Anda di halaman 1dari 28

Merriam-Webster: a branch of applied

mathematics concerned with the


determination of the size and shape of the
earth and the exact positions of points on
its surface and with the description of
variations of its gravity field

0/27
Basically it is what we use to geo-
reference or position our civil works
projects with respect to other related
projects such as SLOSH models,
historical high water marks, ADCIRC
models, DFIRMS, Bridges, etc.

1/27
Sun not directly overhead
7 º 12’
or
1/50th
of a circle
Alexandria

Eratosthenes
He also knewhad thatobserved
Alexandria that on
and
Syene
theThe
day
Syene
accepted
of the value solstice,
summer
were
along thethe
500 miles apart
equator is 24,902 miles,
midday sun shone to the bottom but, if you
of
measure
a well in thethe earth through
Ancient Egyptianthe city
poles the value
of Swenet (known is 24,860
in Greekmiles
as
To these observations,
He was withinSyene).
1% of today’s
Eratosthenes concluded that
He knew accepted
that at the value
the circumference sameof time,
the the
earth
sun waswasnot 50
Eratosthenes' x 500 overhead
directly miles, were
conclusions or at
25000 miles.
Eratosthenes
Alexandria;
highly regarded
his estimate
shadow
instead,
of the
with the
at the ittime,
Earth’s
vertical
castand
sizeto
equal
a

was1/50th
Egyptof
accepted a circle
aboutfor BC(7° 12'). of
240hundreds
years afterwards. 2/27
Vertical Datums
The Geoid

Gravity: Local Attraction


Unfortunately, the density of the earth’s crust is not uniformly the
same. Heavy rock, such as an iron ore deposit, will have a stronger
attraction than lighter materials. Therefore, the geoid (or any
equipotential surface) will not be a simple mathematical surface.

3/27
Vertical Datums
The Geoid

What is the GEOID?


• “The equipotential surface of the
Earth’s gravity field which best fits, in
the least squares sense, global mean
sea level.”

• Can’t see the surface or measure it


directly.

• Modeled from gravity data.

4/27
Vertical Datums
The Geoid

Equipotential Surfaces

Topography

5/27
An ellipsoid of So
revolution
we squash is the
the figure
spherewhich
to would be
obtained by rotating an ellipse
fit better at the about
poles. its shorter axis.
The GRS80 ellipsoid is used for the NAD83.
Close Fit At The Equator This creates a spheroid

b = 6,356,752.31414 m
But The Poles Are Out

a = 6,378,137.00000 m

GRS80 fits geoid to


about +/- 300’
a= 6378137.00000 meters
NAD83 uses the b= 6356752.31414 meters
f= 1/(a-b)/a =
GRS80 Ellipsoid 298.2572220972 6/27
7/27
P

8/27
A point, line, or
surface used as a
reference, as in
surveying, mapping,
or geology.

9/27
Basic Geodesy
Local vs. Global
Reference Ellipsoid
CLARKE 1866
GRS80-WGS84

Earth Mass Approximately


Center 236 meters

GEOID

10/27
Basic Geodesy

UNITED STATES
ELLIPSOID DEFINITIONS
BESSEL 1841
a = 6,377,397.155 m 1/f = 299.1528128
CLARKE 1866
a = 6,378,206.4 m 1/f = 294.97869821
GEODETIC REFERENCE SYSTEM 1980 - (GRS 80)
a = 6,378,137 m 1/f = 298.257222101
WORLD GEODETIC SYSTEM 1984 - (WGS 84)
a = 6,378,137 m 1/f = 298.257223563

11/27
Vertical Datums
Ellipsoid vs. Geoid

• Ellipsoid
– Simple Mathematical Definition
– Described by Two Parameters
– Cannot Be 'Sensed' by Instruments
• Geoid
– Complicated Physical Definition
– Described by Infinite Number of Parameters
– Can Be 'Sensed' by Instruments

12/27
Vertical Datums
Ellipsoid vs. Geoid

High Density

ellipsoid Low Density


geoid
Earth’s surface

13/27
H = elevation relative to geoid
(orthometric or NAVD88) They are instead referenced
The
to thegeoid
GRS80is the equipotential
ellipsoid, that
h = elevation relative surface of sphere
the earth’s
squashed that best
to ellipsoid (GRS80) attraction andandrotation which,
fits the earth is used for
N = separation between on the average, coincides
NAD83
geoid and ellipsoid with mean sea level in the
This is what we reference our open ocean.
(Geoid03) To convert GPS derived heights to
project elevations to. These are the NAVD88 you must use the latest
Let’s take ayou
GPS
elevations look
heights areatfrom
get the difference
not the NGS between
related to either
geoid model (currently Geoid03)
orthometric
datasheets or
NAVD88 elevations hydraulic/tidal
(orthometric
and traditionally wereheights) and
elevations.
the ellipsoid
obtained fromheights from
geodetic GPS
leveling

h=H+N

14/27
15/27
Geoid Model

16/27
Vertical Datums

h =H+N

H is measured traditionally
h is measured with GPS Observations
N is modeled using Gravity Models

17/27
18/27
NSRS Coordinate Systems
Latitude & Longitude
State Plane Coordinates
UTM Coordinates

NAD 83
NAD 27

19/27
Basic Geodesy
Surfaces Used In State Plane Coordinate Systems

Lambert Projection Transverse Mercator Projection


IMAGINARY CONE IMAGINARY CYLINDER
EARTH

EARTH A B
A B

C D 158 miles
wide

C D

East-West North-South
•Conformal (preserve distances and directions within defined limits)
158 miles for 1:10,000
20/27
Conic Projections
(Lambert)

The lines where the


cone is tangent or
secant are the
places with the
least distortion.

21/27
Cylindrical Projections
(Mercator)
The lines where the
cylinder is tangent or
secant are the places
with the least
distortion.

Panhandle of
Alaska

Transverse

Oblique

22/27
Basic Geodesy
UTM Zones

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

168W 162 156 150 144 138 132 126 120 114 108 102 96 90 84 78 72 66 60 54W

23/27
Basic Geodesy
UTM Zone 14
-99°
-102° -96°

Origin
Equator
-120° -90 ° -60 °
24/27
Basic Geodesy
NAD83 State Plane Coordinate Zones
State Plane Coordinate System - 1983

25/27
Basic Geodesy
NAD83 State Plane Units of Measure

2007
26/27
Additional Information Available at:
http://crunch.tec.army.mil/information/SM_CoP/ndsp
mark.w.huber@usace.army.mil

27/27