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RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Dr T. Mpofana
Mpofana@ukzn.ac.za
OVERVIEW
 Basic anatomy of the respiratory system
 Ventilation

 Spirometry

 Ventilation during exercise

 Gas transport

 Control of ventilation

 Disorder associated with respiratory system

 Revision lecture
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
 Differentiate between the conducting
and respiratory portion – functions
 Be able to state the functions of the
respiratory system
 Understand the mechanism of
ventilation – muscles involved
 Gas laws: state Boyles law and be able to
aply it during respiration
LEARNING OBJECTIVES CONT….
 Changes in ventilation during exercise
 Spirometry – basic function
 Gas transport in blood (different forms
in which O2 and CO2 is transported)
 How is ventilation controlled
 Pathological conditions
FUNCTIONS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
ANATOMY OF RESPIRATORY
SYSTEM
 Nose has a nasal cavity that
leads to the pharynx.
NOSE
 Nasal cavity is lined with cilia
and hairs and goblet cells that
make mucus (anti-septic and
moisten air)– filter the air –
dust, pollen and other foreign
material sticks to it.
 3 x turbinate bones divide the
nasal cavity into 4 passages –
This enlarges the surface of the
nasal cavity – For warming,
cleaning and moisten of air.
 Several surface blood vessels
help to warm air.
AIRPASSAGES

 Pharynx – pass air form


nose to trachea via larynx.
 Trachea: long, straight
tube kept open by C-
shaped cartilage rings.
 Trachea – lined with cilia
and goblet cells (mucus
production) – traps foreign
particles
LINING OF AIR PASSAGES
 TRACHEAL LINING
 CILIA (SEM)
AIRPASSAGES: BRONCHI AND
BRONCHIOLES
 Trachea divides in a
right and left
bronchus – consist of
C-shaped cartilage
rings and lined with
goblet cells (mucus)
 Bronchi branch in
lung to form
bronchioles – branch
further and cartilage
rings disappears –
lead air to air sacs of Bronchiole
lung.
Right bronchus-short Left bronchus – long,
Branch in 3 branch in 2
LUNGS

 Right lung (3 lobes -


shorter) and left lung (2
lobes – longer, narrow)
 Spongy, elastic pink organ.

 Consists of several air sacs


called alveoli.
 Alveoli are grouped
together and form the
endings of the bronchioles.
ALVEOLI
 Lined with single layer
squamous epithelial cells –
Thin easy diffusion of gas.
 Alveoli is surrounded by a
network of blood capillaries
– gasses diffuse into and
out of blood.
 Alveoli is lined with moist
layer – oxygen dissolves in
moisture and diffuses
through alveoli wall into
blood capillary.
Pulmonary vein
Pulmonary
(Oxygenated
artery
blood)
(Deoxygenated
blood)

Turbinate bones

Pharynx
Alveoli

Trachea

Bronchus

Bronchiole

Diaphragm
SEM TEM
TIDAL VENTILATION MECHANISM
 Air moves in and out of the body via the same
route.
 The lungs are not completely emptied during
each breathing cycle.
 The air entering mixes with used air remaining
in the lungs.
 This help to conserve water, but decreases gas-
exchange efficiency
Four Respiration Processes
 Breathing (ventilation): Oxygen in to and
Carbon Dioxide out of the lungs
 External respiration: gas exchange between
air and blood (what can be exposed to the
outside of the body)
 Internal respiration: gas exchange between
blood and tissues (what cannot be exposed to
the outside of the body)
 Cellular respiration: oxygen used to produce
ATP (energy), carbon dioxide is the waste
product
MECHANICS OF BREATHING

 Inspiration
-In flow of atmospheric air into lungs.
 Expiration

-Outflow of air from lungs into atmosphere.


IMPORTANT PRESSURES
 Atmospheric Pressure –Pressure exerted by the air
surrounding the body

 Intrapulmonary Pressure /intraalveolar pressure–


pressure exerted by the air within the lungs

 Intrapleural Pressure /intrathoracic pressure-


pressure within the pleural cavity exerted by pleural fluid.

 Transpulmonary Pressure/recoil pressure


BREATHING - THE PROCESS WHEREBY AIR
(GASSES) MOVE IN AND OUT OF THE BODY.

INSPIRATION EXPIRATION

Air inhaled
INSPIRATION
 cage
Rib  EXPIRATION Air exhaled
expands as Rib cage
rib gets smaller
muscles as rib
contract muscles
relax

When pressure in
lungs increase –
When pressure in air is pushed out
Diaphragm Diaphragm
lungs decrease –
contracts relaxes
air rush in
(moves down) (moves up)
MUSCLES OF INSPIRATION
 Muscle of normal tidal inspiration-
 Diaphragm

 External intercostal

 Accessory Muscle of inspiration-

Sternocleidomastoid
Scalene
Serratus Anterior
Pectoralis major and minor
 Laryngeal muscle
MUSCLE OF EXPIRATION
 Internal intercostal
 Abdominal muscles include-

Abdominal Rectii
Transversus Abdominis
Internal oblique
BOYLE’S LAW

 The pressure (P) of a given mass of gas is inversely


proportional to its volume (V), provided that the
temperature (T) of the gas remains constant

 When the volume of a gas increases, the pressure


decreases. When volume decreases, pressure
increases.
 P1V1 = P2V2

 Air naturally flows from areas of high pressure to


areas of low pressure
BOYLE’S LAW
 Pressure of gas is inversely proportional to
volume of thoracic cavity.
 Normal size

 Gas molecules strike wall and exert pressure.


 If volume increases, less  If volume decreases, more
pressure is exerted pressure is exerted
FACTORS INFLUENCING RESPIRATORY
RATE AND DEPTH
 Physical factors
– Increased body temperature – Exercise
– Talking
– Coughing

 Chemical factors
– Carbon dioxide levels
Level of carbon dioxide in the blood is the main
regulatory chemical for respiration
 Increased carbon dioxide increases respiration

 Changes in carbon dioxide act directly on the


medulla oblongata

 Oxygen levels
 Changes in oxygen concentration in the blood are
detected by chemoreceptors in the aorta and
carotid artery

 Information is sent to the medulla oblongata


PHYSICAL FACTORS INFLUENCING PULMONARY
VENTILATION

Three physical factors influence the ease of air


passage and the amount of energy required for
ventilation.
 Lung compliance

 Airway resistance

 Alveolar surface tension


COMPLIANCE
Ease with which lungs can be
stretched.

Compliance of lung is determined


by-
•Elastic forces of lung tissue.
•Alveolar surface tension.
COMPLIANCE
Low compliance High compliance

 Supine position  Emphysema


 High standing  Old age
diaphragm
 Pulmonary fibrosis

 Surgical intervention

 Hydrothorax

 Pneumothorax
SURFACE TENSION IN LUNGS

 Thin layer fluid lines alveoli.


 Surface tension due to attraction between
water molecule.
 Surface tension=force for alveoli to collapse or
resist expansion
SURFACE TENSION
 Increase tendency of alveoli to collapse.
 Increase work of breathing.

 Causes pulmonary oedema.

 Alveolar instability.
TO OVERCOME SURFACE
TENSION
 Surfactant secreted from type II cells.

 Important components-
 Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine

 Surfactant apoproteins

 Calcium ions
WORK OF BREATHING
 INCREASE IN –

 Exercise
 Obstructive lung diseases

 Restrictive lung diseases