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Chinese Opera

中国戏曲
Contents

Introduction

Varieties

Peking Opera
Introduction ----- Chinese Operas
 Chinese Opera has been acknowledged as one of
the greatest ancient dramas in the world,
paralleling the Comedies and Tragedies of Greece
and the Sanskrit (梵文) Drama of India.

 The Chinese opera is a traditional form of stage


entertainment, weaving together elements of
mime, dance, song, dialogue, swordplay, and
acrobatics into one fluid continuous flow.
Gestures, movements and expressions
incorporated within each performer's script come
together to bring forth an impressive performance.
Introduction ----- Chinese Operas

•In contrast to Western stage entertainment,


which is subdivided into different categories such
as opera, drama and sketches(幽默短剧) ,
Chinese opera has remained faithful to its original
format over the centuries.

•Their origin can be traced back to primitive


society but the prototype(雏形) for Chinese opera
actually appeared in the Song dynasty about 800
years ago.
Introduction ----- Chinese Operas

Although sharing a common ancestry, Chinese


opera boasts over 300 various distinct forms -
taking their names from their places of origin.
These forms are generally discernible(可是别的)
by their use of local dialects and distinct
'melodies'. Beijing opera is considered by most to
be the most refined. Also widespread are Pingju
Opera, Kunqu Opera, Shaoxing Opera, Henan
Opera, Sichuan Opera, Shanxi Opera, Huangmei
Opera, Huagu Opera and Yangko Opera. Some
Chinese ethnic minority groups have some local
form of operas.
Varieties
Northern
 Beijing opera 京剧
 Errenzhuan 二人转
 (Northeast China)
 Hebei bangzi 河北梆子 (Hebei)
 Jiju 吉剧 (Jilin)
 Lüju 吕剧 (Shandong)
 Pingju 评剧 (Hebei)
 Puju 蒲剧 (Shanxi)
 Qinqiang/Qin dynasty opera 秦腔 (Shaanxi)
 Shandong bangzi (Shandong)
 Shanxi bangzi (Shanxi)
Southern (main )
 Cantonese opera (Guangdong)
 Chaozhou opera
 Ganju/Yiyangqiang (Jiangxi)
 Huju (Shanghai)
 Kunqu
 Liyuan opera
 Puppet opera
 Shaoxing opera/Yueju (Zhejiang)
 Suzhou opera (Suzhou)
 Taiwanese opera
 Wuju (Jinhua)
Varieties of Chinese Opera
Over 300 types all together

Beijing Opera (京剧)


Yue Opera(越剧)
Huangmei Opera (黄梅戏)
Yu Opera(豫剧)
Ping Opera(评剧)
Kun Opera(昆剧)
Hebei Clapper Opera(河北梆子)
Chuan Opera(川剧)
Yue Opera(越剧)
Lu Opera(吕剧)
Beijing Opera (京剧)

Beijing Opera, once called 'Peking


Opera', is the most influential and
representative of all operas in China
and has a history of over 200 years.
Beijing Opera is noticeable for four
highly systemized categories of
singing, acting, reciting and
acrobatic fighting.
The Four roles in Beijing Opera
Famous Plays in Beijing Opera

 The Gathering Of Heroes《群英会》


 The Empty City《空城计》
 The Orphan of the Zhao《赵氏孤儿》
 The Female Generals of the Yang《杨门女将》
 Red Lantern《红灯记》
 The Sparks in Reed Marshes《芦荡火种》
 To Take the Weihu Mountain by Strategy《智
取威虎山》
Yue Opera越剧

Yue Opera is a local opera popular in


the southern regions of the Changjiang
River. Yue Opera has a history of
nearly 100 years. The famous performer
Yuan Xuefen(袁雪芬), contributed
significantly to the reform of this
opera. Well known plays include The
Butterfly’s Love《梁山伯与祝英台》, The
Dream of Red Mansions《红楼梦》and The
West Chamber《西厢记》.
Huangmei Opera黄梅戏

 Huangmei Opera, once called 'Huangmei Tune'


(黄梅调), is a local opera in Anhui
Province, was basically derived from the
'Caicha Tune'(采茶调, tea-picking tunes)
of Huangmei county. The Huangmei Opera uses
the talents of the well-known performer,
Yan Fengying(阎凤英), and the traditional
plays are The Heavenly Maid and the Mortal
《天仙配》and Female Son-in-Law of the
Emperor《女驸马》。
Yu Opera豫剧
Yu Opera, also called 'Henan Clapper
Opera'(河南梆子)or 'Henan High Tune'
(河南高调), is a major local opera in
Henan Province and enjoys nationwide
popularity. There are more than 600
traditional plays in the repertoire of Yu
Opera, among them are Playing Short
Spears《对花枪》and The Beheading of
Chen Shimei 《铡美案》. The most
famous performer is Chang Xiangyu(常
香玉).
Ping Opera评剧

