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TRANSITIONA Depositional Environment

 SHALLOW MARINE
 DEEP MARINE
Marine Depositional Environment
SHALLOW MARINE
OUTLINES

1. Introduction
2. Marine Realm
3. Shallow Marine Deposits
4. Schematic Log
5. Description
6. Stratigraphy Sequences
1. Introduction

Shallow marine environments are areas of accumulation of substantial amounts of


terrigenous clastic material brought in by rivers from the continental realm.

A cross-section from the continental shelf through the continental slope and
rise down to the abyssal plain (Nichols, 2009)
2. Marine Realm

Depth-related divisions of the marine realm:


(a) broad divisions are defined by water depth; (b) the shelf is described in terms of the depth to
which different processes interact with the sea floor, and the actual depths vary according to the
characteristics of the shelf (Nichols, 2009)
3. Shallow Marine Deposits

Characteristics of a storm-dominated shelf environment (Nichols, 2009)


4. Schematic Log

A schematic graphic sedimentary log of a


storm-dominated succession (left) &
tidally influenced shelf succession (right)
(Nichols, 2009)
5. Description
Characteristics of deposits of Shallow Sandy Seas / Shallow Marine
 . lithology – mainly sand and mud, with some gravel
 . mineralogy: – mature quartz sands, shelly sands
 . texture – generally moderately to well sorted
 . bed geometry – sheets of variable thickness, large lenses formed by ridges and
bars
 . sedimentary structures – cross-bedding, cross- and horizontal lamination,
hummocky and swaley crossstratification
 . palaeocurrents – flow directions very variable, reflecting tidal currents, longshore
drift, etc.
 . fossils – often diverse and abundant, benthic forms are characteristic
 . colour – often pale yellow-brown sands or grey sands and muds
 . facies associations – may be overlain or underlain by coastal, deltaic, estuarine or
deeper marine facies.
6. Sequences Stratigraphy

The three fundamental factors for Sedimentology & Stratigraphy


 Relative Seal Level
 Sediment Influx
 Tectonic Activity

The study of the relationships between sea-level changes and sedimentation is often
referred to as ‘sequence stratigraphy’.
6. Stratigraphy Sequences

Transgression & Retrogradation (Nichols, 2009)


6. Stratigraphy Sequences

Regression & Progradation (Nichols, 2009)


6. Stratigraphy Sequences

Constant Shoreline & Aggradation(Nichols, 2009)


6. Stratigraphy Sequences

Proses Pola
Regresi Progradasi
Constant Agradasi
Transgresi Retrogradasi
Marine Depositional Environment
DEEP MARINE
OUTLINES

1. Introduction
2. Submarine Fan
3. Schematic Log
4. Description
1. Introduction

The deep oceans are the largest areas of sediment accumulation on


Earth but they are also the least understood.

Deep water environments are floored by ocean crust and are the most widespread
areas of deposition worldwide (Nichols, 2009)
2. Submarine Fan

A submarine fan is a body of sediment on the sea floor deposited by mass-


flow processes that may be fan-shaped, but more elongate, lobate geometries are
also common

Depositional environments on a submarine fan (Nichols, 2009)


2. Submarine Fan

Submarine fan system based on grain size influx:


1) Gravel-rich systems
2) Sand-rich systems
3) Mixed sand–mud systems
4) Muddy systems

(Nichols, 2009)
3. Schematic Log

Schematic graphic sedimentary logs through submarine fan


deposits: proximal, mid-fan lobe deposits and lower fan deposits
(Nichols, 2009)
4. Description
Characteristics of deep marine deposits
 . lithology – mud, sand and gravel, fine-grained limestones
 . mineralogy – arenites may be lithic or arkosic; carbonate and chert
 . texture – variable, some turbidites poorly sorted
 . bed geometry – mainly thin sheet beds, except in submarine fan channels
 . sedimentary structures – graded turbidite beds with some horizontal and ripple
lamination
 . palaeocurrents – bottom structures and ripple lamination in turbidites show flow
direction
 . fossils – pelagic, free swimming and floating organisms
 . colour – variable with red pelagic clays, typically dark turbidites
and pale pelagic limestones
 . facies associations – may be overlain or underlain by shelf facies.
Thank You
Main References
Monroe S J, Wicander R, Hazlett R. 2007. Phsycal Geology Exploring the Earth 6th.
Thomson Brooks/Cole, a part of The Thomson Corporation: USA.

Nichols, Gary. 2009. Sedimentology and Stratigraphy 2nd edition. A John Wiley & Sons,
Ltd., Publication:U SA
Examples of patterns and symbols used on graphic sedimentary logs (Nichols, 2009)
4. Slope Apron
Slope aprons are depositional systems on continental slopes and adjacent parts of the basin
floor that are not fed by discrete point sources but instead have a linear supply from a stretch
of the shelf.

Slope apron deposits include pelagic sediment, slumps, debris flows and sands from the shelf edge
(From Stow 1986, on Nichols, 2009)