Logic

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Logic

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the methods of reasoning.

ROLES OF LOGIC

give precise meaning to

mathematical statements

used to distinguish between valid

and invalid arguments

CRITICAL THINKING OR LOGICAL

THINKING

is the process in which one uses logic and

reasoning consistently to come to a

conclusion, which is an important foundational

skill of Mathematics. It is used as a process to

evaluate and separate truth from falsehood,

reasonable from unreasonable beliefs.

PROPOSITION

– a complete declarative statement that is

either true or false, but not both

- a statement that has a truth value

EXAMPLES

• 1+1=2

• Twice seven increase by five is twenty- five.

NON-EXAMPLES

• Listen to me.

• The grey old dog.

SEAT WORK

Determine whether the following are propositions by writing

P or NP.

The bamboo leaf is green. P

Manila is the capital of the Philippines. P

2+5=5 P

Close the door. NP

Is it hot outside ? NP

x is greater than 2 NP

3=3 P

LETTERS are used to denote propositions.

EXAMPLES: 𝑝, 𝑞, 𝑟, 𝑠

value is 𝑡𝑟𝑢𝑒 denoted by 𝑇 (or 1). If it is false, its

truth value is 𝑓𝑎𝑙𝑠𝑒, denoted by 𝐹 (or 0).

NEGATION OF 𝒑

Let 𝑝 be a proposition. The statement “It s

not the case that 𝑝” is called negation of 𝑝.

It is denoted as ¬𝑝 𝑜𝑟 ~𝑝 read as “not 𝑝”

EXAMPLES

𝑝: “Today is Friday”

~ 𝑝: “Today is not Friday” or

“It is not the case that today is Friday”

𝑝: “I like Math”

𝑝: “I am prepared to take a seatwork today”

TRUTH TABLE – a table that displays the

relationships between the truth

value of propositions

PROPOSITION

𝑝 ~𝑝

T F

F T

COMPOUND – combination of propositions.

PROPOSITION – formed from existing

proposition using logical

operations or connectives

PROPOSITIONAL

– an operation that combines

CONNECTIVE two propositions to yield a new

one whose truth value depends

only on the truth values of the two original

propositions

CONJUNCTION OF 𝒑 and 𝒒

Let 𝑝 and 𝑞 be propositions. The propositions

“𝑝 and 𝑞” is denoted by 𝑝 ∧ 𝑞. This is also read

as “the conjunction of 𝑝 and 𝑞”.

EXAMPLES

𝑝: “Today is Friday” 𝑞: “It is raining today”

𝑝 ∧ 𝑞: “Today is Friday and it is raining today”

𝑝: “I am sick” 𝑞: “I cannot take the exam”

𝑝 ∧ 𝑞: “I am sick and I cannot take the exam”

TRUTH TABLE FOR THE CONJUNCTION OF TWO

PROPOSITIONS

𝑝 𝑞 𝑝∧𝑞

T T T

T F F

F T F

F F F

Notes: “but has the same logical meaning as “and” moreover,

furthermore, yet, still, however, also, nevertheless, although,

and so forth, comma (,) and colon (:) are also used to conjoin

two propositions

DISJUNCTION OF 𝒑 and 𝒒

Let 𝑝 and 𝑞 be propositions. The “disjunction

of 𝑝 and 𝑞” is denoted by 𝑝 ∨ 𝑞. This is also

read as “𝑝 or 𝑞”.

INCLUSIVE OR: If 𝑝 and 𝑞 are propositions then 𝑝

OR 𝑞 is true if either 𝑝 is true or 𝑞 is true or if

both 𝑝 and 𝑞 are true.

EXCLUSIVE OR: If 𝑝 and 𝑞 are propositions, the

“exclusive or” of 𝑝 and 𝑞 is denoted as 𝑝 ⊕ 𝑞.

