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EDGE ECE Review Specialist

MOBILE
COMMUNICATIONS

Presented by:

JAIME P. LICUANAN
Electronics Engineer (EcE)
Cisco Certified Network Professional(CCNP)
Certified Wireless Networks Administrator(CWNA)
Certified Wireless Security Professional(CWSP)

5/5/2019 1
MILESTONES
1947 - D.H. Ring envisions the cellular concept

1969 – Nordic countries of


Denmark,Finland,Iceland,Norway and Sweden
formed the NMT group

1981 – First cellular system launched

1982 – Groupe Special Mobile committee was


formed

1983 – AMPS was developed

1991 – first GSM network launched

1999-first GPRS data standard released

2000 –the first 3G test networks built in


Monaco

2001 – the first successful 3G calls made on 3G

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TRANSMISSION CHANNELS
Mobile Communications Logical
Channels
BTS
I. BROADCAST CHANNELS

II. COMMON CONTROL CHANNELS

III. TRAFFIC CHANNELS


BTS

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TRANSMISSION CHANNELS
Mobile Communications Logical
Channels
BTS
I. BOADCAST CHANNELS
a. Frequency Correction Channel
- MS searches for channel to hook on
BTS
b. Synchronization Channel
- MS synchronizes with the BTS
c. Broadcast Control Channel
- BTS sends info about used
frequencies, channel, paging
groups, neighboring cells info

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TRANSMISSION CHANNELS
Mobile Communications Logical
Channels
BTS
II. CONTROLCHANNELS
a. Paging Channel
- BTS page the mobile
BTS
b. Random Access Channel
- MS request a dedicated control
channel
c. Access Grant Channel
- BTS assigns a dedicated control
channel

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TRANSMISSION CHANNELS
Mobile Communications Logical
Channels
BTS
III. TRAFFIC CHANNELS
a. Full Rate(TCH/FR)
- 13 Kbps
BTS
b. Half Rate(TCH/HR)
- 5.6 Kbps

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CELL

5/5/2019 7
GSM Service Architecture

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GSM Service Architecture
GSM Service Area

PLMN Service Area

MSC Service Area

Location Area

Cell

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GSM NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

OMC
VLR

BTS BSC MSC HLR


IWF

BTS
EIR AuC
BTS BSC

BTS
PSTN
ISDN
BTS
PSPDN NSS
BTS

A
Air Abis NMS
BSS
June 6, 2007 10
GSM NETWORK ARCHITECTURE
BSS NSS

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GSM NUMBERS

1. MSISDN • Number dialed when calling a


639295014229 mobile subscriber; actual
telephone number
COUNTRY NATIONAL SUBSCRIBER
CODE DESTINATION CODE NUMBER
CC NDC SN

NATIONAL NUMBER

INTERNATIONAL MS ISDN NUMBER

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GSM NUMBERS

1. MSISDN • Unique identity allocated o each


subscriber which facilitates correct
2. IMSI subscriber information/identification
515030123456789 MOBILE
MOBILE MS
COUNTRY NETWORK IDENTIFICATION
CODE CODE NUMBER

MCC MNC MSIN


3 Digits 2-3 Digits

NATIONAL MSI

IMSI

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GSM NUMBERS

1. MSISDN • Temporary Mobile Subscriber


Identity
2. IMSI • Half the size of IMSI
3. TMSI • Used to protect the subscriber’s
identity in the air interface
1a 42 38 85 hex

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GSM NUMBERS

1. MSISDN • Used to uniquely identify the mobile


2. IMSI equipment
• *#06#
3. TMSI
TYPE FINAL
4. IMEI APPROVAL ASSEMBLY SERIAL SPARE
CODE CODE NUMBER always = 0

TAC FAC SNR Spare


6 Digits 2 Digits 6 Digits 1 Digit

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GSM NUMBERS

1. MSISDN • Mobile Station Roaming Number


2. IMSI • Used by the HLR to identify in what
MSC/VLR service area the subscriber
3. TMSI is currently located
4. IMEI
5. MSRN

