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# CHAPTER 1

## 1.2 The Mole

Concept
1
LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the lesson, students should be able
to:
a) Define mole in terms of mass of carbon-12

## b) Interconvert between moles, mass, number

of particles, molar volume of gas at s.t.p.
and room temperature.

## c) Define the term empirical and molecular

formulae.

2
LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the lesson, students should be able
to:
d) Determine empirical and molecular
formulae from mass composition or
combustion data.

## e) Define and perform calculation for each of

the following concentration measurements :
i. Molarity (M)
ii. Molality (m)
iii. Mole fraction, X
iv. Percentage by mass, % w/w
v. Percentage by volume, % v/v 3
Introduction
Mole
The mole is a unit of measurement for
the amount of substance or chemical
amount.
Defined as the amount of substance
that contains as many elementary
entities (atoms, molecules, ions,
electrons etc.) as there are atoms in
12g of the isotope carbon-12.
4
The Mole Concept

##  One mole of carbon-12 atom has a

mass of exactly 12.000 grams and
contains 6.02 x 1023 atoms.

##  The number of entities / particles in one

mole of substance is called the
NA = 6.02 x 1023 mol-1
5
The Mole Concept
Mole and The Number of
Particles

## One mole of any element contains 6.02 x

1023 particles of that element.

## 1 mole of an element = 6.02 x 1023

atoms
= 6.02 x 1023 molecules
= 6.02 x 1023 ions

6
The Mole Concept
Mole and The Number of
Particles

## Number of mole = No. of

particles
NA

= No. of particles
6.02 x 1023
7
The Mole Concept
Mole and The Mass of Substances

## The mass of one mole of an any

substance is referred to as the
molar mass.
Unit : gmol-1

## The molar mass of any substance is

numerically equal to its relative mass
;
relative atomic mass, 8

## relative molecular mass or

The Mole Concept
Mole and The Mass of Substances

Example :

## Therefore mass of 1 mol of Mg =

24 g
So… the molar mass of Mg = 24
gmol-1

2. Given : Ar C = 12 ; H = 1
9
Mr CH4 = 12 + 4(1) = 16
The Mole Concept
Mole and The Mass of Substances

Molar Mass

## = The mass of 1 mole of the

substance
= The mass of 6.02 x 1023
particles
= RAM or RMM

10
The Mole Concept
Mole and The Mass of Substances

(g)
molar mass
(gmol-1)

11
The Mole Concept
Test yourself… 1

Determine :

## i. The number of mole.

ii. Number of molecules
iii. Number of atoms : in 14g of
N2 gas.

## Ans i. 0.5 mol

ii. 3.011 x 1023
12
iii. 6.022 x 1023 atoms
The Mole Concept
Test yourself… 2

## (a) Calculate the molar mass of a

compound if 0.372 mole of it has a
mass of 152 g.

## (b) How many molecules of ethane, C2H6

are present in 0.334 g of C2H6?

## (c) Calculate the number of C, H and O

atoms in 1.50 g of glucose, C6H12O6.
13
The Mole Concept
Mole and The Volume of Gas

## The volume occupied by one mole of

any gas is defined as the molar
volume of the gas.

## Take note that :

1 mole of any gas has the same
volume under the same temperature
and pressure.
14
The Mole Concept
Mole and The Volume of Gas

dm3 mol-1

## STP = Standard Temperature and

Pressure

Where,
T = 273.15 K or 0 ˚C
P = 1 atm 15
The Mole Concept
Mole and The Volume of Gas

dm3 mol-1

## RTP = Room Temperature and Pressure

Where,
T = 298.15 K @ 25 ˚C
P = 1 atm
16
The Mole Concept
Mole and The Volume of Gas

## Number of mole = Volume of gas (dm3)

Molar Volume of gas
(dm3mol-1)
22.4 dm3 mol-1 at s.t.p
or
24.0 dm3 mol-1 at r.t.p

## Note: 1 dm3 = 1000 cm3

17
1 dm3 = 1 L
The Mole Concept
Mole and The Volume of Gas

Try this : 1
A sample of CO2 has a volume of 56 cm3
at STP. Calculate:
i. The number of moles of gas
molecules.
ii. The number of molecule.
iii. The number of oxygen atoms in the
sample.

