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Module 3

Discrete Probability Distributions


Lesson 3.1
Random Variables
3.1 Random Variable
• “Stochastic variable”
• A function that assign a numerical value to a given
outcome of an event.
• UPPERCASE LETTER, usually X, while its
corresponding lowercase letter in this case, x, is
used to represent one of its values.
Example

A fair coin is tossed thirty times and the


number of times X that a tail appears is a
Example

A coin is tossed thrice. Let the


variable X represent the number of
heads that result from this experiment.
Deepen your understanding

Determine the values of the random variable in each of the following


situation.

1. Two coin are tossed. Let T be the number of tails that occurs. Determine
the values of the random variable T.
2. Three coins are tossed. Let T be the number of tails that occurs.
Determine the values of the random variable T.
3. A meeting of consuls was attended by 4 Americans and 2 Germans. If
three consuls were selected at random one after the other, determine
the values of the random variable G representing the number of
Germans.
4. A Coin is flipped four times. Let H be the number of heads that come out.
Determine the values of the random variable H.
5. A box contain 4 green and 2 blue dice. Three dice are chosen one after
the other. Determine the values of the random variable G representing
the number of green dice.
A Random Variables can either be
Discrete or Continuous.
Two Classifications of Random
Variable
counts measurements
Discrete Continuous
• number of pencils in the • amount of antibiotics in
box the vial
• number of soldiers in the • lifetime of light bulbs in
troop minutes
• number of rotten • length of wire ropes
tomatoes in the basket • voltage of radio batteries
• number of defective
flashlights
Classify the following as discrete or continuous

1. The number of senators present 9. The area of lots in a subdivision.


in the meeting. 10. The number of students who
2. The weight of newborn babies for joined a field trip.
the month of June. 11. The time it takes a student to
3. The number of ballpens in the finish his test in a particular
box. subject.
4. The capacity of electrical 12. The number of registered nurses
resistors. in a city.
5. The amount of salt needed to bake 13. The number of winners in lotto
a loaf of bread. for each month.
6. The capacity of an auditorium 14. The weight of professional boxer.
7. The number of households with 15. The grade point average of
TV students.
8. The height of mango trees in a
farm.
Discrete Probability Distribution
• Listing of all possible values of a discrete random variable along
with their corresponding probabilities.
• Can be presented in tabular, graphical, or formula form.
The following properties must be satisfied before a distribution
can be considered a discrete probability distribution.
a. The probability of each value of a discrete
random variable is between 0 and 1
inclusive.
0 ≤ P (x) ≤ 1
b. The sum of all the probabilities is 1.
∑ P (x) = 1
Example 1

Consider the following table

x 0 1 2 3

P(x) 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2


Example 2

The given spinner is divided into four sections. Let X be the score
where the arrow will stop ( colored as brown, orange, green and
blue, in the drawing below).
Example 3

The spinner below is divided into eight sections. Let X be


the score where the arrow will stop ( numbered as 1, 2, 3
and 4, in the drawing below).
Example 4

When two fair dice are thrown simultaneously, the


following are the possible outcome.

Example 5

Toss a fair coin twice and let X be equal to the number of


heads (H) observed.
Probability Histogram
• The discrete probability distribution can be
graphed to form a probability histogram
• X are set of horizontal axis
• probabilities are set of vertical axis
1.2 Mass Function of a Discrete
Random
Variable
• Probability mass function (pmf)
• the probability distribution of a discrete random variable.
• The pmf of x is denoted by f(x) and satisfies the following two
basic properties.
a. f (x) = P ( X = x ) ≥ 0 if x ∈ the support S
b. ∑ f(x) =