Ping Opera is a traditional opera widely


popular in Beijing, Tianjin, North and
Northeast China. It is especially good at
reflecting life of urban people and has
gained great favor from people both in rural
and urban areas. Classic plays include
Flower, a Matchmaker《花为媒》and Du
Shi Niang《杜十娘》, to name just a few.
Representative performers are Xiao Bai
Yushuang(小白玉霜)and Xin Fengxia(
新风霞).
Kun Opera昆曲

Kun Opera, also called 'Kunshan Qiang' (


昆山腔)', originated in the Kunshan region
of Jiangsu Province. It is one of China's
classical operas with a history of more
than 600 years. The traditional plays of
Kun Opera include The Injustice to Dou E
《窦娥冤》, The West Chamber《西厢记
》, The Peach Blossom Fan《桃花扇》,
The Peony Pavilion《牡丹亭》and Palace
of Eternal Youth《长生殿》. The
representative performers are Yu Zhenfei
(俞振飞)and Hong Xuefei(洪雪飞).
Hebei Clapper Opera河北梆子

Hebei Clapper Opera is a local opera


which originated in Hebei Province, yet
also became very popular in Beijing,
Tianjin and some regions of Hebei,
Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Inner
Mongolia and Shandong Provinces.
Representative plays include The
Generals of the Yang《杨家将》, Lotus
Lantern《宝莲灯》and Qin Xianglian《秦
香莲》.
Chuan Opera川剧
Chuan Opera is one of the oldest local
operas in China, mainly prevalent in Sichuan
province and parts of Yunnan and Guizhou
provinces. There are some unique and rare
features of Chuan Opera used to depict(描绘
)certain characters. For example, the actors
with a third eye on their forehead can
suddenly open it and have an insight into the
past and the future; some actors can change
their facial make-ups with a quick swing of
the head; and some are proficient at jumping
through burning hoops or hiding swords.
They are perfectly integrated with the plot of
the play, the mood and the personality of the
characters.
Yue Opera 粤剧
 Yue Opera is a major opera prevalent in areas
where people speak Guangdong dialect, such
as Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, Hong
Kong, Macao and overseas Chinese
communities in Southeast Asia. Its orchestra(管
弦乐队) has adopted Western instruments such
as violin, saxophone, cello(大提琴) and double
bass(大贝斯或低音提琴), in addition to Chinese
traditional instruments like Erhe(二胡),
Gaohu(高胡), Sanxian(三弦), and Yueqin
(月琴). In acting, stage scenery and lighting,
the techniques of modern drama and Western
opera have been integrated. A leading actress is
Hong Xiannu(红线女)
Chinese Musical Instruments

 wind instruments (吹奏乐器)


 bowed string instruments(拉弦乐器)
 plucked string instruments (弹拨乐器)
percussion instruments.(打击乐器)
Wind or Blowing Instruments 吹奏乐器

The wind instruments are mainly made


of bamboo or wood and are in the form
of a pipe. They can produce smooth
and sonorous (调子高的,响亮的)sound
by wind blowing through the pipe.
There is a variety of wind
instruments used in Chinese music,
among them are the Dizi, Xiao and
Sheng. These play a key role in
various musical ensembles(重奏).
Wind or Blowing Instruments 吹奏乐器


唢呐
Bowed String Instrument拉弦乐器

The bowed string instruments produce from


the vibration of the strings sweet sound and
rich tone colors. Most of Chinese bowed
string instruments belong to the Huqin(胡
琴)group, such as the Erhu, the Gaohu
and the Banhu, the former two have
sounding membranes(薄膜) made of
python(蟒蛇) skin, while the later one has a
wooden sounding board. They can express
profound feelings and display exquisite(精湛
的) skills of the performer.
Bowed String Instrument拉弦乐器

二胡

京胡

板胡
Plucked String Instrument弹拨乐器

The plucked string instruments are played


by plucking the strings with fingers or
plectrums(弦拨). There are various kinds
of plucked string instruments made of
different forms. The group of the plucked
string instrument mainly includes the
Guqin, Zheng and Pipa.
Plucked String Instrument弹拨乐器


