Anda di halaman 1dari 22


Automobile Electrical System
 Automobile Electrical System refers to the
set up within a vehicle that supplies
electricity to the crank for starting and
running the engine. Additionally, it powers
the lighting system and other electrical
gadgets within the automobile
 An automobile's electrical system typically
comprises starting motor & controls,
batteries, wiring, electronic ignition,
generator and voltage regulator and
electronic fuel metering
Automobile Electrical System

 System Components
 Ignition System
 Starting System
 Electrical Wiring
 Charging system
 Spark Plugs
 Armature is the principal power-producing
component of alternator, generator,
dynamo within the car's electrical system.
An automobile armature's role is twofold.
First is to generate an electromotive force
and secondly to carry current crossing the
electrical field, to create the necessary
shaft torque.
 Automobile batteries are a type of rechargeable
batteries that meet all of the automobile's electric
energy. The batteries usually refer to SLI battery
used in powering the Starting - Lighting – Ignition
systems including starter motor, the lights, engine.
However, they may refer to traction batteries, which
are the primary source of power for electric vehicles.
Automotive batteries typically provide a 12-volt
potential difference by connecting six galvanic cells in
series. Batteries produce electric current when due to
chemical reactions inside it there a flow of electrons
through the conductors. There are several types of
lead-acid batteries in use today, such as Calcium-
Calcium, Wet/Flooded, AGM, MF, GEL, VRLA, Vlies,
Hybrid, etc.
Ignition System
 Ignition system refers to an arrangement of
automotive components which work together to ignite
the a fuel-air mixture inside the engine's cylinder.
When it was invented for use in internal combustion
engines, a flame, or a heated tube, was used to ignite
the fuel-air mixture. Later, however these were
replaced by systems that made use of an electric
spark. Timing is critical for their effective functioning, if
the timing of that spark is missed even by a small
fraction of a second, it would cause the engine to
malfunction. Several types of ignition systems exist,
some of the most common types are Distributorless
ignition system, Electronic ignition system and Point-
type ignition system
 Starting System
An automobile's starting system is perhaps the
most critical of an automobile's electrical system.
Once the ignition switch is turned on the starting
system comes into play. Beginning with the
automobile's battery, a small amount of charge
flows to the Starter Solenoid via the Neutral
Safety Switch. This action enables a flow of high
currant to the starter motor through the battery's
cables. Consequently, the starter motor cranks
the engine and the combustion cycle begins
Starting System
Electrical Wiring
 Automotive electrical wires are a single, cylindrical,
elongated string of drawn metal, used to carry
electricity and electrical signals. The wires within
the automobile's electrical system enable circuits
which are in turn used to run wipers, heater fan,
head lights, tail lights, stop lights, stereo, alarm and
all other electrical and electronic devices. Based on
their use and functioning electrical wires come in
different types. For instance, Ignition circuit,
Starting circuit, Charging circuit, Accessory circuit,
Lighting circuit, all of which work with different types
of wires.
Charging system
 Charging system refers to the set of components viz.
alternators, rectifier, regulators, that help recharge
the battery. The system is essential for running the
car's lights, radio, heaters, and other useful gadgets.
A typical charging system comprises the voltage
regulator, the batteries, and the alternator. While the
alternator generates electric currant, the regulator
checks any excess or deficit in the supply of currant.
The batteries on the other hand serve as a repository
of electric charge, coming into play whenever the
alternator gets overloaded in addition to supplying
power to the automobile's accessories
Spark Plugs
 A spark plug is an electrical component that's
installed at the cylinder head of of an
automobile's engine, the function of which is to
ignite the compressed air and gas mixture by
providing an electric spark. The construction of
spark plugs entails an insulated center
electrode attached with a heavily insulated wire
to the ignition coil. It is designed to form a
grounded terminal on the base of the plug with
a spark gap lying inside the cylinder