Anda di halaman 1dari 42

Leadership

Chapter 14

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Learning Objectives
1. Explain what leadership is, when leaders are
effective and ineffective, and the sources of
power that enable managers to be effective
leaders.
2. Identify the traits that show the strongest
relationship to leadership, the behaviors leaders
engage in, and the limitations of the trait and
behavioral models of leadership.
3. Explain how contingency models of leadership
enhance our understanding of effective
leadership and management in organizations.

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-2
Learning Objectives

4. Describe what transformational leadership is,


and explain how managers can engage in it.
5. Characterize the relationship between gender
and leadership and explain how emotional
intelligence may contribute to leadership
effectiveness.

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-3
The Nature of Leadership

 Leadership
The process by which a person exerts influence
over others and inspires, motivates and directs
their activities to achieve group or organizational
goals.

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-4
The Nature of Leadership

Leader
An individual who is
able to exert
influence over other
people to help
achieve group or
organizational goals

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-5
Personal Leadership Style
and Managerial Tasks
 Personal Leadership Style
specific ways in which a manager chooses to
influence others
shapes the way that manager approaches the
other principal tasks of management.

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-6
Personal Leadership Style
and Managerial Tasks
 Servant leader
A leader who has a strong desire to serve and
work for the benefit of others.

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-7
Leadership Across Cultures
 European managers tend to be more people-
oriented than American or Japanese
managers.
 Japanese managers are group-oriented, while
U.S managers focuses more on profitability.
 Time horizons also are affected by cultures.

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-8
Sources of Managerial Power

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-9
Power: The Key to Leadership

 Legitimate Power
The authority that a manager has by virtue of his
or her position in an organization’s hierarchy.
 Reward Power
The ability of a manager to give or withhold
tangible and intangible rewards.

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-10
Power: The Key to Leadership

 Coercive Power
The ability of a manager to punish others
Overuse of coercive power can even result in
dangerous working conditions.
Examples: verbal reprimand, pay cuts, and
dismissal

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-11
Power: The Key to Leadership

 Expert Power
Power that is based on special knowledge, skills,
and expertise that the leader possesses.
Tends to be used in a guiding or coaching manner

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-12
Power: The Key to Leadership

 Referent Power
Power that comes from subordinates’ and
coworkers’ respect , admiration, and loyalty
Possessed by managers who are likable and
whom subordinates wish to use as a role model

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-13
Empowerment: An Ingredient in
Modern Management
 Empowerment
The process of giving employees at all levels in
the organization the authority to make decisions,
be responsible for their outcomes, improve
quality, and cut costs

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-14
Leadership Models

 Trait Model
Focused on identifying personal characteristics
that cause effective leadership.
Many “traits” are the result of skills and
knowledge and effective leaders do not
necessarily possess all of these traits.

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-15
Traits and Personal Characteristics Related
to Effective Leadership

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-16
Leadership Models

 Behavioral Model
Identifies the two basic types of behavior that
many leaders engaged in to influence their
subordinates
Consideration, initiating structure

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-17
The Behavior Model

 Consideration
Behavior indicating that a manager trusts,
respects, and cares about subordinates.
 Initiating structure
Behavior that managers engage in to ensure that
work gets done, subordinates perform their jobs
acceptably, and the organization is efficient and
effective.

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-18
Contingency Models of Leadership

 Contingency Models
Whether or not a manager is an effective leader
is the result of the interplay between what the
manager is like, what he does, and the situation
in which leadership takes place

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-19
Contingency Models of Leadership

 Fiedler’s Model
Effective leadership is contingent on both the
characteristics of the leader and of the situation.
Leader style is a manager’s characteristic
approach to leadership

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-20
Fiedler’s Contingency Model

Relationship-oriented Task-oriented style


style leaders whose
leaders concerned primary concern is to
with developing good ensure that
relations with their subordinates perform
subordinates and to at a high level so the
be liked by them. job gets done.

