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Purchasing Concrete

28
Purchasing Introduction

• For large jobs in is common practice to have the concrete


delivered to the site.
• The cost of having concrete delivered is determined by:
• Quantity
• Mix
• Minimum charge
• Unload fee
• Mileage fee

29
Purchasing Concrete - Quantity Needed

• Quantity needed
 Concrete is sold by the cubic yard (yd3).
 To determine the quantity need calculate the volume
in cubic inches (in3) or cubic feet (ft3) and convert to
cubic yards (yd3 or just yd).
 27 ft3 = 1 yd
 46656 in3 = 1 yd
 Common practice to add 5 to 10% for waste and
volume errors.

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Purchasing Concrete – Quantity - Example

• Determine the yards of concrete that will be required to pour a


driveway that is 26 feet wide, 120 feet long and 6 inches thick.
• Solution:
1 ft
ft 3 = 26 ft x 120 ft x 6 in x
12 in
= 1, 560 ft 3

3 3 1 yd 3 3
yd = 1560 ft x 3
= 57.777... or 58 yd
 27 ft
• Adding 10%.
58 yd 3 x 1.1 = 63.8 or 64 yd 3



31
Purchasing - Mix

• Two factors which determine the ideal mix.


– Environment
– Intended use

• Environmental factors • Use factors


– Soil phosphates – Maximum Load
– Freeze – thaw – Vibration
– De-icers

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Purchasing – Basic Mix

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Purchasing – Slump

• The inches of slump indicates the water-cement ratio and the


quality of the concrete.

Slump, in.
Concrete Construction Maximum Minimum
Reinforced foundations walls and footings 3 1
Plain footings, caissons, substructure walls 3 1
Beams and reinforced walls 4 1
Building columns 4 1
Pavements and slabs 3 1
Mass concrete 3 1

Slump is determine through a slump test.

34
Slump - Test

• A slump test is conducted using an


Abram’s cone, slump cone.
• A slump cone is 8 inches in diameter at
the bottom, 4 inches in diameter at the
top and 12 inches tall.

35
Slump Test – cont.
• Steps:
1 Moisten cone
2 Place cone on moist, smooth non absorbent level surface
that is larger the the lugs on the cone.
3 While standing on the lugs, fill the cone 1/3 and uniformly
rod 25 times.
4 Fill the cone 2/3 full and rod the 25 times insuring the rod
just penetrates the first layer.
5 Over fill the cone and rod 25 times
6 Strike off the excess with the rod.
7 Slowly lift the cone vertically and place on surface beside
concrete.
8 Place rod across the top of the cone and the concrete and
measure the distance from the bottom of the rod to the
surface of the concrete.
9 This distance is the inches of slump.
36
Mixing Concrete

37
Introduction

• Small jobs can be mixed at the site.


• Concrete weights over 4,000 pounds per cubic yard.
• Therefore, it is important to determine amount of concrete
first, because even a small volume of concrete can
require moving a lot of material.
• Using Quikcrete is a popular option to reduce the work.

For more information go to:


http://www.nrmca.org/aboutconcrete/

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Quikrete

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Mixing Concrete

• Characteristics of good mix:


1. Each aggregate particle is covered with cement paste
2. Each aggregate particle is bound to others
• Cement paste
– Water--cement ratio must be exact proportions.
– Water in aggregate must be accounted for and deducted from
water added to mix.
• Water--cement ratio must be adjusted for different service
conditions.

40
Concrete Mixes

• The proportions of water, Portland cement, fine aggregate and


course aggregates are not the same for all concrete jobs.
• When mixing concrete it is common to express the mix (receipt)
as a proportion. For example:

1  2  2 - 1/4
1 = 1 ft3 (sack) of Portland cement
2 = 2 ft3 of fine aggregate
2-1/4 = 2.25 ft3 of coarse aggregate

• The proportions can be used on a volume or weight basis

41
Proportions

• The proportions must be changed to meet the service


conditions.

Fine Coarse
Intended use Cement Aggregate Aggregate
Mild Exposure 1 3 4
Normal Exposure 1 2-1/4 3
Severe Exposure 1 2 2-1/4

42
Mixing--cont.

• The amount of water in the aggregate must be included in the


calculations.
• Effect of water in aggregate. (Fig 39-3)
Suggested Mixture for 1 ft3 Trial
Water (gal) added to 1 Batch
ft3 of cement if sand is: Aggregates
Intended Maximum Damp Wet Very Cement Fine Coarse
Use Aggregate Size (in) Wet (ft3) (ft3) (ft3)
Mild 1-1/2 6-1/4 5-1/2 4-3/4 1 3 4
Normal 1 5-1/2 5 4-1/4 1 2-1/4 3
Severe 1 4-1/2 4 3-1/2 1 2 2-1/4

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Water vs. strength

44
Effect of Adding Water

• Adding 1 gal of water to 1 yd3 of concrete:


– Increases slump 1 inch
– Decrease compressive strength by 200 psi
– Increases shrinkage by 10%
– Increases permeability by up to 50%

45
Estimating Materials - By Volume

• Determine the amount of materials that will be required to


pour a concrete slab that measures 12 ft x 10 ft x 3 in. A
1-2.1/2-3.1/2 mix will be used.
 Step one: determine the volume required.