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GSM NUMBERS

1. MSISDN • Paging – informs the MSC which LA


2. IMSI the MS is currently in
• Used also for location updating
3. TMSI
MOBILE MOBILE
4. IMEI COUNTRY NETWORK
LOCATION
AREA CODE
CODE CODE
5. MSRN
MCC MNC LAC
3 Digits 2-3 Digits 16 Bits
6. LAI
LAI

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GSM NUMBERS

1. MSISDN • Cell Group Identity


2. IMSI • Used for cell identification in the
location area
3. TMSI
4. IMEI
5. MSRN
6. LAI
6.CGI

5/5/2019 18
GSM PARAMETERS
GSM FREQUENCY BANDS
-900 ,1800 , 1900 and 800 MHz
Uplink/Downlink
For GSM 900 For GSM 1800
890 -915 MHz / 935-960 MHz 1710 -1785 MHz / 1805-1880 MHz
Duplex Distance
for GSM 900 = 45 MHz for GSM 1800 =95 MHz
No. of Channels
For GSM 900 = 124 for GSM 1800 = 374
Carrier Separation
For GSM = 200 KHz
Transmission rate = 270 Kbps

Modulation : Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying

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GSM PROCESSES and METHODS

ROAMING Hand –Off/ Handover

-service offered to allow -transfer of jurisdiction


subscribers to use their from 1 cell site to another
cellular phones while a) Hard hand off (break
traveling outside their before make)
home service areas b). Soft hand off ( make
before break
-occurs during idle mode - Occurs during active
mode
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HANDOVER ( INTER CELL-INTRA BSC)

HLR

PSTN MSC 1 MSC 2

BSC1 BSC2 BSC3

BTS1 BTS2 BTS3 BTS4


Measurement Report

B
HANDOVER ( INTER CELL-INTRA BSC)

HLR

PSTN MSC 1 MSC 2

BSC1 BSC2 BSC3

BTS 1 BTS 2 BTS 3 BT S4

B OK
HANDOVER ( INTER CELL-INTER BSC)

HLR

PSTN MSC/ 1
MSC 2

BSC1 BSC2 BSC3

BTS 1 BTS2 BTS 3 BT S4

Measurement Report B
HANDOVER ( INTER CELL-INTER BSC)

HLR

PSTN MSC 1 MSC 2

BSC1 BSC2 BSC3

BTS1 BTS2 BTS3 BTS4

OK
B
HANDOVER ( INTER MSC)

HLR

PSTN MSC/ 1
MSC 2

BSC1 BSC2 BSC3

A
BTS1 BTS2 BTS3 BTS4

Measurement Report
B
HANDOVER ( INTER MSC)

HLR

PSTN MSC 1 MSC 2

BSC1 BSC2 BSC3

BTS1 BTS2 BTS3 BTS4

B
HANDOVER ( INTER MSC)

HLR

PSTN MSC 1 MSC 2

BSC1 BSC2 BSC3

BTS1 BTS2 BTS3 BTS4

OK
B
HANDOVER ( INTER MSC)

HLR

PSTN MSC 1 MSC/ 2

BSC1 BSC2 BSC3

BTS1 BTS2 BTS3 BTS4

B
GSM PROCESSES and METHODS
FREQUENCY REUSE F= 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10
Clusters
- Frequency used in one cell can be used
in other cells F=2
- due to capacity constraints F=7 F=3
- Frequency reuse depends on minimum
C/I and capacity requirements F=1
- 7/21, 4/12 or 3/9 (group/set) F=6 F=4
F=2 F=5
Reuse ratio/ Reduction ratio,q F=7 D F=3 F=2
R F=7
F=1 F=3
= D/R =3N
F=6 F=4 F=1
F=5 F=6 F=4
F=5
Co-Channel ( Re-use ) Cells

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TRANSMISSION LOSSES

1. PATH LOSS

2. SHADOWING

3. MULTIPATH FADING

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TRANSMISSION LOSSES

1. PATH LOSS

2. SHADOWING
-Log Normal Fading

3. MULTIPATH FADING

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TRANSMISSION LOSSES

1. PATH LOSS

2. SHADOWING

3. MULTIPATH FADING

Solutions:
1.Viterbi Equalization
2. Interleaving
3. Frequency Hopping
4. Antenna Diversity