EXAMPLES

𝑝: “Plaridel is the capital of Bulacan” F

𝑞: “Baliuag is one of the cities found in Region III” F

𝑝 ∨ 𝑞: “Plaridel is the capital of Bulacan or Baliuag is

one of the cities found in Region III”

TRUTH VALUE: F (because neither is true)

𝑝: “3 is an even number” F

𝑞: “A century is 100 years” T

𝑝 ∨ 𝑞: “3 is an even number or a century is 100 years”

TRUTH VALUE: T (because q is true)

EXAMPLES

𝑝: “I am looking at my seatmate” T

𝑞: “I am looking at my teacher” T

𝑝 ⊕ 𝑞: “I am looking at my seatmate or I am looking at my

teacher”

TRUTH VALUE: F (because either is true but not both)

𝑝: “I can take a plane going to Romblon” T

𝑞: “I can take a ferry going to Romblon” T

𝑝 ⊕ 𝑞: “I can take a plane or a ferry going to Romblon”

TRUTH VALUE: F (because either is true but not both)

TRUTH TABLE FOR THE TRUTH TABLE FOR THE

DISJUNCTION OF TWO DISJUNCTION OF TWO

PROPOSITIONS PROPOSITIONS

(INCLUSIVE) (EXCLUSIVE)

𝑝 𝑞 𝑝∨𝑞 𝑝 𝑞 𝑝⊕𝑞

T T T T T F

T F T T F T

F T T F T T

F F F F F F

Note: “unless” may also be used in expressing the disjunction

of two propositions.

Exercises: Use the symbols ~, ∧ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ∨ to

write the following statements.

Notes:

• to connote EXAMPLES: ANSWERS:

groupings:

“both” goes with 1.) both p or q, and r 1.) 𝑝 ∨ 𝑞 ∧ 𝑟

“and”; “either” 2.) p, or both q and r 2.) 𝑝 ∨ (𝑞 ∧ 𝑟)

goes with “or” 3.) (𝑝 ∧ 𝑞) ∨ 𝑟

3.) either p and q, or r

• “neither 𝑝 nor 𝑞”

is the same as 4.) p, and either q or r 4.) 𝑝 ∧ (𝑞 ∨ 𝑟)

“not either 𝑝 or 5.) neither p nor q 5.)~𝑝 ∨ ~𝑞

𝑞”

Exercises: Use the symbols ~, ∧ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ∨ to write the

following statements. (use grouping symbols)

𝑝: “-6 is a positive number” 𝑞: “3 is a positive number”

𝑟: “ 5 is an irrational number”

1.) -6 and 3 are both not positive numbers 1.) ~𝑝 ∧ ~𝑞

2.) -6 and 3 are not both positive numbers 2.) ~(𝑝 ∧ 𝑞)

3.) either -6 is a positive number or 3 is a 3.) 𝑝 ∨ (𝑞 ∧ 𝑟)

positive number, and 5 is irrational

4.) 5 is irrational but -6 is not a positive 4.) 𝑟 ∧ ~𝑝

number

5.) either -6 is a positive number or 3 is a 5.) 𝑝 ∨ 𝑞 ∧ ~(𝑝 ∧ 𝑞)

positive number, but they are not both

positive numbers

CONDITIONAL PROPOSITIONS

Let 𝑝 and 𝑞 be propositions. The propositions

“𝑝 implies 𝑞” is denoted by 𝑝 → 𝑞. This is a

statement is in the form of "If ... then“.

EXAMPLES

𝑝: “I am late” 𝑞: “I cannot take the seatwork”

𝑝 → 𝑞: “If I am late then I cannot take the seatwork”

𝑝: “Today is Monday” 𝑞: “I have a test today”

𝑝 → 𝑞: “If today is Monday then I have a test today”

EXAMPLES

Let 𝑝, 𝑞, 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑟 be propositions:

𝑝: It is a long weekend.

𝑞: I will stay at home.

𝑟: Lucky is not going to watch Riverdale.

Compound Propositions Symbols

1. If it is not a long weekend, then Lucky is not going to ∼𝑝→𝑟

watch Riverdale.

2. If it is a long weekend, then I will stay at home. 𝑝→𝑞

(if 𝑝, then 𝑞)

3. I will stay at home if it is a long weekend. (𝑞 if 𝑝) 𝑝→𝑞

4. I will stay at home whenever it is a long weekend. 𝑝→𝑞

(𝑞 whenever 𝑝)

𝑝 → 𝑞 is false when 𝑝 is true and 𝑞 is false (a

true statement cannot imply a false one)

EXAMPLES

𝑝: “1 > 2” F

𝑞: “4 < 8” T

𝑝 → 𝑞: “If 1 > 2 then 4 < 8” T

𝑞 → 𝑝: “If 4 < 8 then 1 > 2 “ F

independent of a cause and effect relationship

between a hypothesis and a conclusion.