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-21
Fiedler’s Model
Situation Characteristics
 Leader-member relations
extent to which followers like, trust, and are loyal
to their leader
 Task structure
extent to which the work to be performed is
clear-cut so that a leader’s subordinates know
what needs to be accomplished and how to go
about doing it

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-22
Fiedler’s Model
Situation Characteristics
 Position Power
amount of legitimate, reward, and coercive
power that a leader has by virtue of his or her
position in an organization
determinant of how favorable a situation is for
leading

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-23
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory
of Leadership

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-24
House’s Path-Goal Theory

A contingency model of leadership proposing that


effective leaders can motivate subordinates to
achieve goals by:
1. Clearly identifying the outcomes that subordinates
are trying to obtain from their jobs.
2. Rewarding subordinates with these outcomes for
high-performance and attainment of work goals
3. Clarifying the paths leading to the attainment of
work goals

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-25
Path-Goal Leadership Behaviors

Directive behaviors Supportive behavior


setting goals, expressing concern
assigning tasks, for subordinates and
showing subordinates looking out for their
how to complete best interests.
tasks, and taking
concrete steps to
improve
performance.

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-26
Path-Goal Leadership Behaviors

Participative behavior Achievement-


give subordinates a oriented behavior
say in matters and setting challenging
decisions that affect goals, expecting that
them. they be met, and
believing in
subordinates’
capabilities.

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-27
The Leader Substitutes Model

 Leadership Substitute
characteristic of a subordinate or of a situation or
context that acts in place of the influence of a
leader and makes leadership unnecessary.
 Members of an organization sometimes can
perform highly without a manager exerting
influence over them

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-28
The Leader Substitutes Model

Possible substitutes can be found in:


 Characteristics of the subordinates: their
skills, experience, motivation.
 Characteristics of context: the extent to which
work is interesting
and fun.

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-29
Contingency Models of Leadership

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-30
Transformational Leadership

Leadership that:
1. Makes subordinates aware of the importance of
their jobs are for the organization and how
necessary it is for them to perform those jobs as
best they can so that the organization can attain its
goals

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-31
Transformational Leadership

2. Makes subordinates aware of their own


needs for personal growth, development,
and accomplishment
3. Motivates workers to work for the good of
the organization, not just for their own
personal gain or benefit

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-32
Being a Charismatic Leader

 Charismatic Leader
An enthusiastic, self-confident transformational
leader able to clearly communicate his vision of
how good things could be

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-33
Being a Charismatic Leader

 Charismatic Leader
Being excited and clearly communicating
excitement to subordinates.
Openly sharing information with employees so
that everyone is aware of problems and the need
for change.

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-34
Stimulating Subordinates Intellectually

 Intellectual Stimulation
Behavior a leader engages in to make followers
be aware of problems and view these problems
in new ways, consistent with the leader’s vision.

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-35
Developmental Consideration

 Developmental Consideration
Manager supports and encourages subordinates,
giving them opportunities to enhance their
skills and
capabilities and
to grow and
excel on the job

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-36
Transactional Leadership

 Transactional Leaders
Leadership that motivates subordinates by
rewarding them for high performance and
reprimanding them for low performance.

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-37
Gender and Leadership
 The number of women managers is rising but
is still relatively low in the top levels of
management.
 Stereotypes suggest women are supportive
and concerned with interpersonal relations.
Similarly, men are seen as task-focused.

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-38
Emotional Intelligence and Leadership

The Moods of Leaders:


 Groups whose leaders experienced positive
moods had better coordination
 Groups whose leaders experienced negative
moods exerted more effort

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-39
Emotional Intelligence and Leadership

 Emotional Intelligence
Helps leaders develop a vision for their firm.
Helps motivate subordinates to commit to the
vision.
Energizes subordinates to work to achieve the
vision.

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-40
Example – Coach Roy Williams
Roy Williams is the Men’s basketball coach at the
University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill. He has
three guiding principles of leadership:
1. Everyone on the team must focus on the same goal.
It's my job to effectively communicate those goals
to the team.
2. Emphasize those goals every day.
3. Understand that although everyone has a common
goal, individuals also have goals, needs, and dreams
that must be cared for.

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-41
Video: Tom & Eddies

 What leadership style is utilized at Tom &


Eddies?
 Is this style always effective? Why or why
not?

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
14-42