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Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) &

Electronic Brake-Force Distribution

(EBD or EBFD) System

Presented by
Akshit Goyal
Anti-lock braking system (ABS) is an automobile safety system that allows
the wheels on a motor vehicle to maintain tractive contact with the road
surface according to driver inputs while braking, preventing the wheels from
locking up (ceasing rotation) and avoiding uncontrolled skidding.
It is an automated system that uses the principles of threshold braking and
cadence braking which were practiced by skillful drivers with previous
generation braking systems. It does this at a much faster rate and with better
control than a driver could manage.

Speed Sensors Valves Pump Controller

Speed sensors
• A speed sensor is used to determine the acceleration
or deceleration of the wheel.
• These sensors use a magnet and a coil of wire to
generate a signal. The rotation of the wheel or
differential induces a magnetic field around the
• The fluctuations of this magnetic field generate a
voltage in the sensor. Since the voltage induced in the
sensor is a result of the rotating wheel, this sensor can
become inaccurate at slow speeds.
There is a valve in the brake line of each brake controlled by the
ABS. On some systems, the valve has three positions:
In position one, the valve is open; pressure from the master
cylinder is passed right through to the brake.
In position two, the valve blocks the line, isolating that brake
from the master cylinder. This prevents the pressure from rising
further should the driver push the brake pedal harder.
In position three, the valve releases some of the pressure from
the brake.
 The pump in the ABS is used to restore the pressure
to the hydraulic brakes after the valves have
released it.
 A signal from the controller will release the valve at
the detection of wheel slip.
 After a valve release the pressure supplied from the
user, the pump is used to restore a desired amount of
pressure to the braking system.
 The controller will modulate the pumps status in
order to provide the desired amount of pressure and
reduce slipping.
 Controller is consider as Mind of ABS. It is central
processing unit ofABS.
 Controller gives signal to each component of ABS and
helps ABS to preforms it’s action.
 The controller is an ECU type unit in the car which
receives information from each individual wheel speed
sensor, in turn if a wheel loses traction the signal is sent
to the controller, the controller will then limit the brake
force (EBD) and activate the ABS modulator which
actuates the braking valves on and off.
The ECU constantly monitors the rotational speed of
each wheel if it detects a wheel rotating significantly
slower than the others, a condition indicative of
impending wheel lock, it actuates the valves to reduce
hydraulic pressure to the brake at the affected wheel,
thus reducing the braking force on that wheel the
wheel then turns faster. Some anti-lock systems can
apply or release braking pressure 15 times per second.
The ECU is programmed to disregard differences in wheel rotative speed below
a critical threshold, because when the car is turning, the two wheels towards
the center of the curve turn slower than the outer two.
Modern ABS applies individual brake pressure to all four wheels through a
control system of hub-mounted sensors and a dedicated micro-controller
Brake types
Four-channel, four-sensor ABS
This is the best scheme. There is a speed sensor on all four wheels and a separate valve for all four
wheels. With this setup, the controller monitors each wheel individually to make sure it is achieving
maximum braking force.
Three-channel, four-sensor ABS
There is a speed sensor on all four wheels and a separate valve for each of the front wheels, but only
one valve for both of the rear wheels. Older vehicles with four-wheel ABS usually use
this type.
Three-channel, three-sensorABS
This scheme, commonly found on pickup trucks with four-wheel ABS, has a speed sensor and a valve
for each of the front wheels, with one valve and one sensor for both rear wheels. The speed sensor for
the rear wheels is located in the rear axle.Two-channel, four sensor ABS
One-channel, one-sensor ABS
This system is commonly found on pickup trucks with rear-wheel ABS. It has one valve, which
controls both rear wheels, and one speed sensor, located in the rear axle. This system operates the same
as the rear end of a three-channel system. The rear wheels are monitored together and they both have
to start to lock up before the ABS kicks in. In this system it is also possible that one of the rear wheels
will lock, reducing brake effectiveness. This system is also easy to identify, as there are no individual
speed sensors for any of the wheels.
Electronic brake force distribution (EBD or EBFD) is an
automobile brake technology that automatically varies
the amount of force applied to each of a vehicle's
brakes, based on road conditions, speed, loading, etc. BRAKE
Always coupled with anti-lock braking systems, EBD FORCE ECU
can apply more or less braking pressure to each wheel in
order to maximize stopping power whilstmaintaining MODULATOR
vehicular control.
• EBDreduces the strain on the hydraulic brake force
proportioning valve in the vehicle.
• EBDoptimizes the brake design with regard to:
adhesion utilization;
driving stability;
temperature stress and
pedal force.
• EBDmay work in conjunction with ABSand Electronic Stability Control ("ESC") to minimize
your accelerations during turns. ESCcompares the steering wheel angle to vehicle turning rate
using a yaw rate sensor. "Yaw" is the vehicle's rotation around itsvertical centre of gravity
(turning left or right).
• Speed Sensors-To determine the slip ratio of a wheel, the EBD system needs two
pieces of information: the speed at which the wheel is rotating and the speed of the car.
• Brake force modulators: Brake force is applied to the wheels hydraulically, with
brake fluid pumped into brake lines in such a way as to pneumatically activate the
brake cylinders.
• Electronic Control Unit (ECU): The ECU is a small computer embedded in the antilock
braking system. It receives input from the speed sensors, calculates the slip ratio of the
wheels, and uses the brake force modulators to apply an appropriate amount of force to
keep the slip ratio of each wheel within a reasonablerange.
Benefits of Electronic Brake ForceDistribution
• It can reduce the car from the slip ratio of the wheels and compensate accordingly
in icy or watery roads.
• When a truck with heavy loads apply brakes the system becomes aware of it through its
effect on the slip ratio of the tires.
• In a speedy car when you apply brakes it desperation you turn the steering wheel to
one side to go around the stopped car, even while you're still pressing down on the
Thank You!