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Lahore School of Economics

Hirra Rana
What is consciousness?

 To be conscious means to be aware.

Consciousness consists of your sensations and

perceptions of external events as well as your self-
awareness of mental events, including thoughts,
memories, and feelings about your experiences and
(Morin,2006;Robinson, 2008).
Stages of Sleep:

Most of us consider sleep a time of tranquility when

we set aside the tensions of the day.

However, a closer look at sleep shows that a good

deal of activity occurs throughout the night.
stage 1 sleep :
The state of transition between wakefulness and
sleep, characterized by relatively rapid, low-
amplitude brain waves.

During stage 1, images sometimes appear, as if we

were viewing still photos, although this is not true
dreaming, which is what occurs later in the night.
Stage 2 sleep:

A sleep deeper than that of stage 1, characterized by a slower, more

regular wave pattern, along with momentary interruptions of “sleep
 sleep spindles Distinctive bursts of brainwave activity that
indicate a person is asleep.

As sleep becomes deeper, people enter stage 2 sleep , which

makes up about half of the total sleep of those in their early 20s and
is characterized by a slower, more regular wave pattern.

It becomes increasingly difficult to awaken a person from sleep as

stage 2 progresses.
stage 3 sleep A sleep characterized by slow brain
waves, with greater peaks and valleys in the wave
pattern than in stage 2 sleep.

stage 4 sleep The deepest stage of sleep, during

which we are least responsive to outside stimulation.
 What Is REM Sleep?

Usually, REM sleep happens 90 minutes after you fall

asleep. The first period of REM typically lasts 10 minutes.
Each of your later REM stages gets longer, and the final
one may last up to an hour. Your heart rate and breathing

You can have intense dreams during REM sleep, since

your brain is more active.

 Babies can spend up to 50% of their sleep in the REM

stage, compared to only about 20% for adults.
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep:

Sleep occupying 20% of an adult’s sleeping time,

characterized by increased heart rate, blood
pressure, and breathing rate; eye movements; and
the experience of dreaming.
 First comes non-REM sleep, followed by a shorter period of REM sleep,
and then the cycle starts over again. Dreams typically happen during
REM sleep.

What Happens During Non-REM Sleep?

 There are three phases of non-REM sleep. Each stage can last from 5 to 15
minutes. You go through all three phases before reaching REM sleep.

 Stage 1: Your eyes are closed, but it's easy to wake you up. This phase may
last for 5 to 10 minutes.

 Stage 2: You are in light sleep. Your heart rate slows and your body
temperature drops. Your body is getting ready for deep sleep.

 Stages 3: This is the deep sleep stage. It's harder to rouse you during this
stage, and if someone woke you up, you would feel disoriented for a few