Anda di halaman 1dari 30

Constantin Gh.

Popa
Paper and Poster Contest
XI Edition

Sand Control: 2019

Applicability and comparison


Coord.Assoc.prof.Ph.D Eng. Mariea Marcu
Author: Mustafa Hamdan
Faculty: Petroleum and Gas engineering
University: Petroleum-Gas University Of Ploiesti
Content
 Introduction
 Sand Production: causes and effects
 When is sand control necessary?
 Sand control techniques
 Sand control techniques comparison
 Potential formation damage mechanisms
 Study of the perforation skin (case of study 1)
 Study of the gravel pack skin (case of study 2)
 References
Introduction
Sand Production
Causes:
 Production rate: the drag forces which are created by the fluid
produced, combined with the drawdown pressure effect.

 Pore pressure reduction: after the well starts producing, the pressure
depletion causes the reduction in support by fluid pressure, and the
grains support is not enough to keep the reservoir from crushing and
producing sand.

 Reservoir fluid viscosity: the higher viscosity the fluid has, the better
chances there are to have sand production problems.

 Capillary pressure forces :After some sand is produced, from around a


perforation tunnel, an arch is formed, this arch has the strength to
support the weight of the surrounding materials.
Sand Production
Effects:
 Accumulation in surface equipment;
It depends on the production velocity, if it is high enough the sand will be lift
up the tubing, it may gather in the separator or in the production pipeline.

 Accumulation downhole;
If the production velocity is not as high as it should be to lift up the sand to
the surface, the sand may accumulate and also the downhole equipment may
be obstructed.
When is sand control necessary?
There is no perfect method to see whether a well will produce sand and in what
quantity, the most convenient method is to run a production test and to try producing
at different flow rates.

There are some factors that can help us identifying the possibilities of sand
production ,here are few of them:

 Formation strength: it is especially about the rock’s compressive strength, which


is directly related to drawdown pressure,

 Porosity; if it is more than 30% ,the probability of sand production is very high ,
If it is below 20% the need for sand control is less.

 pressure drawdown; if it is low, the well will not produce sand in semnificative
amounts, if it is too high it will produce too much sand.
Sand control techniques
Many techniques are available for dealing with sand production.These vary from
simple changes in operating practices to complex completions like sand
consolidation and gravel packing .

 Maintenance and workover.


 Plastic consolidation.
 Rate exclusion.
 Resin coated gravel.
 Slotted liner or screens without gravel packing.
 Slotted liner or screens with gravel packing.
Sand control techniques comparison
Maintenance and workover.
 This method basically involves tolerating the sand production and dealing
with its effects as and when necessary. Such an approach requires bailing,
washing, and cleaning of surface facilities on a routine basis to maintain well
productivity.
 Can be successful in specific formation and operating environments. Is
primarily used where sand production is limited, production rates are low,
risk of performing some service is low and economically feasible.

Plastic consolidation.
 Involves the injection of plastic resins, which are attracted to the formation
sand grains. The resin hardens and forms a consolidated mass, binding the
sand grains together at their contact points.
 The reasons for decreased usage include the placement difficulties, as well as
tight regulations on the handling of the chemicals, which are generally quite
toxic In addition, these treatments tend to have a high cost.
Sand control techniques comparison
Rate exclusion.
 Restricting the well’s flow rate to a level which will reduce the sand production.
 The procedure is to repeatedly reduce or increase the flow rate until an acceptable
value of sand production is achieved.
 The object of this sand control technique is to attempt to establish a maximum flow
rate possible (critical flowrate).

Resin coated gravel.


 High permeability gravel pack sand coated with a thin layer of resin. When exposed
to heat, the resin is cured resulting in a consolidated sand mass.
 Complete filling of the perforations becomes increasingly difficult as zone length
and deviation increase.
 Experiences with them shown good initial success but for a short period of time.
Sand control techniques comparison

Slotted liner or screens without gravel packing.

 Unless the formation is a well-sorted, clean sand with a large grain size, this type of
completion may have an unacceptably short producing life before the slotted liner or
screen plugs.

 Some plugging will eventually occur and will almost always reduce the production
capacity of the well.

 Porosity reduction is caused by intermixing of formation sands, shales and clay as the
formation sand is filling in around the screen. The mixture of sand, clay and shale may
have much less permeability than the native formation sand.
Sand control techniques comparison
Slotted liner or screens with gravel packing.

 Gravel packing creates a permeable downhole filter that will allow the production of the
formation fluids but restrict the entry and production of formation sand.

 Because the gravel is tightly packed between the formation and the screen, the bridges
formed are stable, which prevents shifting and resorting of the formation sand. If
properly designed and executed, a gravel pack will maintain its permeability under a
broad range of producing conditions.

 Complete packing is relatively simple in open hole completions, but can be challenging
in cased hole perforated completions.

 There is a main factor which influences the production in gravel packed wells. It is flow
restriction imposed by features of gravel pack. This factor affects the permeability and
reduces it.