TRUTH TABLE FOR THE

IMPLICATION

𝑝→𝑞 Notes:

𝑝 → 𝑞 is equivalent to the

following expressions:

𝑝 𝑞 𝑝→𝑞

𝑝 implies 𝑞

T T T If 𝑝 then 𝑞

T F F 𝑞 if 𝑝

𝑞 whenever 𝑝

F T T

𝑝 is sufficient for 𝑞

F F T 𝑝 is necessary for 𝑞

BI-CONDITIONAL PROPOSITIONS

Let 𝑝 and 𝑞 be propositions. The propositions “𝑝 if

and only if 𝑞” is denoted by 𝑝 ↔ 𝑞.

EXAMPLES

𝑝: “David is the son of Ricky”

𝑞: “Ricky is the father of David”

𝑝 ↔ 𝑞: “David is the son of Ricky if and only if Ricky

is the father of David”

𝑝: “12 is divisible by 2”

𝑞: “12 is even”

𝑝 ↔ 𝑞: “12 is divisible by 2 if and only if 12 is even”

𝑝 ↔ 𝑞 is true when both 𝑝 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑞 has the

same logical truth value

EXAMPLES

𝑝: “7 > 12” F

𝑞: “7 is even” F

𝑝 ↔ 𝑞: “7 > 12 if and only if 7 is even” T

𝑝: “a square is a quadrilateral” T

𝑞: “a triangle has four vertices” F

𝑝 ↔ 𝑞: “a square is a quadrilateral if and only if a

triangle has four vertices” F

TRUTH TABLE FOR THE

BI-CONDITIONAL

PROPOSITION Notes:

𝑝↔𝑞 𝑝 ↔ 𝑞 is equivalent to the

following expressions:

𝑝 𝑞 𝑝↔𝑞 𝑝 is equivalent to 𝑞

T T T 𝑝 if and only if 𝑞

𝑝 is necessary and

T F F sufficient for 𝑞

F T F if 𝑝 then 𝑞 and

conversely

F F T

Connectives Operation Symbols Ex. Way of Reading

Not Negation ~ ~𝑝 Not 𝑝

(𝑝 is false)

And/ But Conjunction ∧ 𝑝∧𝑞 𝑝 and 𝑞

(both 𝑝 and 𝑞 are

true)

Or/ Unless Disjunction ∨ 𝑝∨𝑞 𝑝 or 𝑞

(either 𝑝 is true or 𝑞

is true or both are

true)

Implies Conditional → 𝑝→𝑞 If 𝑝 then 𝑞

If and only if Bi- ↔ 𝑝↔𝑞 𝑝 implies 𝑞 and 𝑞

conditional implies 𝑝

Seatwork: Determine if the following are

propositions by writing P or NP.

1.) 3 < 2 1.) 𝑃

2.) 1 is an integer 2.) 𝑃

3.) 3 −

1 3.) N𝑃

2

4.) The reciprocal of five less three. 4.) N𝑃

5.)

3

8≠2 5.) 𝑃

6.) 0 𝑖𝑠 𝑎 𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠𝑒𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑊 6.) 𝑃

7.) rational numbers between 1 and 0 7.) N𝑃

8.) The function 𝑓(𝑥) is continuous. 8.) N𝑃

Seatwork: Use the symbols ~, ∧, ∨, → 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ↔

to write the following statements.

ℎ: Harry is not happy 𝑠: Today is Sunday 𝑟: It is going to rain

𝑣: Harry is going to watch a volleyball game

1.) Today is Sunday and Harry is not happy. 1.) 𝑠 ∧ ℎ

2.) Today is Sunday and Harry is not going

to watch a volleyball game. 2.) 𝑠 ∧ ~𝑣

3.) If it is going to rain, then Harry is not 3.) 𝑟 → ~𝑣

going to watch a volleyball game.

4.) Harry is going to watch a volleyball 4.) 𝑣 ↔ ~ℎ

game if and only if he is happy.

5.) Harry is happy if it is not going to rain. 5.)~𝑟 → ~ℎ

Seatwork: Convert the following symbolic

statements into words given:

𝑝: Gian plays volleyball 𝑞: Lanz plays basketball

1.) ~𝑝 1.) Gian does not play volleyball.

2.) 𝑝 ∧ 𝑞 2.) Gian plays volleyball and Lanz plays

basketball.

