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COOLING TOWER

Cooling tower
TOPICS TO BE COVER
• Definition & Function of Cooling Towers
• Components & Material using Components
• Failures
• Alternatives
Introduction :
• Heat rejection device.
• Special type of heat exchanger.
• Use to cool relatively hot water
Functions :
• Evaporative cooling.
• Heat rejected from cooling tower raises the air
temperature.
• Air is discharge into the atmosphere.
Components :
3

• 1. Fill media. 2
• 2. Drift eliminators.
• 3. Fans. 1

• 4. Air inlet louvers. 4


• 5. Cold Water Basin 5
Fill media:
Fill media:
• Water gets distributed onto the fill.
• Facilitate heat transfer by maximizing water & air
contact.
• Allows extra heat to evaporate at a fast rate.
• Fill can either be splash or fill type.
Drift eliminators:
Drift eliminators:
• Capture water droplets.
• Changes the direction of water droplet.
• Minimize the loss of process water.
Fans:
Fans:
• Use to push large amount of air through out
cooling tower.
• Axial (propeller type) and centrifugal fans are
used.
Air inlet louvers:
Air inlet louvers:
• Prohibit sun light and algae growth
• Lowers chemical cost
• Equalize air flow into the fill and retain water
with in the tower
COLD WATER BASIN:
COLD WATER BASIN:
• Cold water basin are at the bottom of cooling
tower and receives the cooled water from fill.
• Basin heaters prevent the cold water from
freezing during winter.
Materials used in Cooling
Tower:
Components of cooling tower are made with material
with enhanced mechanical properties.
Frame work of cooling tower is made up of fibre glass,
wood, concrete & stainless steel.
Nowadays fiber reinforce Polymers (FRP) are use due
to durability.
Materials used in Cooling Tower:
• Plastics are widely used for Fill & Drift Eliminators,
including PVC, Polypropylene & other Polymers.
• Plastic also find wide use in nozzle materials.
• Cooling tower Fans are normally made from Aluminium
& Fibre Reinforced Plastic (FRP).
• Air inlet louvers are made up of asbestos sheets.
• Basin Heaters have strong long lasting copper heating
material.
Justification of Material:
• Wood
 Wood is used for frame work of cooling tower
 Wood is used in cooling tower due to its high strength to
weight ratio
 It is used as natural resistance to decay
 It needs low maintenance & is not costly
Justification of Material:

• Wood
Justification of Material:
• Galvanized Stainless Steel
 It has higher resistance to corrosion
 It needs low mentanance
 It has high ductility & strength
 It contains 10% Cr which produces self protective layer of
Oxide
Justification of Material::
Justification of Material:
• PVC:
• Impact resistance material.
• Good durability.
• Chemical resistance material.
• Mechanical stability.
Justification of Material:
Justification of Material:
Fibre Reinforce Materials
FRP components has excellent impact strength
FRP composites are easy to repair & reinforce
FRP composites provides good non-conductive
properties
Justification of Material:
•Fibre Reinforce Materials
Justification of Material:
• Concrete
 In cooling tower concrete is used as a material for tower
structural members
 Concrete is also used as a material for Cold Water Basin
 It has relatively high compressive strength & low tensile strength
 It is highly fire retarding.
Justification of Material:

•Concrete
ALTERNATIVE MATERIAL
• FILL MEDIA:
• Polypropylene is used as premiere material instead of commonly used PVC
• Polypropylene is 100% recyclable because it is much more tolerant to heat
• Polypropylene is non toxic and environment friendly alternative.
• ABS (acrylolitrile butadiene styrene) may also be used
ALTERNATIVE MATERIAL
• Drift Eliminators
• Material used in drift eliminator must be corrosion resistant
• PVC is used generally but alternatively polypropylene (PP) is used
• PP gives protection against ultraviolet detoriation by sunlight
• PP can resist corrosion at high temperature without deforming
ALTERNATIVE MATERIAL

• Air inlet Louver


• Instead of using PVC louver material fiber reinforced polyester is used
• Fiber reinforced polyester is a fire retardant
• They have outstanding mechanical and chemical properties.
ALTERNATIVE MATERIAL
• Cold water basin
• Redwood , stainless steel and concrete are used normally
• Now FRP (fibre reinforced plastics) are the preferable material due to its
durability
• FRP’S are highly corrosive resistant and have ability to add surface
treatment
ALTERNATIVE MATERIAL

• TOWER FRAMEWORK/FAN DECK


• Fan material is customarily compatible with the tower framework
• Galvanized steels is used instead of plywood due to corrosion resistance and
high yield strength
• FRP’S are also used ocassionaly when light weight is required
ALTERNATIVE MATERIAL

TOWER FRAMEWORK/FAN DECK


COMPONENT FAILURE
• Component failure can cause cooling tower to experience stress and performance degradation
• TOWER FRAMEWORK
• Tower structural member may collapsed when variable load is applied
• Cracking during construction due to thermal and moisture movement b/w concrete shell and
steel structural members
• REMEDIES
• Introducing expansion joints to absorb expansion and contraction
• Thermals stresses have to be taken in account itself
• Cracks can be controlled by using temperature reinforcements
COMPONENT FAILURE
FAILURE OF
STUCTURAL
COLUMN OF
TOWER
COMPONENT FAILURE
• FILL MEDIA
• In passage of time your fill media will become coagulated or perished
• Water will not dispersed in required size
• It causes poor efficiency of cooling tower
• REMEDIES
• Using a fill evaluation system
• The system posses fibre reinforced polymer weigh box
• Avoid use of film fill media b/c of its low fouling resistance
COMPONENT FAILURE
• DRIFT ELIMINATORS
• Broken drift eliminator will result in excessive condensed water
• Dirty and blocked drift eliminator causes reduced volume of air flow
• REMEDIES
• Use of plunger and drain cleaner to remove debris
• Use of drift eliminator seal with large size and shape
• Use of effective chillers at the bottom to decrease water temperature
• Use blades of material that have excellent corrosion resistance
COMPONENT FAILURE
• COLD WATER BASIN
• Buildup of sludge and accumulated debris
• Buildup of scale deposits on sump and its screen
• Breakdown of sealing material
• REMEDIES
• Introduction of chemicals, which prevent the dissolved solids from precipitating as
scale
• By bleed-off, which limits the solids concentration at a level
COMPONENT FAILURE
• SLUDGE FORMATION IN BASIN
CORROSION IN COOLING
TOWER
• Corrosion cause formation of oxides on structural members
• Corrosion can cause leakage of process fluid into to cooling water
• Increased PH value and microbial activity results in excess corrosion
• REMEDIES
• Choose corrosion resistant material that are environmental friendly
• Apply protective coating like metal plating, paints etc
• Protect cathodically using sacrificial anodes