 Although expensive, gravel packs have proven to be the most reliable sand control
technique available and are, therefore, the most common approach used.
Potential formation damage mechanisms

 Formation damage is commonly caused by fluids used in drilling and completion


processes, it decreases the rock’s permeability of reservoir rocks.

 As a result, the productivity decreases, too.

 The effect of formation damage is always a negative one.

 Although it may affect only the area near the wellbore ( a few centimeters), it may
extend deep into the formation (many meters).

Any reduction in oil recovery potential is unwanted!!!


Potential formation damage mechanisms
Study of the perforation skin (case of study 1)
 We have done a sensitivity analysis of the Legend
parameters which influence the perforation h formation thickness
skin factor. n number of perforations
k formation permeability
kc the permeability of the contaminated zone
 We use the skin factor model for
rs well radius
perforations developed by Karakas and rc contaminated zone radius (maximum)
Tariq. ra contaminated zone radius
Lp perforation length
 This study concentrates on the variation of rp perforation radius
perforation skin by changing other dp perforation diameter
parameters such as : a1 coeficient depending on Ɵ
a2 coeficient depending on Ɵ
-Perforation length b1 coeficient depending on Ɵ
b2 coeficient depending on Ɵ
-Perforation radius c1 coeficient depending on Ɵ
c2 coeficient depending on Ɵ
-Perforation angular phasing a coeficient depending on Ɵ
b coeficient depending on Ɵ
alfa coeficient depending on Ɵ
Initial data
Name Amount Measurment Unit
h 20 m
n 420 Total perforations
k 150 mD
kd 25 mD
kc 100 mD
rd 0.014413 m
rs 0.1 m
rc 100 m
ra
Lp
1.5
0.08001
m
m
Sp 9.902
rp 0.002413 m
dp 4.826 m
DP 24 Perf/meter
a1 -2.091
a2 0.0453
b1 5.1313
b2 1.8672
c1 0.16
c2 2.675
a 5.150166
b 1.885773
Ɵ/Lp 0.08001 0.09931 0.12954 0.1524 0.20828

180 9.1164 7.7525 6.3770 5.6686 4.5284

120 8.9537 7.5955 6.2205 5.5095 4.3600

90 8.8407 7.5055 6.1486 5.4444 4.3012

60 8.9185 7.5730 6.2013 5.4874 4.3253

45 8.9312 7.5834 6.2075 5.4905 4.3221

0 9.2166 7.8527 6.4773 5.7688 4.6287


rp/Lp 0.08001 0.09931 0.12954 0.1524 0.20828

0.00241 8.841 7.506 6.149 5.444 4.301

0.003 7.822 6.677 5.504 4.892 3.890

0.005 5.449 4.744 4.003 3.605 2.931

0.01 2.278 2.165 2.001 1.890 1.658


IPR Curves results
Qmax 175.07 m3/day E S case
0.796194 1.657693 rp=0.01m, Lp=0.208m
rs 0.154 m
0.422806 8.840673 rp=0.00241m, Lp=0.08001m
Rc 100 m 0.600897 4.301212 Ɵ=90 degrees, Lp=0.208m
Pc 100 bar 0.412683 9.216388 Ɵ=0 degrees, Lp=0.08001m

Pd Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
0 162.1164 108.2001 138.7872 106.1946
10 153.8954 99.63344 129.4598 97.72189
20 143.8987 90.56602 119.1211 88.7721
30 132.1263 80.99787 107.7709 79.34527
40 118.5782 70.92897 95.40933 69.44139
50 103.2544 60.35933 82.03632 59.06045
60 86.15494 49.28895 67.6519 48.20246
70 67.27976 37.71783 52.25605 36.86742
80 46.62887 25.64596 35.84879 25.05533
90 24.20228 13.07335 18.4301 12.76619
100 0 0 0 0
Conclusions regarding study of case 1

 The smaller the perforation skin is, the better, the efficiency will increase and the
productivity, too.
 The perforation skin is affected by the perforation length, by increasing the length it
decreases.
 The Perforation angular phasing has a visible effect on the perforation skin, the best
results are obtained when Ɵ =90.
 The perforation radius has a big impact on the perforation skin, the bigger the radius is
the better.
Study of the gravel pack skin (case of study 2)

 We use the skin factor model for gravel pack completions developped by K.Furui, D.Zhu
and A.D. Hill to study the influence of different parameters on gravel pack skin factor for
perforated casing.
 This study concentrates only on the gravel pack skin, while the perforation skin is null.
 We have done a different parameters sensitivity analysis that influence the gravel pack skin.
 Work scenarios :
LEGEND
-Gravel pack permeability perf radius(casing) rct
-Perforation length well radius rw
perf radius(formation) rp
-Perforation angular phasing perforation spacing hp
-Perforation spacing perforation length lp
gravel permeability kcg
-Number of perforations
permeability k
-Well radius num of perforations nr perf
coeficient s2d
coeficient swb
coeficient s3d
perf angular phasing Ɵ
Initial data

name Amount Measurment unit


rct 0.4 in
rw 6 in
rp 0.4 in
tct 1.2 in
hp
lp
0.1
0.5
in
in
SGC 2.084
kcg 10000 mD
k 500 mD
Perf/feet 12
s2d -0.298
swb 0.008
s3d 0.128
Ɵ 90
rDp 0.067
SGC=f(Ɵ)
2.25