3.) 𝑝 → ~𝑞 3.) If Gian plays volleyball then Lanz

does not play basketball.

4.) ~𝑞 ↔ 𝑝 4.) Lanz does not play basketball if and

only if Gian plays volleyball.

EXAMPLES

Consider the following statements:

𝑝: Kate is good in Math.

𝑞: Kate is good in English.

𝑟: Kate is a varsity player.

1. Write (𝑝 ∧ 𝑞) ⟶ ~𝑟 into words.

If Kate is good in both Math and

English, then Kate is not a varsity player.

2. Write ~𝑞 ⟶ (𝑝 ∨ 𝑟) into words.

If Kate is not good in English, then either

Kate is good in Math or Kate is a varsity player.

Implications

p is called the hypothesis (antecedent) and the

proposition q is called the conclusion (consequence).

From this form, we can have another statements

which are the converse, inverse and contrapositive of

p→q.

Implications

Converse: If 𝑝 → 𝑞,

then its converse is 𝑞 → 𝑝.

Inverse: If 𝑝 → 𝑞,

then its inverse is ∼ 𝑝 →∼ 𝑞.

Contrapositive: If 𝑝 → 𝑞,

then its contrapositive is ∼ 𝑞 → ∼ 𝑝.

IMPLICATIONS

GIVEN: a → 𝑏

CONVERSE OF a → 𝑏: 𝑏→𝑎

CONTRAPOSITIVE OF a → 𝑏: ~𝑏 → ~𝑎

INVERSE OF a → 𝑏: ~a → ~𝑏

Examples

Converse: If I will review my lessons, then I have a test

today.

Inverse:

If I do not have a test today, then I will not

review my lessons.

Contrapositive: If I will not review my lessons today,

then I do not have a test today.

SEAT WORK: Write the sentence form of each item.

𝑠: 8 is a whole number 𝑓: 8 is an element rational numbers

1.) 𝑠 → 𝑓 1.) If 8 is a whole number then, 8 is

an element rational numbers

2.) CONVERSE 2.) If 8 is an element rational

numbers then 8 is a whole number

3.) CONTRAPOSITIVE 3.) If 8 is not an element rational

numbers then 8 is not a whole

number

4.) INVERSE 4.) If 8 is not a whole number then,

8 is not an element rational numbers

Finding the Truth Value of a Compound

Statement

are called propositional logic or compound/ conjoined

propositions. The truth value of such a new statement

is then completely determined by the truth values of

the given statements. The truth value, together with

the connective used will be the basis to determine the

truth value of the compound statement.

Examples:

p : 2 is a rational number.

q : 2 can be written as a fraction.

connectives, we can make a new proposition and

determine its truth value.

Examples:

p : 2 is a rational number.

q : 2 can be written as a fraction.

∼T=F

b. 2 is a rational number and can be written as a

fraction.

T∧T=T

Examples:

p : 2 is a rational number.

q : 2 can be written as a fraction.

fraction.

F∧T=F

d. 2 is a rational number or 2 can be written as a

fraction.

T∨T=T

Examples:

p : 2 is a rational number.

q : 2 can be written as a fraction.

a fraction.

T∨F=T

f. 2 is not a rational number or 2 can not be written

as a fraction.

F∨F=F

Examples:

p : 2 is a rational number.

q : 2 can be written as a fraction.

written as a fraction.

T→T=T

h. 2 can not be written as a fraction if 2 is a rational

number.

T→F=F

Examples:

p : 2 is a rational number.

q : 2 can be written as a fraction.

not a rational number.

F→F=T

j. 2 is a rational number if and only if 2 can be

written as a fraction.

T ↔ T=T

Examples:

p : 2 is a rational number.

q : 2 can be written as a fraction.

rational number and 2 is not a rational number if 2

can not be written as a fraction.

F ↔ F=T

Examples:

p : 2 is a rational number.

q : 2 can be written as a fraction.

r : 2 is a prime number.

a. 2 can be written as a fraction implies that 2 is not

a prime number.

q→~r

T→F=F

Examples:

p : 2 is a rational number.

q : 2 can be written as a fraction.

r : 2 is a prime number.

written as a fraction and 2 is a not prime number.

p∨(q∧~r)

T∨(T∧~T)

T∨(T∧F)

T∨F=T

Examples:

p : 2 is a rational number.

q : 2 can be written as a fraction.

r : 2 is a prime number.

be written as fraction or 2 is not a prime number.

