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Presented by;

 ABHISHEK LAMA SAHIL RAZA


BU2016UGAU001 BU2016UGAU008
 SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

 BAHRA UNIVERSITY
 Climate change is a significant long term change
in the expected patterns of average weather of a
region or the whole planet over a significant
period of time.
 Rising temperatures: As temperatures climb around the
globe, we expect to see more heat waves – and ever-
more intense ones at that. Extreme heat can “overpower
the human body” and cause dehydration, heatstroke,
and major organ damage.

 Air quality: Pollution from burning fossil fuels is bad


enough for the air we breathe, but many impacts of
climate change also impact air quality. For instance,
climate change has been linked to more wildfires.
Wildfire smoke carries fine particles that “can penetrate
deep into your lungs.” Exposure has been linked to
burning eyes, heart and lung diseases, and even death.
 Vector-borne diseases: Vector-borne diseases
are illnesses spread by insects or arachnids like
mosquitoes, fleas, mites, and ticks. As our climate
becomes warmer, some insects will see their
geographic ranges grow – bringing the Lyme
disease and West Nile or Zika viruses they carry
along with them to new regions.

 Extreme weather: While we go into more detail


on this later, climate change has been linked to
many types of extreme weather, including
hurricanes and floods. Not only can these extreme
weather events have immediate fatal
consequences, but they can lead to major injuries
and the spread of waterborne illnesses.
 When we pollute the atmosphere by using energy
sources such as oil, coal, and gas, we end up with
dirty weather. That means more emissions of Carbon
dioxide in atmosphere that causes Global Warming.

 Climate change affects weather, in large part,


by intensifying the water cycle. In short, water
evaporates into the atmosphere from both land and
sea and returns to Earth’s surface in the form of rain
and snow. As the world warms, the rate of
evaporation from our oceans seems to be increasing,
powering ever-stronger storms.
 In September 1900 a hurricane accompanied by a 15.7 foot storm
surge hit Galveston in Texas. At the time Galveston had a population
of 37,000 and around 20% lost their lives. At today's prices property
damage was put at $700 million.

 Between October 1923 and April 1924 Marble Bar in Western


Australia experienced 160 consecutive days when the temperature
topped 37.8°C.

 In 1927 flooding in the Lower Mississippi claimed between 250 and


1,000 lives and left 700,000 homeless.

 In 1974 Cyclone Tracy hit Darwin in Australia's Northern Territory,


killing 71 people and destroying more than 70% of the town's
buildings.

 The rivers in the region originated from the Himalayan glaciers.


Between 2006 and 2008 a series of floods and droughts were
experienced with change in the rainfall pattern in the area, that
effected crops, animals and people’s livelihoods extensively.
 Global warming is caused by the
greenhouse effect, a natural process
by which the atmosphere retains
some of the Sun’s heat, allowing the
Earth to maintain the necessary
conditions to host life. Without the
greenhouse effect, the average
temperature of the planet would be -
180C.

 The problem is that daily human


activities maximize the greenhouse
effect, causing the planet’s
temperature to increase even more.
INCREASE IN GREEN HOUSE GASES:
 Carbon dioxide: caused by the burning mainly of fossil fuels in
electricity generation, transport, heating, industry and construction.
 Methane: from livestock, rice farming and waste tips.
 Nitrogen oxide: caused by excess use of fertilizers and industrial
activity.
 HCFCs: gas of anthropogenic origin (result of human activities) replacing
CFCs. Harmless to the ozone layer, but increases the greenhouse effect.

DEFORESTATION:
 Forests are natural carbon sinks, absorbing CO2 through
photosynthesis and returning oxygen to the atmosphere.
DESTRUCTION OF MARINE ECOSYSTEM:

 The oceans are also carbon sinks, absorbing up to 50 % of


CO2 The problem is that, when they reach their limit, the
ocean acidifies and causes death and disease among marine
flora and fauna.

INCREASE IN THE POPULATION:

 An increasingly numerous population needs more and more


resources, which speeds up the increase in greenhouse gas
emissions from all production processes.
 Experts agree that the Industrial Revolution was the turning point
when emissions of greenhouse gases entering the atmosphere began to
soar. The Industrial Revolution was itself borne out of smaller
revolutions: agricultural, technological, demographic, transport, finance
etc. creating a new model of production and consumption.

 From then onward, population growth (in 1750, there were fewer than
800 million people on Earth, whereas now we are over 7.5 billion),
exploding resource use, increasing energy demand and production,
mainly from fossil fuels, all saw the planet enter into what the scientific
community have termed the Anthropocene period, a new geological era
characterized by human impact on Earth.

 The main impact was the increase in the global temperature of the
planet, which has risen 1.1°C since this period, although it is estimated
that, by the end of the present Century, the thermometer could rise by
2.7 °C even if national commitments to reduce emissions are fulfilled.
 By Carol Rasmussen, NASA's Earth Science News Team,
and Kate Ramsayer, NASA's Goddard Space Flight
Center.
 The Far North is warming twice as fast as the
rest of Earth, on average.

 Wildfires have become common in the North.


Because firefighting is so difficult in remote
areas, many of these fires burn unchecked
for months, throwing huge plumes of carbon
into the atmosphere. A recent report found a
nearly 10-fold increase in the number of
large fires in the Arctic region over the last
50 years, and the total area burned by fires
is increasing annually.

