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T. Pertambangan Undana
N. Banunaek, Struktur Geology 2009 1
Generally involves three successive steps:
1. Descriptive Analysis: Physical and geometrical
description of rock structures (e.g. folds, faults,
joints, crenulations etc).
2. Kinematic Analysis: Evaluation of displacement &
change in shape, orientation and size that rocks
undergo as a result of deformation.
3. Dynamic Analysis: Reconstruct forces and stresses
which result in rock deformation and failure.

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Behaviour of Rocks to Stress & Strain

Stress - a force per unit

area at a particular point.
Strain - the change in
size (volume) or shape, or
both, while an object is
undergoing stress.

Behaviour of rocks with increasing stress and strain.

• Elastic behaviour occurs along the straight line portions (blue)
• At stresses greater than the elastic limit (red points) the rock will
either deform as a ductile material or break, as shown in the
deformed rock cylinders.
Deformation – response of rock body to applied stress.
 Rigid body deformation
 Non-rigid body deformation (strain)

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Rigid Body Deformation
Rock body displace with no change in shape or volume,
e.g. translation and rotation.

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Rigid Body Deformation
Displacement of fault blocks along fault plane or fault
slip with no deformation of block also consider as rigid.

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Non-rigid Body Deformation
Strain – change in size and shape body in response to
an applied forces
 Dilation – change in volume or area.
 Distortion – change in shape

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Volumetric Strain
 Strain may involve change in volume, as well as
 Volume loss is mainly due to dissolution (chemical
process) or compaction (mechanical).

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Homogeneous Strain

All points within deforming body undergo same

change in shape and volume.

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Homogeneous Strain -
 principle
Straight lines remain straight after deformation
 Parallel lines remain parallel after deformation
 Circles become ellipses

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Material Lines (Reference
 lines)
In homogeneously strained body there are two material lines
that do not rotate relative to each other.
 Remain perpendicular before and after strain
 Length of material lines change

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Material Lines
Lines that contain recognizable features, e.g. grains, fossil,
crystals, mineral alignment

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Strain Ellipse
Material lines that do not rotate define the axes of the strained
 An ellipse defining a principle directions of strain (stretch)
 Lengths of strained axes define the magnitude of strain.

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Strain Ellipsoid
 In 3D, we have three perpendicular material lines.
 Axes indicate degree of stress relative to three principle
stress directions, S1, S2 and S3

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Fossil: Oncolite

Original spherical oncolites become ellipsoidal

when subjected to homogenous strain.
 What can learn by measuring S1 and S2?

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Strain Ellipses
 Instantaneous strain ellipse shows single increment of
deformation within strain continuum
 A snapshot of strain condition at given instant.
 Finite strain ellipse shows final or total strain.

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Heterogeneous Strain
Changes in size and shape varies across deformed body.
 Parallel line don’t remain parallel
 Straight line don’t remain straight

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Heterogeneous strain

Ptygmatic fold

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Heterogeneous strain
Most deformation in nature is heterogeneous, e.g. folding no
line remain parallel or straight.

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Analysis of Strain
Analysis of heterogeneous strain is a problematic one.
 Difficult to deal with mathematically
 Subdivided into regions which can treated as ‘locally’

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1. Simple Shear
Shearing of fault blocks past one another
 Lines within body undergo uniform rotation
 Lines parallel to shear direction remains parallel

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Simple Shear
Sinistral (left-handed) shear in ductile shear zone.

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2. Pure Shear
Uniform stretching of the Earth crust at rift zone (divergent)
 Uniform extension and contraction
 Lines parallel to & perpendicular to principle direction of
stress don’t rotate.

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Pure Shear - Boudins

Boudinage – uniform extension

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Pure Shear – Stretched

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Measurement of Strain
Measure in line length and orientation
 Linear features that have been deformed, e.g. stretched fossil
 Axes of elliptical markers that were circular prior to deformation

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Strain Marker
Stretched pebble conglomerate: Originally spheroidal pebbles
stretched into elongate ellipsoids

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Strain Marker
Crinoid Ossicles – Cylindrical ossicles becomes elliptical
with applied stress

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Strain Marker
Oncolites – carbonate concretions which is deposited by algae,
with concentric spherical nature become ellipsoid; quite similar
to ooliths

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Strain Marker
Bivalve shells have natural right angle symmetry
 Measure angle between hinge and axis of symmetry

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 Rigid and non rigid deformations are solely
controlled by material behaviour.
 Heterogeneous strains are the most prominent
compared to homogenous in geology.
 Simple and true shear can be recognised from the
strained materials.
 Strain markers are generally marked by distorted
fossils and fragments.
 Kinematic analysis is an important key on
recognising stress-strain relationship.

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