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FUNGAL FLORA in the

PHILIPPINES:
VALUES AND CONSERVATION
Anjela J. Lagera
• Biodiversity – refers to the number of species
within an area or the world as a whole, the
genetic variability within an individual
species, or the number of different habitats
that occur within an ecosystem or landscape.
• Conservation – the protection of plants,
animals, and natural areas especially
from the damaging effects of human
activity.
• FUNGI

• Hidden lifestyle and


challenging diversity
• Historical
classification as an
odd division of
Plantae
• Harmful due to
pathogenic nature
of few species
Fungal conservation is important in its
own right and stress that consideration
of the fungal component of
biodiversity can benefit conservation
in general.
Connection between fungi and
Humanity

1. Fungi have bee used as


a source of food and
medicine

2. Featured in religious
ceremonies – statues
and images of fungi are
evident in relicts of
ancient civilizations
Conservation initiatives have evolved since
the late 20th century from an initial focus
on protection of pristine areas and
particular species of animals and plants to
a more holistic ecosystem.
• According to the paper “Hope For
Threatened Tropical Biodiversity: Lessons
from the Philippines,” the country has
made great strides in conservation in the
last few decades with the
implementation of laws, creation of
protected areas, and conservation
programs for endangered species
• Executive Order No. 247

–Empowers the State to regulate the


prospecting of biological and genetic
resources so that they are protected
and conserved, and developed and put
to sustainable uses and benefit of the
national interest.
• National Integrated Protected Areas
System (NIPAS) Act

–Partnership of the government, local


communities, and NGOs to provide
safety mechanisms to cushion the
country from ecological imbalances.
• Philippine Strategy for Biological
Diversity Conservation (PSBDC)

– intended to address issues/concerns


on biodiversity policy, sustainable use,
sustainable agriculture, biotechnology
and property rights, biodiversity
inventory and research, public
education and awareness.
1. Convention on Biological Diversity
- Assess the status of biodiversity and formulate
strategies and action plan relative to biodiversity
conservation

2. Convention on International Trade of


Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
(CITES)
- Protect endangered species against over-
exploitation resulting from unregulated trade and
to promote their aesthetic, scientific, cultural,
recreational and economic values.
3. International Union for the
Conservation of Nature and Natural
Resources (IUCN)

- Established areas of concern in protection,


management and conservation of
protected areas.
Fungi Services for Other Organisms

1. Decomposers
2. Fungi are involved in
diverse mutualistic
associations.
3. Food source
4. Formation of
microhabitats
Fungi as Indicators of Ecosystem
Processes

1. A proxy measure of air quality in both urban


and natural areas.

2. Warning of changing ecosystem processes


Fungi as Indicators in Conservation
Planning

1. Selecting conservation areas

2. Identification and Conservation value of key


forests habitats
We hope the conservation community will
welcome these initiatives, collaborate
with mycologists, and come to appreciate
fungi as a crucial part of nature that
needs to be taken into account in efforts
to conserve biodiversity on Earth.
“The value of
biodiversity is
that it makes our
ecosystems
more resilient,
which is a
prerequisite for
stable societies.”
References
• Heilmann-Clausen, J., Barron, E. S., Boddy, L., Dahlberg, A., Griffith,
G. W., Nordén, J., . . . Halme, P. (2014). A fungal perspective on
conservation biology. Conservation Biology, 29(1), 61-68.
doi:10.1111/cobi.12388

• Bussan, S. (2013). Comparison of Biodiversity Conservation in


Cameroon and the Philippines.

• Posa, Deismos, Navjot (2013). Hope for Threatened Tropical


Biodiversity: Lessons from the Philippines. BioScience, 58(3)

• Leipzig (1996). Philippines: Country report to the FAO International


Technical Conference on Plant Genetic Resources. Department of
Agriculture of the Philippines.