3  1 ft 
ft = 12 ft x 10 ft x 3 in x 
 12 in 
= 30 ft 3
• Adding the 10% = 30 ft 3 x 1.1 = 33 ft 3


 46
Estimating Materials - By Volume - cont.
 Step two: determine the yield of one batch of the receipt.

1 + 2.5 + 3.5 = 7.0 ft 3

 Because the aggregate mixes together, the yield by


volume will only be about 2/3’s of the total volume.

7.0 ft 3 x 0.66 = 4.62 ft 3
 Step three: determine the number of batches required.
 33 cubic feet of concrete is required, each one sack batch
will yield 4.62 cubic feet.
number of batches =
 The
1 batch
Batches = 33 ft 3 x 3
= 7.14 batches
4.62 ft

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
Estimating Materials - By Volume - cont.

• Step four: determine the Portland cement, fine aggregate and


coarse aggregate.

Portland Cement : 1 x 7.14 = 7.14 sacks


Fine aggregate : 2.5 x 7.14 = 17.8 ft 3
Coarse aggregate : 3.5 x 7.14 = 25 ft 3



48
Concrete Mixes--cont.

• When concrete ingredients are measured using weight, density


conversions must be used.
– Portland cement = 94 lb/ft3 (100 lb/ft3 often used)

– Fine aggregate = 100 lb/ft3

– Coarse aggregate = 110 lb/ft3

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Estimating Materials - By Weight

• Determine the amount of materials that will be required to pour a


concrete slab that measures 18 ft x 12 ft x 4 in. A 1-2.-3.1/2 mix
will be used.
 Step one: determine the volume required.

3  1 ft 
ft = 18 ft x 12 ft x 4 in x 
 12 in 
= 74 ft 3
• Adding the 10% =
74 ft 3 x 1.1 = 81.4 ft 3



50
Estimating Materials - By Weight - cont.

 Step two: determine the yield of one batch.

1 + 2 + 3.5 = 6.5 ft 3
6.5 ft 3 x 0.66 = 4.29 ft 3

 Step three: determine the number of batches.


1 batch
Batches = 81.4 ft 3 x 3
= 23.26 batches
4.29 ft


51
Estimating Materials - By Weight - cont.

• Step four: determine the amount of cement, fine aggregate and


coarse aggregate.

lb
Portland Cement : 1 x 23.6 = 23.6 sacks x 94  2, 218. 4 lb
sack
lb
Fine aggregate : 2.0 x 23.6 = 47.2 ft 3 x 100 3
= 4, 720 lb
ft
lb
Coarse aggregate : 3.5 x 23.6 = 82.6 ft 3 x 110 3
= 9, 086 lb
ft

52
Workable Mix

• Workability of concrete refers to the consistency of the wet


concrete.
– Wetter concrete is more workable, but the higher the water
content--the poorer the quality of the concrete.
• Characteristics of a workable mix:
1. Portland cement thoroughly mixed
2. Aggregate fully covered
3. Aggregates evenly distributed
4. Minimum amount of water
5. Uniform color and consistency
6. Can be mixed, moved and placed with a shovel or spade

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Preparing Concrete Forms

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Concrete Forms

• Form: a metal or wooden structure that confines the


concrete to the desired shape or form until it hardens.
• The more complex the shape of the concrete--the more
complex the forms.
• Normal concrete weights between 100 & 150 lb/ft3,
therefore any forms supporting the weight of concrete
must be well engineered.
• Forms can be constructed from dimensioned lumber and
plywood, or in some cases, metal forms can be
purchased or rented.

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Concrete Forms Information

1. Use soft, clean straight lumber. 6. Insure stakes do not extend

2. Sharpen stakes evenly. above the tops of the forms.


7. Construct the inside surface of
3. Space stakes appropriately.
the forms to create the desired
4. Use a level to set the forms for
shape in the finished concrete.
the desired slope.
8. Coat all surfaces that will be in
5. Do not drive nails into concrete
contact with the concrete.
space.