扬琴

琵琶 三弦
Percussion打击乐器
The history of percussion instruments in
China is longer than any other category of
traditional instruments. The character of
'drum' was first found in the inscriptions on
bones and tortoise shells of the Shang
Dynasty. China has an enormous variety
of percussion instruments and the more
popular ones are the Gu, Zhong, Bo and
Luo, which can make sounds full of
appeals and local color.
Percussion打击乐器

青铜编钟
锣 钹

编磬
鼓 木鱼
Peking Opera

History of Peking Opera

Roles of Peking Opera

Facial masks
Brief Introduction
Beijing opera or Peking opera is a form
of traditional Chinese theatre which
combines music, vocal performance,
mime, dance and acrobatics<杂技>. The
form was extremely popular in the Qing
Dynasty court and has come to be
regarded as one of the cultural
treasures of China. It has also spread
to other countries such as the United
States and Japan.
Development
 Beijing opera was born when the "Four Great
Anhui Troupes" brought Anhui opera, or what is
now called Huiju, to Beijing in 1790, for the
birthday of the Qianlong Emperor. Beijing opera
was originally staged for the court and came into
the public later. In 1828, some famous Hubei
troupes came to Beijing. They often jointly
performed in the stage with Anhui troupes. The
combination gradually formed Beijing opera's
melodies. Beijing opera is generally regarded as
having fully formed by 1845.Although it is called
Beijing opera (Beijing theatre style), its origins
are in the southern Anhui and eastern Hubei
 Beijing opera is not actually a monolithic<单块的>
form, but rather a coalescence <联合>of many
older forms.
 Performers utilize the skills of speech, song,
dance, and combat in movements that are
symbolic and suggestive, rather than realistic.
The skill of performers is evaluated according
to the beauty of their movements. Performers
also adhere to a variety of stylistic conventions
that help audiences navigate the plot of the
production. The layers of meaning within each
movement must be expressed in time with
music. Beijing opera are based on Chinese
history, folklore, and, increasingly,
contemporary life.
 Beijing opera was initially an exclusively male
pursuit. The Qianlong Emperor had banned all
female performers in Beijing in 1772. The
appearance of women on the stage began
unofficially during the 1870s. Female performers
began to impersonate male roles and declared
equality with men. By 1894, the first commercial
venue showcasing female performance troupes
appeared in Shanghai. This encouraged other
female troupes to form, which gradually increased in
popularity. As a result, theatre artist Yu Zhenting俞振
庭 petitioned(请愿)for the lifting of the ban after
the founding of the Republic of China in 1911. This
was accepted, and the ban was lifted in 1912.
●The roles on the Chinese opera stage fall
into four categories: Sheng, Dan, Jing and
Chou.
●These roles have the natural features of age
and sex, as well as social status, and
are artificially exaggerated by makeup, costume<
戏服> and gestures.
●京剧在塑造人物方面有其独特的造型语言。它把不
同性别、性格、年龄、身份的人物划分为不同的行当,
一般说来有"生、旦、净、丑"四大行当。由于京剧人
物造型形象鲜明、风格多样,有强烈的剧场效果,常
常更易于激起观众的欣赏兴趣。
Sheng

a male role, usually a leading one, dates


back to Southern Drama of the Song and
Yuan Dynasties (960-1368). This role
appears in operas in all historical periods.
Sheng falls into three sub-groups:
Laosheng, Xiaosheng, Wusheng
Sheng

老生/《甘露寺》 小生/《柳荫记》
 Laosheng is meaning bearded men,
because the actors wear artificial beards, and
they are middle-aged or elderly men. Most
are upright(正直) and resolute(刚毅)
characters. They sing in their natural voices,
and their actions are serious ones.
 Xiaosheng represents young male
characters. They don't wear artificial beards.
They always sing in their real voices, while in
Kunqu and Pihuang operas the singing mixes
natural and falsetto voices.

