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Present Perfect, and

Present Perfect
Continuous Tense
Present Perfect Tense
Make the present perfect tense by conjugating TO HAVE + THE PAST PARTICIPLE (-ed form) of the
main verb. We use this tense to show an action that began in the past and its relationship to
completion in the present time

EX. To Walk You can use these adverbs to describe an

I have walked We have walked action that has or has not been completed:
You have walked You have walked already, just, recently, yet
He, she, it has walked They have walked
He has just walked 2 miles (recently
Negation completed)
I have not walked We have not walked He has not walked 2 miles yet.
She has already walked 3 miles.
Question He has recently walked 3 miles.
Has she walked? Have they walked?
Situations to Use Present Perfect Tense
To describe a repeated action in an unspecified period between the past and now.
We have visited Portugal several times.

To describe an action that was completed in the very recent past, expressed by 'just'.
I have just finished my work.

To describe an action when the time is not important.

He has read 'War and Peace'.
Present Perfect Continuous Tense
Make the Present Perfect Continuous Tense from the present tense of TO HAVE + BEEN + -ING (main
verb). We use this tense to show that an action began at an indefinite time, and is continuing into
the present.

I have been walking We have been walking You can use time markers to indicate that an
You have been walking You have been walking action is still going on.
He, she, it has been walking They have been walking
She has been walking for the past hour.
NEGATION We have been eating since 2:00.
I have not been walking She has not been walking They have been playing sports all morning.
He has been working here for twelve years
Have you been walking? Has he been walking?
Situations to Use Present Perfect
To describe activities, routines, or habits which were recently begun:
I have been taking French classes this semester.

To describe recent events or temporary situations:

I haven't been sleeping well.

To talk about the temporary result of a recently finished activity:

I’ve been cleaning the house for the party, that’s why I’m so tired.

To talk about an action that started in the past but actively continues:
I’ve been studying English for years.
ATTENTION: The Present Perfect Continuous Tense cannot be used with NON-ACTION VERBS. Non-action
verbs indicate state, sense, desire, possession, or opinion. Some common examples of these verbs include:
be, look, have, smell, taste, consider, believe, etc.

Instead of using the Present Perfect Progressive Tense, you can use the Present Perfect Simple Tense

Ex.) I have been knowing him for three years. (Present Perfect Continuous))
I have known him for three years. (Present Perfect Simple)

For more information, be sure to read this article: Non Action Verbs
When do you use Present Perfect Simple
vs Present Perfect Continuous?
You use the Present Perfect Simple Tense to describe an action that has RECENTLY BEEN
COMPLETED. You use the Present Perfect Continuous Tense to describe an action that
started in the past, and IS STILL GOING ON PRESENTLY.

EX.) She has eaten her sandwich already. Present Perfect Simple Tense

She has been eating her sandwich for the past hour. Present Perfect
Continuous Tense
Conversation between patient and doctor
Doctor: Good morning, Mr. Blaine. What’s the problem?
Patient: I haven’t been well for a few days. I keep getting headaches and I have been
coughing a lot, too. And I have a temperature.
D: Have you been taking anything for the headaches?
P: Yes, aspirin. But they don’t really help. I read on the internet that headaches can be
the first symptom of a brain tumour…
D: How many tablets have you taken?
P: I took two this morning
D: And have you taken your temperature this morning
P: Yes. I have taken it five or six times. It’s high.
D: Let me see… Well, your temperature seems to be perfectly normal now.
P: I think I need a blood test. I have not had one for two months.