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Concrete Forms--Wall Example

Board Tie

1” Boards or 3/4 Plywood

Brace
Stud

Spreader Block
Stake
Wire Tie

Wale
Concrete Footing

Agricultural Mechanics Fundamentals & Applications Herren--Fig 39-7 57


Concrete Forms--Slab Example

Control Joint
Concrete
Straightedge

Form

Wall Stake

Packed Damp Sand


Agricultural Mechanics Fundamentals & Applications Herren--Fig 39-7

58
Concrete Joints

• Three (3) types of joints are used


for concrete.
– Isolation joints: allow
expansion and contraction of a
concrete slab without
generating potentially
damaging forces within the
slab itself or the surrounding
structures
– Control (Contraction) joints:
this type of joint allows only
for contraction or shrinkage of
the slab, as can be anticipated
during the curing process

59
Concrete Joints-cont.

• Construction joints:
Construction joints can be
horizontal or vertical and are
Butt formed when placement of the
concrete is interrupted for some
reason.
 It may be the end of a day's
work or
 May be that some other work
Dowel
needs to be completed before
resuming the placement.
 New concrete is placed against
concrete that has solidified or
skimmed over.

Key
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Reinforcing Concrete
• Concrete is strong in compression, but weak in tension.
• Reinforcement is used to increase the tension strength.

• The type, size and spacing


of the reinforcement is
determined by the thickness
of the slab and the designed
load.
• Fibers are also being used
to reinforce concrete.

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Pouring, Finishing, and Curing Concrete

62
Pouring (Placing)

• Concrete should be placed--not poured.


• Concrete must be placed as closes to the final location as
possible.
– Heavy--labor intensive to move.
– Moving causes the aggregate to segregate.
• Inspect forms and bracing before starting the placing.
• Insure all of the tools and help are available and ready before
starting.
– Starts to harden in 15 minutes
– Once in place and hardening process has started--its there.
• Ensure concrete does not dry out.
– Dampen the soil/sand base before placing.
– Protect top surface after placing.

63
Finishing Concrete

• The number of processes and type of process used is


determine by the desired finished surface.
 Trowel
 Broom
 Exposed aggregate
 Grooved
 Stamped
 Burlap
 Etc.
• The finishing process has at least Four (4) steps.
• Screeding
• Floating
• Final surface
• Edging & jointing

64
(1) Screeding & (2) Floating Concrete
The process used is determined by the use of the concrete and the desired
finished surface.
1. Screeding
– Screeding is striking off the concrete
surface to insure it is level with the forms
– Pushes large aggregate below the
surface
– Starts the smoothing process
– Can be accomplished with a straight
board
2. Floating
– Brings fine aggregate and cement paste
to the surface
– Produces smoother surface
– Uses a wooden or magnesium float
– Floating should not be attempted until the concrete has hardened to
the point that stepping on it makes a very faint imprint.
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(3) Finishing Concrete

• Many options are available for the


finished surface of concrete.
– Molded
• Individual
• In forms
– Stamped
– Exposed aggregate
– Colored
– Smooth surface
– Rough surface
– Other

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(4) Edging & Jointing

Part of the finishing process may also be edging and jointing


Edging
Edging forces the large aggregate away from
the corner and rounds the corner.
Reduces breakage on the edge.

Jointing

The groove cut or formed or cut in the surface


helps control the location of the cracks.

67
Curing Concrete

68
Curing Concrete

• Concrete hardens through a chemical process.


– Initial strength is reached in a week.
– Must be protected during this time

• Potential problems. • Solutions


1a. Dampen base/forms before placing
1. Drying out
1b. Cover with plastic or canvas
2a. Insulate the surface
2. Excessive heat
2b. Dampen the surface
3a. Don’t place on frozen ground
3. Freezing temperature
3a. Don’t place when freezing temperature is
expected

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Curing Rate

Curing Rate
140

120

100

80
%
28 60
Days
40

20

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Days
70
Effect of Curing conditions

150

125

100
%
of
28 75 Air
Days Moist

50

25

0
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200

Days
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Masonry

72
Introduction

• Masonry is “Any type of construction using brick, stone, tile or


concrete units held in place with Portland cement.”
• Masonry units are held in place with mortar
– Mortar = Portland cement, sand and water
– Other materials may be added.

73
Masonry Construction • Disadvantages:
– Strength, durability and
• Ancient method of construction. water resistance of finished
product dependent on
• Advantages: strength, durability and water
– Fireproof resistance of masonry units.
– Insect and rodent proof – Labor intensive
– Decay resistant – Different skills required than
– Storm resistant for wood frame or concrete.
– Wear resistant
– Water (proof) resistant
– Strong
– Attractive
– Can be installed without
expensive equipment
– Available locally
– Low original and
maintenance costs
– Recyclable
74
Masonry Units

• Building bricks
• Pavers
• Custom bricks
• Stone

75
Masonry Units-cont.

• Concrete blocks
(Fig 39-15)
• Light weight blocks

76
Additional Topics

• Estimating number of block needed


• Constructing footers
• Mixing mortar
• Laying block

77
Questions

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