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Fuel Injection Systems

Aims and Objectives

Aim

•To be able to describe the operation of an injection system within an internal combustion engine

Objectives

•Be able to describe the operation of an injection system within an internal combustion engine
•Be able to recognize a single point injection system and a multi-point injection system
•Identify how fuel and air is atomized within a fuel injection system
Fuel Injection Systems

The role of the Injectors

The injector delivers a finely atomized spray of fuel


into the inlet port

The injectors also vary the amount of fuel delivered to


suit the engines conditions

The spray is obtained by passing fuel (that is


pressurised) through the nozzle of the injector

It is located in the inlet manifold near the cylinder


head intake port
Fuel Injection Systems

Injectors

The opening of the injector is controlled by the vehicles ECU

The injector is supplied with the battery voltage via a relay, the earth circuit is controlled by
the ECU

When the circuit is completed by the ECU a solenoid operates, the injector valve opens, fuel
is then able to be sprayed into the inlet manifold

The valve moves roughly 1.5-10 milliseconds. This is known an injector duration or opening
time

The ECU will make amendments to the duration depending on engine temperature, loading air
temperature and battery voltage
Fuel Injection Systems

Fuel Atomisation

During fuelling of a cylinder the fuel is pressurised


which causes the fuel to become a vapour, allowing it
to burn easily (compared to the fuel being delivered to
the cylinder in liquid form)
Fuel Injection Systems

Question

How is fuel atomized in injector fuelling systems?


Fuel Injection Systems

Simultaneously and Sequential

Simultaneous injectors will operate all (or groups of injectors) at the same time
Sequential will operate independently and open at close at different times (determined by the
ECU)
Fuel Injection Systems

Single point injection system

Single point injection or throttle body injection system uses a single injector to spray fuel in
the air intake side of the throttle butterfly (where the carburettor is situated)
Fuel Injection Systems

Single point injection system

Gives poor atomization of the fuel However, it is easier to control


electronically than a carburettor
Does not give precise control of the
air/fuel ratio to meet emission regulations The fuel pressure is less then that of a
multi point injection system (usually 1 bar)
Fuel Injection Systems

Multi point injection system

Individual injectors are used for each cylinder

An injector is positioned near the inlet valve of


each cylinder

This system was originally used on diesel engines


but is also now widely used on petrol engines
Fuel Injection Systems

Multi point injection system

The multi point injection system is the most common type of fuelling system that is used on
modern vehicles today

This is mainly due to the fact that this injection system can be controlled easily by the
vehicles ECU

Furthermore, this type of fuelling system provides a better method of burning the fuel without
much wastage. Compared with other fuelling systems
Fuel Injection Systems

Question

Name three advantageous of a single point injection system ?

Name three advantageous of a multi-point injection system ?


Fuel Injection Systems

Types of injectors

Pintle Type Injector

Original injector design

Offers good atomization of fuel

Prone to deposit build up on the Pintle valve (deposits can reduce the
amount of fuel flow, and therefore the vehicle will run leaner than
recommended
Fuel Injection Systems

Hole type injector

Was introduced on later engine models, initially to reduce the reduce


concerns with injector deposits
Fuel is delivered through holes drilled in a director plate at the injector
tip.
Offers good fuel atomization and gives better resistance to deposit
build-up.
Fuel Injection Systems

High and low resistance injector windings

Two different types of injector windings are used


This is dependant on the type of drive circuit used,
And is also dependant of weather an external resistor is being used.

Low resistance injector windings High Resistance circuits

Range between 2-3Ώ at 21.1 ◦C Range around 13.8Ώ at 21.1 ◦C

Do not require the use of an external


Used with an external resistor in a voltage resistor in a voltage controlled driver
controlled circuit circuit.
Fuel Injection Systems

Question

What resistance should you expect a high resistance circuit to operate at ?


Fuel Injection Systems

Injector driver circuits


Fuel Injection Systems

Summary – have we ?

Been able to describe the operation of an injection system within an internal


combustion engine

Been able to recognize a single point injection system and a multi-point injection
system

Identified how fuel and air is atomized within a fuel injection system