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ACESS METHODS
TDMA (Time Division multiple Access)
-transmission of signals is per period of
time called time slots
-each MS is assigned one time slot
-In GSM, TDMA frame consists of 8 time BTS
slots

FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

-a channel is a frequency and each user on


different frequency TDMA FRAME
f f f
CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)
-IS 95
-signal meant for a given user is tagged
with a distinctive pseudo random noise
code (PN) code that only user’s receiver
can recognize

5/5/2019 33
ACESS METHODS
TDMA (Time Division multiple Access)
-transmission of signals is per period of
time called time slots
-each MS is assigned one time slot
-In GSM, TDMA frame consists of 8 time BTS
slots
f0 f1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 f7

FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) Channel Bandwidth


-a channel is a frequency and each user on
different frequency
Time = t
Time = t

CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)


-IS 95
-signal meant for a given user is tagged
with a distinctive pseudo random noise
code (PN) code that only user’s receiver
can recognize

5/5/2019 34
2.5 G -GPRS

SGSN

GGSN
IP Networks

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2.75G –EDGE
HW/SW Changes
2.75G – EDGE

(Enhanced
Data Rate for
GSM
Evolution)

Modulation: SGSN
8-PSK
TRX Change & Transmission Upgrade
GGSN
IP Networks

5/5/2019 36
3G
3G –UMTS HW/SW Changes

-(Universal
Mobile
Telecommunicat
ion System)

-Minimum 384
Kbps speed up to
theoretical 2 SGSN
3G-SGSN
Mbps
TRX Change & Transmission Upgrade
-uses W-CDMA GGSN
BTS IP Networks
RNC MGW

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DATA RATE IMPROVEMENT
3.5G
3.5G –HSDPA
ATM
WCDMA
Service
-(High Speed Downlink Platform
Packet Access) Uu Iu
-3GPP release 5
-nominal throughput of RAN CN
8 -10 Mbps with UE
maximum of 14.4
O&M
Mbps with a 5 MHz UE = User Equipment
band RAN = Radio Acces Network
-with Hybrid Automatic NMS
Repeat Request CN = Core Network
-with Adaptive NMS = Network Management System
Modulation
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SUPER 3G

HSOPA

-(High Speed Orthogonal Packet Access)


-3GPP Long Term Evolution

-now known as Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E-


UTRA)

-uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing(OFDM) and


MIMO Technology

- Peak download rates of 326.4 Mbit/s for 4x4 antennas


5/5/2019 40
END of LECTURE

5/5/2019 41
Review Questions

1. Who is considered to be the inventor of the modern


portable mobile handset used in mobile
communications outside the police car mobile
technology invented by Bell Labs?

a. Henry Sampson
b. Martin Cooper
c. Joel Engel
d. DH Ring

5/5/2019 42
Review Questions

2. It is the loss of hearing that gradually occurs in most


individuals as they grow older specially on high pitch
and high frequency tone like the mosquito ringtone.

a. denguebycusis
b. presbycusis
c. androgusis
d. cochleatusis

5/5/2019 43
Review Questions

3. Presented in a computer industry tradeshow –


COMDEX, what is the name of the first smartphone
developed by IBM?

a. Paula
b. Simon
c. Ellen
d. Randy

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Review Questions

4. The country that pioneered in mobile banking being


the first to launch commercial mobile payment
systems.

a. Finland
b. Philippines
c. USA
d. Germany

5/5/2019 45
Review Questions

5. Radiolinja now Elisa, the first mobile operator that


launched 2G system sold to mobile phones the first
downloadable mobile content which is the __________.

a. ringtone
b. wallpaper
c. SMS news broadcast
d. quotes

5/5/2019 46
Review Questions

6. For GSM 900, what is the distance between two


fading dips when the transmission suffers from Rayleigh
Fading?

a. 10 cm
b. 17 cm
c. 27 cm
d. 50 cm

5/5/2019 47
Review Questions

7. Channel is known as the width of the spectrum band


taken up by a radio signal which is measured in kilohertz
(kHz). What is the width of the channel used by most
analog cellular phones?

