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PROTEIN

-Eggs & eggs product-

HTF523
OUTLINE
 Composition & nutritive value
 Egg quality
 Preservation & processing
 Eggs in preparation
Composition
Shell Air Cell

Shell Membranes
Yolk

Germinal Disc

Vitelline (Yolk)
Membrane Thin Albumen (White)

Chalazae
Thick Albumen (White)
Composition
Structure Description

Shell Outer covering of egg composed largely of calcium


carbonate. Shells may be white or brown depending on the
breed of chicken. The color does not affect egg quality,
flavor, cooking characteristics, nutritive value or shell
thickness.

Air Cell Pocket of air formed at large end of the egg. This pocket is
caused by contraction of the contents during cooling after
laying and increases in size as the egg ages.
Shell Two membranes (inner and outer shell membranes)
Membranes surrounding the albumen. These provide a protective barrier
against bacterial penetration. The air cell forms between
these two membranes

Thin Albumen Nearest to the shell and spreads around the thick white of
(White) high-quality egg.
Composition
Structure Description

Thick Albumen Major source of egg riboflavin and protein, and stands
(White) higher and spreads less than thin white in higher-grade
eggs. This albumen thins and becomes indistinguishable
from thin white in lower-grade eggs.
Chalazae Twisted, cord-like strands of egg white, which anchors the
yolk in the center of the egg. A prominent chalazae
indicates freshness
Vitelline (Yolk) Clear seal which holds the egg yolk. Attached to chalazae
Membrane
Germinal Disc Blastoderm of the yolk, located at the edge of the yolk and
connected to the white yolk
Yolk: Yellow portion of egg. The color of the yolk varies with the
feed of the hen, but doesn’t indicate nutritive content. The
yolk is the major source of the egg’s vitamins, minerals, and
fat; and contains about half of the protein.
Nutritive value
 Eggs, especially eggs white composed of
different proteins
 More than half is ovalbumin (gels well &
denatures easily when heated)
 Refer to table 11-1 (page 225)
Egg quality

 The best quality eggs are graded USDA


Grade AA, Grade A and Grade B.
 Grading methods:
◦ Candling
◦ Vitamin & minerals
◦ Haugh units
◦ Appearance
Grade AA Grade A Grade B
 Area covered by  Egg cover a  Egg spread out
the white is small relatively small more
 Yolk is firm & stand area  Yolk is flattened
up tall  Yolk is round &  As much thin white
 Large proportion of upstanding as thick white
thick white to thin  Thick white is large
white in proportion to the
thin white
Preservation
 Pasteurization
◦ Marketed outside their shell
◦ Need to ensure the safety of the product
◦ Hold liquid whole eggs at 61°C for 3.5 min
◦ Yolk also can be pasteurize, which sugar or
salt is added require high temp to kill
salmonella
Preservation
 Drying
◦ Spray drying commonly technique
◦ Long term storage
◦ Whole egg solid, yolk solid, fortified whole egg
solid
◦ Challenge;
i. Potential changes that can impair whipping
characteristic, color & flavor. Fermentation by
bacteria before drying
ii. During storage; glucose can react with cephalin
in yolk to produce off flavor. Eliminate oxygen in
packaging.
Preservation
 Freezing
◦ White perform very well, not require special
treatment
◦ Frozen egg white can be store in freezer, then
thawed for use. Foaming power & flavor are
excellent after freezing & thawing
◦ Egg yolks form gels during freezing, unless
either sugar or salt added prior to freezing
Eggs in preparation
 Emulsifying
◦ Lecithin found in the egg yolks is a natural
emulsifying agent
◦ Eggs help to keep fat & water or other liquid
compounds from separating
◦ Always use to thicken and stabilize food such
as salad dressing, mayonnaise, ice cream,
cream puff & certain cakes
Eggs in preparation
 Binding
◦ The high protein content of eggs makes them
excellent binder
◦ Example of breading fish, chicken, vegetable
◦ During cooking, heat coagulates the eggs
protein, then act as adhesive, bind other
ingredient to the surface of the cooked
material.
◦ Eggs also bind food such as meatball, lasagna
◦ When the mixture cooks the eggs protein
firm & stabilize providing structural strength.
Eggs in preparation
 Foaming
◦ 6 or 8 times its original volume
◦ Egg white foams are used to aerate & leaven
number
◦ Fresh eggs is the best to make stable foam
◦ Older eggs have thinner whites, beat to large
volume but less stable & may collapse during
heating.
 The stability of eggs white foam also depends
on :
 beating technique,
 the temperature,
 type of bowl,
 careful separation of egg white & yolk
 with or without sugar, fluid, salt or acid
Eggs in preparation
 Interfering
◦ Eggs are often used in the preparation of
frozen dessert such as ice cream
◦ They interfere with the formation of ice
crystals.
◦ In some candies, eggs are used to block the
formation of large sugar crystal to create a
smoother, more velvety texture
Eggs in preparation
 Clarifying
◦ Egg white used to clarify liquids
◦ Done by dissolving egg protein especially egg
white in cold liquid, then heated
◦ This cause the protein to solidify (attract
other particle that may be clouding the liquid
and to rise them to the surface for removal)
◦ This preparation technique used to make
clear soup.
Eggs in preparation
 Color
◦ Egg yolk contribute color
◦ Caretenoid pigment
◦ Golden brown color to yellow
◦ Cakes, cookies, pastries, breads, noodle
PROTEIN
-Milk & milk product-