Sheng

•Wusheng stands for all of the male


characters who appear in battle scenes.
They always wear helmets and thick-soled
boots. The generals always carry long pikes
or short-handled weapons, . Wusheng roles
call for sturdy and vigorous actions, with
resounding (洪亮的)declamations. The
movements of the waist and legs are
powerful, and a high level of martial arts
skills is demanded in these roles.
Dan
Dan is the general term in Peking
Opera for female roles. As early as in
the Song Dynasty (960-1279), the
Dan role appeared. Southern Drama
and Northern Zaju, which developed
during the Song and Yuan Dynasties
(960-1368)
Nowadays, the Dan roles are
subdivided into Zhengdan (or
Qingyi),Huandan, Wudan and
Laodan
Zhengdan role was the main Dan role in the
Northern Zaju. Zhengdan refers to young or
middle-aged women with gentle and refined
dispositions. Most of Zhengdan 's lines are
delivered in song, and even the spoken
parts are recited in rhythmic style. Always
dressed in a blue gown, Zhengdan is also
called Qingyi (blue clothes).饰演大家闺秀和
有身份的妇女称为"正旦",正旦在京剧中俗
称"青衣",这就是因为正旦所扮演的角色常
穿青色的长衫而得名青衣的表演庄重娴静,
秀雅柔婉,以唱功为主,一般说来,青衣的
唱腔旋律优美,细腻婉转。
Dan

Huadan is a role for a vivacious maiden, a


young woman with a frank and open
personality, or a woman of questionable
character.

旦行中的"花旦",多扮演天真活泼或放荡泼
辣的青衣妇女,在表演上注重做工和念白,
例如《红娘》中的红娘.
Dang

青衣/《贵妃醉酒》 花旦/《拾玉镯》
 Wudan refers to female characters skilled in the
martial arts and can be subdivided into Daomadan
and Wudan, according to the social positions and
skills represented. Daomadan is good at using
pikes and spears, and at riding horses. Wudan
always wears short robes and the role
emphasizes acrobatics. Wudan plays gods and
ghosts and has excellent fighting skills.
 武旦"和"刀马旦"相当于生行中的武生,扮演的是擅
长武艺的青壮年妇女,装扮和武生差不多,也扎靠
服,她们多在剧中扮演女侠、女将甚至女仙、女妖
等。武旦和刀马旦的表演往往还伴随着热闹的锣鼓
点,烘托场上的气氛
Laodan usually represents aged women.
She sings in their natural voices, in a style
similar to that of Laosheng but in milder
tones.
老旦指在剧中扮演老年妇女的角色行当。为
突出老年人的特点,走路迈一种沉稳的横八
字步,服装色调为色彩偏暗的秋香色、墨绿
色,演唱用真声表现。
武旦/《穆桂英》 老旦/《秦香莲》
Jing
 Jing refers to painted-face roles, known popularly as
Hualian. The different colors and designs on the
faces represent males with different characteristics.
Some are bold and vigorous and some are sinister<
邪恶的>, ruthless, crude and rash(鲁莽). The voice is
loud and clear, and the movements are
exaggerated. The roles represent men of high social
standing and good behavior, often court ministers.
 "净"角脸部化妆最为丰富彩。"净"因面部化妆要用各种
色彩和图案勾勒脸谱,所以又俗称"大花脸"。一般扮演
品貌或者性格有特点的男子,在京剧中多为将军或有
一定社会地位的人
Jing

武净/《战宛城》 铜锤/《打龙袍》
"末"也属老生类,但在年龄上应更老,
思维糊涂,生活在底层的老人。由
于化妆时在鼻梁上抹以小块白粉而
俗称"小花脸",又同净角的大花脸、
二花脸并列而俗称"三花脸"。
Chou
The Chou is one of the main roles in Peking
Opera. The eyes and nose are surrounded by
a white patch, so Chou is also known as Xiao
Hua Lian (partly painted face). The Chou roles
originated in Southern Drama of the Song and
Yuan dynasties (960-1368)剧中的"丑"角演员
又称为"小花脸"。"丑"行的化妆虽与大花脸有点
相象,可是他的表演风格却完全不同,有点像
夸张的漫画。丑角的出场常会带来满堂的笑声
the Chou roles are divided into two categories:
Wenchou (civilian) and Wuchou (martial).
Chou

