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Applied Sciences

• What is Four Point Probing?
• How the system works?
• Simple Calculations behind Four Point Probing
• Methods and Procedures for using Four Point Probing
• Why is it important?
• Conclusion
What is “Four Point Probing”?

Four Point Probing is a method for measuring

the resistivity of a substance.
How the system works?
 In order to measure the resistivity of
a substance, four points of contact
must be made with the probe and the
 Current goes through the two outer
probes, and the difference in voltage
is measured between the two inner
 Through this process the resistance
can be calculated.
Simple Calculations
 If the spacing between the probe points is
constant, and the conducting film thickness is
less than 40%, and the edges of the film are
• R = Resistivity of the
more than 4 times the spacing distance from
the measurement point, the avg resistance of • K = constant for the
the substance is given by… average resistivity
 R= k x V/I that is equal to 4.53
 For bulk resistivity, the sample is much larger • P = Resistance
than the spacing of the probes, the sheet • t = thickness of the
resistance is defined as the resistance equal to substance
the bulk resistivity divided by the sample
thickness. The equation is given by…
 R= P/t
1. Take measurement unit of Band Gap and connect main
2. Sample crystal is attached with the probe arrangement. In
case if it is not making proper contact with probes then
adjust the horizontal screw provided on the four probe
arrangement in the presence of Lab In-charge such that all
four probe hold the crystal tightly. The Ge crystal is very
brittle so handle it carefully.
3. Place the four probe arrangement in the oven.
4.Connect Four Probe to the given eight pin socket of
measurement unit.
5. Connect the heater terminals (three pin socket) of the oven
to the Measurement unit.
6. Set the controls of measurement unit as follows:
Oven toggle switch at ‘Off’ position.
Potentiometer at fully anticlockwise.
7. Connect the heater terminals (three pin socket) of the oven
to the Measurement unit.
8. Switch ‘On’ the Measurement unit of four probe setup.
9. At starting Current & Voltage will be zero & it will be display
oven temperature.
10. Adjust the constant current to a desire value say 5mA.
11. Now keep Oven toggle switch at ‘On’ position.
12. Now temperature will increase slowly.
13. Record the value of voltage corresponding to the fixed interval of
temperature rise.
(Eg: - For every 5oC rise in temperature.). Start reading from 25 or 30 oC
and increases upto 110°C.
14. Calculate the resistivity for each temperature as per given in the
calculation part.
15. Plot a graph for Log10( ) v/s 1000/T and find the value of slope for the
intrinsic region of the semiconductor. The slope can be calculated by
fitting a straight line in the straight portion (intrinsic region) of the graph.
16. Calculate Band Gap using slope.
Methods for determining the resisitivity of a
 One way to determine the
resistivity of a sample is to use a
 There are may machines that can
do that and they range in the
thousands of dollars.
 One of those machines is the
Why is it important?
• Resistivity is a particularly important semiconductor
parameter because it can be related directly to the
impurity content of a sample.
• The purity of a substance is an important factor when it
comes manufacturing or engineering certain projects
• Four Point Probing is an important method of
calculating the resistivity of a substance.
• Four Point Probing is very useful and needed in the
micro electronics world.
Sahil Kesharwani
Sai Kumar
Shashwat Vats