a. 50 kHz
b. 60 kHz
c. 40 kHz
d. 30 kHz

5/5/2019 48
Review Questions

8. What is the most common form of modulation used


in cellular mobile transmission?

a. QPSK
b. narrowband FM
c. wideband FM
d. BPSK

5/5/2019 49
Review Questions

9. A CDMA mobile measures the signal strength from a


base station as -90dBm and occupies 1.25 MHz of
bandwidth. What mobile transmitter power in mW has
to be set?

a. 25
b. 15
c. 12
d. 125

5/5/2019 50
Review Questions

10. The uplink frequency range for GSM1900

a. 935 – 960 MHZ


b. 890 – 915 MHz
c. 1930 – 1990 MHz
d. 1850 – 1910 MHz

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Review Questions

11. What is the method used in producing multi-channel


mobiles?

a. companding
b. PLL-synthesis
c. Digital Multiplexing
d.Cell splitting

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Review Questions

12. A phone that operates on both analog and digital


networks.

a. Dual system
b. Coupled system
c. Paired-mode system
d. Dual-mode system

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Review Questions

13. It is the frequency deviation from the carrier


frequency used in GMSK for GSM.

a. 67.708 KHz
b. 25 KHz
c. 22.035 KHz
d. 270.833 KHz

5/5/2019 54
Review Questions

14. A certain cellular system with 100 cells


accommodates 20000 subscribers with each subscriber
uses the phone on average 30 minutes per day.
Calculate the average traffic in Erlangs for one cell
assuming an even distribution for the entire system.

a. 4.16
b. 3.33
c. 2.84
d. 5.89
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Review Questions
15. Radio frequencies assigned in one channel in a cellular
system are limited to boundaries of a signal cell because of
their low power. The carrier is free to use the frequencies
again in other cells in the system without causing
interference. What do you call this method with its factor is
computed as one-thirds of the square of co-channel
interference reduction factor?
a. Frequency assignment
b. Channel utilization
c. Frequency reuse
d. Optimum frequency assignment
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Review Questions

16. Signal transmitted by a cell site to identify the site to


the mobile user.

a. Station class mark


b. Cell identifier
c. Digital color code
d. System Identification Number

5/5/2019 57
Review Questions

17. It is the first comprehensive international


standardization group of telecommunications formed in
1969.

a. NMT
b. FCC
c. 3GPP
d. IMT

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Review Questions

18. These smart cards allow a user to use portable


handy-phones and serves as the basic identity to a GSM
system

a. PCMCIA
b. SIM
c. Phonecards
d. Phone chips

5/5/2019 59
Review Questions

19. The technology that caters service like mobile


multimedia and supports packet data at very high bit
rates, 2 Mbps or higher for indoor traffic

a. EDGE
b. GPRS
c. 3G
d. 4G

5/5/2019 60
Review Questions

20. HSDPA is an upgrade of the 3G communications


system in terms of speed and quality. In Asia and most
countries,what is the bandwidth of operation allotted
for this service?

a. 5 MHz
b. 1.25 MHz
c. 10 MHz
d. 7.5 KHz

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Review Questions

21. The first worm to use MMS messages in order to


spread to other devices which as a result resets the
mobile phone every 14th day of the month.

a. Comwar
b. Cabir
c. Skull
d. Velasco

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Review Questions

22. This was the first mobile phone virus detected. It


infects mobile phones that are left in "discoverable"
mode. If the user clicks yes, the worm will activate and
show a dialog that contains the virus name, the author's
initials and the group initial.

a. Comwar
b. Cabir
c. Skull
d. Velasco
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Review Questions

23. The Subscriber’s Identity Module (SIM) Card for GSM


contains a/n _____ number that identifies the user to
the network along with other user and security
information.

a. IMEI
b. IMSI
c. ESN
d. MIN

5/5/2019 64
Review Questions

24. What is the reverse channel center frequency of the


24th channel in GSM900?