2.2

Ɵ SGC 2.15

2.1
45 1.856
2.05

SGC
60 1.958 2

90 2.084 1.95

1.9
120 2.154 1.85

180 2.203 1.8


0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

Ɵ, degrees

SGC=f(Lp)
2.5

Lp SGC
2
0.00497 2.084
1.5
0.00387 2.084
SGC

0.00329 2.084 1

0.00252 2.084 0.5

0.00203 2.084 0
0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006
Lp,inches
SGC=f(hp)

60

50
hp SGC 40

0.1 2.08

SGC
30

0.5 8.97 20

10
1 18.2
0
2 36.9 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

hp,inches
3 55.7

SGC=f(RW)
RW SGC 7
1 6.289 6

2 3.595 5

3 2.775
SGC

4 2.404 3

5 2.203 2

6 2.084 1

7 2.010 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
8 1.963 RW,inches
KGC/Ɵ 45 60 90
SGC=f(KGC)
10000 1.8568 1.9582 2.0842
40000
2.5 0.6224 0.6731 0.7361
119000 0.2380 0.2673 0.3039
250000 0.0978 0.1180 0.1432
2
500000 0.0142 0.0286 0.0464

1.5
Ɵ= 90 degrees
SGC

Ɵ= 60 degrees
1
Ɵ= 45 degrees

0.5

0
0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 600000
KGC, mD
Ɵ/(perf/feet) 4 6 8 10
SGC=f(Num of 12
perf)
60 2.5000 1.1820 1.3175 1.5057 1.7228 1.9582
90 1.3081 1.4436 1.6318 1.8489 2.0842
120 1.3788 1.5144 1.7026 1.9197 2.1550
180 2.0000 1.4277 1.5632 1.7514 1.9685 2.2038
45 1.0806 1.2162 1.4044 1.6215 1.8568
the best 0.009472 0.010427 0.018832 0.031318 0.046386
1.5000 Ɵ= 90 degrees
Ɵ= 60 degrees
SGC

Ɵ= 120 degrees
Ɵ= 180 degrees
1.0000
The best
Teta=45 degrees

0.5000

0.0000
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
IPR Curves results
Qmax 175.07 m3/day E S case
0.992888 0.046386 KGC=500D Ɵ=90 degrees
rs 0.154 m
0.746098 2.203819 KGC=10D, Ɵ=180 degrees
Rc 100 m 0.756521 2.084234 KGC=10dD, Ɵ=90 degrees
Pc 100 bar 0.262808 18.1655 KGC=10dD, Ɵ=90 degrees, hp=1in

Pd Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
0 174.8139 157.151 158.242 73.14421
10 169.7589 148.4526 149.6319 66.70039
20 161.9425 138.195 139.4188 60.06311
30 151.3646 126.3781 127.6024 53.23236
40 138.0254 113.0019 114.183 46.20814
50 121.9247 98.06644 99.16033 38.99045
60 103.0626 81.57171 82.53455 31.57929
70 81.43907 63.51769 64.30564 23.97467
80 57.05413 43.90441 44.47357 16.17658
90 29.90778 22.73184 23.03836 8.185025
100 0 0 0 0
Conclusions regarding study of case 2

 The smaller the gravel pack skin is, the better, the efficiency will increase and the
productivity, too
 The skin is not affected by the perforation length.
 The skin is highly affected by the permeability of the gravel pack.
 It is also affected by the perforation angular phasing.
 The higher the well radius is, the smaller skin.
 Perforation spacing has to be as low as possible.
Paper Conclusions

 Sand Production is an awful phenomena and we have to avoid it.


 The best sand control method depends on the well, on the economic factor,
and the equipment we have.
 We have to know how the skin factor vary by changing other parameters in
order to decide the best case to produce.
 Every sand control method helps avoiding sand production in a way or
another, but an additional skin factor will appear if we use some methods like
screens and gravel packing.
 A well can be productive even if it produces a small amount of sand.
References
 K.Furui, D.Zhu and A.D. Hill: A new skin factor model for gravel-packed completions, SPE
90433, 2002.
 Marcu M Marcu G.I: Cercetarea sondelor, Editura Universitatii Petrol Gaze din Ploiesti, 2018.
 Completion Technology for Unconsolidated Formations, 1995.
 Penberthy, W.L. and Shaughnessy, C.M., Sand Control, SPE Series on Special Topics, Volume 1,
1992.
 Karakas, M., and Tariq, S.M. : Semianalytical productivity models for perforated completions,,
SPE 18247, 1991.
 Irene Faergestad,The Defining Series: Formation Damage, by Schlumberger, 2016.
 L Douglas Patton and William A. Abbott: Well Completions And Workovers: The Systems
Approach, 1982.
 William K. Ott, Joe D. Woods,World oil sandface completion practices handbook, first
edition,2003.
 www.Taml-intl.org
 www.petrowiki.org
Thank you for your time!

 Questions?