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Lesson 3: The

Self as
Cognitive
Construct
Objectives;
1. Identify the different ideas in psychology
about "self"
2. Create your own definition of the "self"
based on the definition from psychology
and;
3. Analyze the effects of various factors
identified in psychology in the formation of
the "self"
WILLIAM JAMES (1890)
• One of the earliest psychologist to study the self and
conceptualized the self as having two aspects- the "I" and the
"me"
"I" - the thinking, acting, and feeling self
"Me" - physical self or self characteristics as well as
psychological capabilities that makes who you are

CARL ROGERS (1959)


• Used the same term, the "I" and the "me"
"I"- as the one who acts and decide
"Me"- what you think or feel about yourself as an object
Identity and Self concept
• Identity- composed of personal characteristics, social
roles, and responsibilities as well as affiliation that define
who one is

• Self concept- what basically comes to your mind


when you are asked about who you are
Self Schema
CARL ROGERS
• Concept of self schema or our organized system on
collection of knowledge about who we are. Schema is not
limited. As you grow and adapt to the changes around
you, they also change but they actively shape and affect
how you see, think and feel about things.

SIGMUND FREUD
• Saw the self, its mental processes and one's behavior as
the results of the interaction between Id, Ego, and
Superego
Theory of Symbolic
Interactionalism
G. H. MEAD (1934)- self is created and developed
through human interaction

Reasons why self and identity are social products.


1. We do not create ourselves out of nothing
2. Whether we like to admit it or not, we actually need others to
affirm and reinforce who we think we are
3. What we think is important to us may also have been
influenced by what is important in our social or historical context
Self-Awareness
CARVER & SCHEIER (1981)- Identifies two types of self
that we can be aware of:
1. The private self or your internal standards and private
thought and feelings
2. Public self or your public image commonly geared toward
having a good presentation of yourself to others

Self awareness also present us with at least three other self


schema:
Actual self- who you are at the moment
Ideal self- is who you like to be
Ought self- who you think you should be
Social Comparison Theory
• We learn about ourselves, the appropriateness of our
behavior as well as our social status by comparing aspect of
ourselves with other people

The downward social comparison


• We create a positive self concept by comparing ourselves with
those who are worse off than us. By having the advantage we
can raise our self esteem

The upward social comparison


• Comparing our with those who are better off than us. It can
be a form of motivation
Self Evaluation Maintenance
Theory
• States that we can feel threatened when someone out perform us
especially when that person is close to us

We usually react in three ways;


1. We distance ourselves from that person or redefine our relationship
with them
2. We may also reconsider the importance of the aspect or skill in which
you were outperformed
3. We may also strengthen ourselves to improve that certain aspect of
ourselves

Narcissism
• Is a trait characterized by overly high self esteem, self admiration, and
self centeredness
THANK YOU!!!