a. 894.8 MHz
b. 939.8 MHz
c. 895.6 MHz
d. 939.6 MHz

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Review Questions

25. A network element acting as a bridge between a


mobile network and a fixed network is called a

a. MSC
b. AuC
c. GMSC
d. EIR

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Review Questions

26. A special signal tone that is transmitted to the cell


site to free the voice channel when the mobile
terminates a cell.

a. 10 KHz
b. 20 KHz
c. 30 KHz
d. 25 KHz

5/5/2019 67
Review Questions

27. Class of orthogonal spreading codes used in CDMA


communications with 64 orthogonal codes each repeats
after 64 bits with 52.1 us complete repetition for each
code.

a. PN code
b. Walsh code
c. Long code
d. smart code

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Review Questions
28. Cellular systems are designed so that a phone call can be
initiated while driving in one cell and continued no matter
how many cells are driven through. During a cellular
conversation, when the user reaches the edge of the service
area of a cell, computers in the network assign another
tower in the next cell to provide the phone continuous
service. What is this method of cell transfer that is
transparent to the user?
a. Roaming
b. call transfer
c. hand-off
d. hand transfer
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Review Questions

29. The soft handoff which allows mobile units to


establish contact with a new base station before giving
up its current radio channel by transmitting coded
speech signals to two base stations simultaneously
occurs in approximately __________ms.
a. 20
b. 200
c. 10
d. 100
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Review Questions

30. Cluster is a group of cells with no frequency reuse.


What is the smallest possible size of a cluster?

a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 5

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Review Questions

31. A solution to GSM transmission problem for bit


errors in sequence where it separates consecutive bits
of a message so that they are transmitted in a non-
consecutive way.

a. Adaptive multirate
b. Interleaving
c. Space Diversity
d. Frequency Hopping
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Review Questions

32. It is the first cellular network standard used primarily


in the Americas, Russia and Asia utilizing 30KHz voice
channel, this first-generation analogue network had
weak security mechanisms which allowed hacking of
telephones lines.

a. Advance Mobile Phone Service


b. Total Access Communication Systems
c. E-TACS
d. CNET
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Review Questions

33. What is the performance bond necessary to qualify


an applicant to operate 3G services?

a. Php100M
b. Php200M
c. Php300M
d. Php400M

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Review Questions

34. NTC approved the operator breakdown of the


following 3G technologies

a. 3 WCDMA, 1 CDMA2000, 1TDD


b. 1 WCDMA, 1CDMA2000, 3TDD
c. 2 WCDMA, 1 CDMA2000, 2TDD
d. 2 WCDMA, 2 CDMA2000, 1TDD

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Review Questions
35. According to NTC memorandum Circular 07-08-2004
MPSC shall properly identify its business and location
by posting conspicuously at the entrance of its premises
a signboard of at least ________dimension which shall
indicate clearly its business name, the type of services it
offers, its full business address and the MPSC permit
number.
a. 25cm x 50 cm
b. 50cm x 100 cm
c. 100 cm x 150 cm
d 150 cm x 200cm
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Review Questions

36. A GSM security measure which is designed to


prevent eavesdropping of user data on the radio path

a. IMSI
b. TMSI
c. IMEI
d. MSRN

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Review Questions

37. A radio receiver that is capable of combining several


received signals with different time delays into one
composite signal.

a. smart receiver
b. rake receiver
c. rata receiver
d. wie receiver

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Review Questions

38.The standard cellular antenna for a car which refers


to the spring-like section in the lower third of the
antenna known as a phasing coil.

a. Pigtail antenna
b. Omnidirectional antenna
c. Whip antenna
d. Flexible antenna

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Review Questions

39. GSM association agreed on a standard mobile


phone charger in the Open Mobile Terminal Platform
which is known as the _______.

a. mini-USB
b. micro-USB
c. macro-USB
d. Universal Charger Solution (UCS)

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Review Questions

40. Consider as the father of SMS messaging.

a. Matti Makkonen
b. Robert Geeks
c. Martin Cooper
d. Jeremy Yang

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Review Questions

41. A T1 line can handle multiplexed voice channels, what


is its overhead?

a. 4Kbps
b. 8 Kbps
c. 12 Kbps
d. 1544 Kbps

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