HTF523
OUTLINE
 Composition & properties of milk
 Sanitation & milk quality
 Milk processing
◦ Type of milk product
Composition & properties of milk
 Nutrients
◦ Carbohydrate
 Lactose intolerance
◦ Protein
 Casein (80%) & whey (18%)
◦ Fat
 Calories (8 ounce cup ; 86-150 kcal and 0-8 g/fat)
 Cholesterol
◦ Vitamin
 Vitamin A & D
◦ Minerals
 Calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, (low in iron)
Composition & properties of milk
Milk

Water Milk solid


87.4% 12.6%

Milk solid non-


Milk fat
fat (MSNF)
3.7%
8.9%

Lactose Mineral Protein


4.8% 0.7% 3.4%

Casein protein Whey protein


2.8% 0.6%
Sanitation & milk quality
 Grades
◦ According to its bacterial count
◦ The highest grade (A) has the lowest count.
◦ All milk product must be pasteurized
Types of Milk
 Fresh fluid cow milks
 Fresh fluid milk from goat, sheep & others
 Flavored fluid milk
 Packaging fluid milk
 Nutritionally altered fluid milks
 Low lactose fluid milk
 Canned fluid milks
 Dry milk
 Cultured milk product
 Cream & substitute
PROCESSING
 Pasteurization
◦ Heat treatment of milk adequate to kill
microorganism that can cause illness
 Hold methods – milk is heated to 63C and held 30
min before its cooled to 7C
 HTST methods – milk is heated to 72C and held
15sec before its cooled to 10C
 UHT- 138C for at least 2 sec. kill all microorganism
& make possible to store in close sterile container
at room temperature.
PROCESSING
 Homogenization
◦ Mechanical process,
◦ Milks forced through tiny apertures under a
pressure (2000 to 2500 psi) ,
◦ Break up the fat globules into smaller units (< 2µ
diameter) that do not separate from the milk.
◦ This process cause milk to lose its ability to
cream, increase viscosity & whiter appearance
◦ Also less stable to heat, more sensitive to
oxidation, curds form more softer & less
distinctive flavor
PROCESSING
 Evaporation
◦ Various canned milk are produced by
evaporation of the water
◦ Evaporated milk; sterilized canned milk that
has been concentrated to about half its
original volume by evaporation under partial
vacuum
◦ Sweetened condensed milk; canned milk, sugar
is added, evaporation of about half the water
and heat treatment to kill harmful
microorganisms precede the canning process.
PROCESSING
 Drying
◦ milk is dried so it can be stored for an
extended period of time without refrigeration
◦ Reduce the problems of transporting fluid
milks
◦ When dried, the milk powder consists of
lactose, fat globule or free, & protein.
◦ These component tend to lump together
when rehydrated with water
PROCESSING
 Fermentation
◦ To produce lactic acid by microorganism
(Lactobacillus casei, L. bulgaricus, L. lactis, L.
helveticus)
◦ Buttermilk & yogurt
◦ Undesirable result; ropy in consistency,
unpleasant aroma/flavor, slimy curd to develop,
formation of black color to butter
Milk products in food preparation
 Flavor changes
◦ Bland, slightly sweet of milk come from,
lactose flavor, salt, sulfur compounds & short
chain FA
◦ % of fat determines the mouthfeel of milk
◦ Factors influence the flavor of milk:
 Expose to heat or sunlight
 Oxidation
 Use of copper (equipment or utensils)
 Feed ingested by the animal
Milk products in food preparation
 Coagulation & precipitation
◦ Heat (whey become insoluble, mesh with milk
calcium phosphate and percepitate)
◦ Acid (casein in milk to coagulate)
◦ Enzymes (pepsin, protease, rennin)
◦ Polyphenolic compounds (combine with milk,
result in the precipitation and also contribute
to curdling)
Storage
 Refrigerated
◦ Guideline; milk- no more than 3 weeks
yogurt – up to 3 to 6 weeks
buttermilk – last up to 3 day to 3 weeks
sour cream – up to 1 month (unopened)
 Dry storage
◦ Nonfat dry milk, ultrapastuerized milk,
evaporated milk & sweetened condensed milk