 Organic carbon from plant and animal


remains is preserved for millennia in frozen
Arctic soil, too cold to decompose. Arctic
soils known as permafrost contain more
carbon than there is in Earth's atmosphere
today. As the frozen landscape continues to
thaw, the likelihood increases that not only
fires but decomposition will create Arctic
atmospheric emissions rivaling those of
fossil fuels. The chemical form these
emissions take-carbon dioxide or methane-
will make a big difference in how much
greenhouse warming they create.
 Methane is the Billy the Kid of carbon-
containing greenhouse gases: it does a
lot of damage in a short life. There's
much less of it in Earth's atmosphere
than there is carbon dioxide, but
molecule for molecule, it causes far
more greenhouse warming than
CO2 does over its average 10-year life
span in the atmosphere.

 Methane is produced by bacteria that


decompose organic material in damp
places with little or no
oxygen. Currently, over half of
atmospheric methane comes from
human-related sources, such as
livestock, rice farming, landfills and
leaks of natural gas. Natural sources
include termites and wetlands. Because
of increasing human sources, the
atmospheric concentration of methane
has doubled in the last 200 years to a
level not seen on our planet for 650,000
years.
 Tropical forests are carbon storage
heavyweights. The Amazon in South
America alone absorbs a quarter of
all carbon dioxide that ends up on
land. Forests in Asia and Africa also
do their part in "breathing in" as
much carbon dioxide as possible
and using it to grow.

 Growth rates in temperate and


boreal forests continue to increase,
trees in the Amazon have been
growing more slowly in recent
years. They've also been dying
sooner because the forest was
stressed by two severe droughts in
2005 and 2010 so severe that the
Amazon emitted more carbon
overall than it absorbed during
those years.
 Wildfires are natural and necessary for
some forest ecosystems, keeping them
healthy by fertilizing soil, clearing ground
for young plants, and allowing species to
germinate and reproduce. Like the carbon
cycle itself, fires are being pushed out of
their normal roles by climate change.
Shorter winters and higher temperatures
during the other seasons lead to drier
vegetation and soils. Globally, fire seasons
are almost 20 percent longer today, on
average, than they were 35 years ago.

 Currently, wildfires are estimated to spew


2 to 4 billion tons of carbon into the
atmosphere each year on average. As a
burned forest regrows, decades will pass
before it reaches its former levels of
carbon absorption.

 As atmospheric carbon dioxide continues


to increase and global temperatures warm,
climate models show the threat of
wildfires increasing throughout this
century.
 When carbon-dioxide-rich air meets
seawater containing less carbon dioxide,
the greenhouse gas diffuses from the
atmosphere into the ocean as irresistibly
as a ball rolls downhill. Today, about a
quarter of human-produced carbon
dioxide emissions get absorbed into the
ocean. Once the carbon is in the water, it
can stay there for hundreds of years.

 In other words, water upwelling today


dates from the Middle Ages – long
before fossil fuel emissions.

 That's good for the atmosphere, but the


ocean pays a heavy price for absorbing
so much carbon: acidification. Carbon
dioxide reacts chemically with seawater
to make the water more acidic. This
fundamental change threatens many
marine creatures.
 CHANGE IN ECOSYSTEM AND  MELTING OF POLES AND RISING
DESERTIFICATION: Variations in SEA LEVELS: Heat causes the
life conditions in natural melting of the ice at the poles,
which increases the sea level and
environments cause death, threatens to submerge coastal
disease and massive communities and small island
migrations of species. states.
 ACIDIFICATION OF SEA WATER:  EXTREME WEATHER PHENOMENAN:
Hurricanes, cyclones, typhoons,
The absorption of too much CO₂ drought, floods, rain and snow, all
causes death and disease increase in their degree of violence
due to global warming, causing more
among fish, algae, coral and deaths, victims, refugees and
other organisms in the sea. material damage.
 EXTINCTION OF SPECIES:  MASSIVE MIGRATION: The
Changes in ecosystems and existence of climate refugees,
desertification cause the death still to be recognized by the
of between 10,000 and 50,000 United Nations, is a reality; it is
estimated their number could
species every year.
reach one billion by 2050.
 A group of emperor penguins face a  A factory in China is shrouded by
crack in the sea ice, near McMurdo a haze of air pollution. The WHO
Station, Antarctica. has warned such pollution, much
of which is from the fossil fuels
that cause climate change, is a
“public health emergency”.
 A river once flowed along the  Climate scientists examines a
depression in the dry earth of cave inside the glaciers found in
this part of Bangladesh, but it Iceland, which they said had
has disappeared amid rising been growing rapidly. Since
temperatures 2000, the size of glaciers on
Iceland has reduced by 12 per
cent.
 First, it is important to be clear that climate
change cannot be avoided. We can mitigate
its effects and adapt to its consequences, i.e.
we can fight it through the application of
small and large scale measures that help to
slow down climate change. These actions are
known as climate change mitigation and
adaptation measures.
 Mitigation consists of launching actions to reduce and limit
greenhouse gas emissions with the aim of preventing the
global temperature of the planet from continuing to increase.
These actions consist of greater investment in renewable
energies, transition to a low-carbon economy, promoting
energy efficiency, electrification of industrial processes, and
the implementation of efficient transport means.
 On the other hand, actions such as carbon pricing - which
can act as a tax on the emission of GHGs, in carbon markets
limiting the volume of emissions, or facilitating the exchange
of carbon credits - are now also an important aid in fighting
climate change
 Adaptation focuses on actions to reduce vulnerability in the
face of the effects of climate change, such as improving
infrastructure and making facilities safer and more resilient,
reforesting and landscape restoration, water treatment and
purification, flexible and varied farming to be prepared for
natural catastrophes, and the ability to predict these disasters
and invest in research and development into the behavior of
temperature or possible occurence of atmospheric
phenomena.
We have to admit that climate change is real
and it is everyone’s problem. No agency,
government, or scientist can “fix it” for us. We
are all in this together.

We got here because of our lifestyle. So our


lifestyle has to change.

THANK YOU