文丑/《群英会》 武丑/《连环套》
Wuchou requires not only a good command
of the martial arts or acrobatics, but also the
ability to deliver the lines both clearly and
fluently. The movements should be light and
powerful.
武丑扮演的经常是一些机警风趣、武艺高超
的人物,象绿林好汉、侠盗小偷等等。"文丑"
经常扮演花花公子、狱卒、酒保、更夫、老
兵等。不管文丑或武丑,虽有文武善恶、身
份高低之分,在剧中都是幽默、滑稽的喜剧
人物,也并不都是反派。
Beijing Opera facial masks
京剧脸谱
The facial makeup in Chinese opera, is a
special feature of a national cosmetic. As
each historical figure or a certain type of
person has an approximate spectral type,
like sing, play music to the music, so
called “types of facial makeup in operas”.
On the types of facial makeup in operas
sources, the general view is from mask.
•Beijing opera types of facial makeup
in operas are based on certain
personality, temperament or some
special types of figures for the use of
certain colors.
京剧脸谱,是具有民族特色的一种特殊的化妆
方法。由于每个历史人物或某一种类型的人物
都有一种大概的谱式,就像唱歌、奏乐都要按
照乐谱一样,所以称为“脸谱”.关于脸谱的来
源,一般的说法是来自假面具。根据某种性格、
性情或某种特殊类型的人物为采用某些色彩的 。
Red has expressed his Warriors of strong
types of facial makeup in operas such as
Guan Yu, Jiang Wei and Chang Yuchun.
红色有脸谱表示忠勇士义烈,如关羽、姜维
、常遇春.
Black said the types of facial makeup
in operas ming criticized people,
integrity, bravery and even reckless,
such as Zhang Fei, Li Kui黑色的脸谱
表示刚烈、正直、勇猛甚至鲁莽,如包
拯、张飞、李逵等 张飞
Yellow types of facial makeup in operas
that vicious brutality, such as Yuwen
Chengdu, and Dian Wei.黄色的脸谱表示
凶狠残暴,如宇文成都、典韦.
Blue or green types of facial makeup in
operas that some of the figures
represented irritable, such as Dou
Ambassador, Ma Wu.蓝色或绿色的脸谱
表示一些粗豪暴躁的人物,如窦尔敦、马
武等.

窦尔敦
General treacherous court official said
the types of facial makeup in operas
white, bad guys, such as Cao Cao,
Zhao Gao.白色的脸谱一般表示奸臣、坏人
,如曹操、赵高等

曹操
 Gold and silver are used on faces of
deities, spirits and demons.
金色/银色:用于佛祖和神仙一类人物以及一
些比较有法力的精怪,如如来佛、二郎神

二郎神
京剧脸谱:如来佛
Classic Works
京剧经典
 "Farewell, My Concubine”

霸王别姬
" Mu Guiying takes command"

梅兰芳晚年编演的
《穆桂英挂帅》
导入

《玉堂春》剧照
Zhaojun Left the Fortress

京剧《昭君出塞》
尚小云扮演的王昭君
Qin Xianglian

京剧《秦香莲》剧照 张君秋饰演的秦香莲
" Three forks"

经典京剧《三岔口》中,表现出黑夜搏斗的场面
Top Scholar as Matchmaker

京剧《状元媒》谭孝曾饰宋王、王蓉蓉饰柴郡主
导入

《秋江》
《秋江》剧照
童芷苓(左)饰道姑陈妙常,
王泗水(右)饰艄翁
导入

京剧《红娘》剧照

荀慧生《红娘》
Uproar in Heaven

《大闹天宫》剧照

《大闹天宫》中的一个场
面(1961年摄)
The Drunken Beauty

《贵妃醉酒》
央视: Madam White Snake
常规译: Legend of the White Snake

白蛇传
鸿门宴 Hongmen Banquet
(a feast or meeting set up as a trap for the
invited)
西厢记

the Romance of the West chamber


The Drunken Beauty
赵氏孤儿“Sacrifice”(牺牲)
The Orphan of the Zhao
The Fairy Scattering Flowers 天女散花
A Startling Dream of Wandering Through
the Garden 游园惊梦
Beauty Defies Tyranny 宇宙锋
Mu Guiying Takes Command 穆桂英挂帅
The Fisherman’s Revenge 打渔杀
Phoenix Returns to its Nest 凤还巢
The Red Lantern 红灯记
Three Kingdoms ambition 三国志
Famous Artists
 Secret of the name
梅 mei, plum (flower)
兰 lan, orchid (flower)
芳 fang, fragrance
 “The Four
Gentlemen” - plum,
orchid,
chrysanthemum and
bamboo (梅兰菊竹).

His life in art was full of fragrance (芳) when the


flowers (梅plum, 兰orchid) blossom
Mei Lanfang Queen of Peking Opera

Traditionally only men performed Peking


Opera, including the female roles — and
Mei Lanfang was the master. During his
stage life, Mei embellished traditions of
the past with his own creations, shaping a
style of his own, and gave birth to “The
Mei Lanfang School.” He was also the
first artist to introduce Peking Opera to an
overseas audience, winning international
recognition across the globe.
Homework
Do you know any other minority characters?
Please introduce one of them.
Thank You!