~p∧(~q∨~r)

~T∧(~T∨~T)

F∧(F∨F)

F∧F=F

SEAT WORK

Write in symbols and determine its truth value.

a : All whole numbers are rational.

b : All fractions are integers.

c : All real numbers are integers.

1. All whole numbers are rational if all real numbers are

integers.

2. If all fractions are not integers, then all whole numbers

are rational.

3. Either all fractions are integers and all whole numbers are

not rational or all real numbers are not integers.

TRUTH TABLES

A logical statement may either be true

or false. If the statement is true, then the

truth value of that statement is true and

is denoted by T. If it is false, then its

truth value is false and is denoted by F.

𝑝

A. Assertion

T

F

B. Negation

𝑝 ∼𝑝

T F

F T

C. Conjunction

𝑝 𝑞 𝒑∧𝒒

T T T

T F F

F T F

F F F

D. Disjunction

𝑝 𝑞 𝒑∨𝒒

T T T

T F T

F T T

F F F

E. Implication (Conditional)

𝑝 𝑞 𝒑→𝒒

T T T

T F F

F T T

F F T

F. Bi-conditional

𝑝 𝑞 𝒑↔𝒒

T T T

T F F

F T F

F F T

Examples:

What are the truth values of the following

statements if 𝒑 is false and 𝒒 is true?

1. 𝒑 ∧∼ 𝒒 2. ∼ 𝒑 ∨ ∼ 𝒒

F ∧ F T∨F

F T

3. ~ 𝒑 ⟶ ~𝒒 4. ∼ 𝒒 ∨ ∼ 𝒑

~(F ⟶ F) F∨T

~(T) T

F

Example:

statement 𝒑 ∧∼ 𝒒.

𝑝 𝑞 ∼𝒒 𝒑 ∧∼ 𝒒

T T F F

T F T T

F T F F

F F T F

Example:

3. Construct the truth table for the

compound statement ( 𝒑 → 𝒒) ↔ (∼ 𝒒 ∨∼ 𝑝).

𝑝 𝑞 ∼𝑝 ∼𝑞𝑝→𝑞 ∼ 𝑞 ∨∼ 𝑝 ( 𝒑 → 𝒒) ↔ (∼ 𝒒 ∨∼ 𝑝)

T T F F T F F

T F F T F T F

F T T F T T T

F F T T T T T

4. Construct the truth table for the

compound statement 𝒑 ∧ 𝒒 ↔ 𝒓.

a.

Tautology – a tautology is a proposition

that is always true.

Example: 𝑝 ∨ ~𝑝

p ∼p 𝑝 ∨ ~𝑝

T F T

F T T

b.Contradiction – a proposition that is

always false.

Example: p ∧ ~p

p ∼p 𝑝 ∧ ~𝑝

T F F

F T F

LOGICAL EQUIVALENCE

c. Equivalent Propositions

Two mathematical statements are logically

equivalent if the final output of their truth

tables are exactly alike.

Notation:

𝒑 ⟺ 𝒒 or 𝒑 ≡ 𝒒

(𝒑 and 𝒒 are logically equivalent)

(𝒑 is logically equivalent to 𝒒)

Example:

1. Show that ~(𝑝 ∨ 𝑞) ⟺ ~𝑝 ∧ ~𝑞.

𝒑 𝒒 ~𝒑 ~𝒒 𝒑∨𝒒 ~(𝒑 ∨ 𝒒) ~𝒑 ∧ ~𝒒

T T F F T F F

T F F T T F F

F T T F T F F

F F T T F T T

Since~(𝒑 ∨ 𝒒) and ~𝒑 ∧ ~𝒒 have the same

truth tables, then they are logically

equivalent.

∴ ~(𝑝 ∨ 𝑞) ⟺ ~𝑝 ∧ ~𝑞

2. Show that 𝒑 ⟶ 𝒒 𝒂𝒏𝒅 ~𝒑 ∨ 𝒒 are logically

equivalent.

𝒑 𝒒 ~𝒑 𝑝 ⟶ 𝑞 ~𝑝 ∨ 𝑞

T T F T T

T F F F F

F T T T T

F F T T T

∴ 𝒑 ⟶ 𝒒 ⟺ ~𝒑 ∨ 𝒒.

end

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