## Ans: i. 0.0025 mol

ii. 1.506 x 1021 molecules 18
iii. 3.011x1021 atoms
The Mole Concept
Mole and The Volume of Gas

Try this : 2
Gas X occupies 345.1 cm3 at s.t.p.
Calculate the number of gas molecules
in the sample of X.

19

## Ans : 9.27 x 1021

Empirical Formulae
and
Molecular
Definition :
Formulae
Empirical formula is a chemical formula
that shows the simplest ratio of atoms of
the elements present in a compound.
Molecular formula is a chemical formula
that shows the actual number of atoms
of each element in a molecule.

20
Empirical Formulae
and
Molecular Formulae
The relationship between empirical
formula and molecular formula is :
Molecular formula = (Empirical
formula)n
whereby n is a positive integer
To determine the value of n :
n = Molar mass
Mass of empirical
formula 21
Empirical Formulae
and
Molecular Formulae
Empirical Molecular
Molecules n
Formula Formula
(H2O)1
Water H2O 1
= H2 O
Hydrogen (HO)2
HO 2
peroxide = H2O2
(CH)6
Benzene CH 6
=C6H6
(CH2)2
Ethene CH2 2
= C2H4
22
Empirical Formulae
and
Molecular Formulae
How to determine the empirical
formula?
1. By using the masses of compounds

of a compound

## 3. By using the combustion data

( elemental analysis data )
23
Empirical Formulae
and
Molecular
Example 1: Formulae
18.3 g sample of hydrated compound
contained 4.0 g of calcium, 7.1 g of
chlorine and 7.2 g of water only.
Calculate its empirical formula.

24
Empirical Formulae
and
Molecular
Example 1 : Formulae
Solution
Element Ca Cl H2O
Mass (g) 4.0 7.1 7.2
Number of _4.0_ _7.1_ _7.2_
moles 40.08 35.45 18.02
= = =
0.0998 0.2003 0.3996
Simplest 0.0998 0.2003 0.3996
ratio of 0.0998 0.0998
0.0998
moles =2 =4
=1
Empirical
formula CaCl2.4H2O 25
Empirical Formulae
and
Molecular
Example 2: Formulae
A sample of hydrocarbon contains 85.7%
carbon and 14.3% hydrogen by mass. Its
molar mass is 56. Determine the empirical
formula and molecular formula of the
compound.

26
Empirical Formulae
and
Molecular
Element Formulae
C H
Mass (g)
85.7 14.3
Number of
moles
85.7 14.3
12.01 1.01
= =
Simplest ratio
of moles
7.136 14.158
7.136 7.136
Empirical =1 = 1.98 ≈
formula 2
CH2 27
Empirical Formulae
and
Molecular
n= Formulae
Molar mass
Mass of empirical
formula
n = 56
[12.01 +
2(1.01)]
= 3.99 ≈ 4
Therefore:
Molecular formula = (CH2)4 28
Empirical Formulae
and
Molecular Formulae
Calculation Using the combustion data
@ elemental analysis data

## Combustion of hydrocarbons, CxHy in

excess oxygen will produce carbon
dioxide and water.
Combustion of organic compound, CxHy
Oz
in excess oxygen will also produce
carbon dioxide and water. 29
Empirical Formulae
and
Molecular
Example : Formulae
1.00 g sample of organic compound A was
burnt in excess of oxygen. The combustion
produced 2.52 g of CO2 and 0.443 g of H2O.
Determine the empirical formula of the
compound A.

30
Empirical Formulae
and
Molecular Formulae
Step 1 : Calculate the mass of
carbon
Mass of CO2 = 2.52 g

## Mass of C in CO2 = 2.52 x 12.01

44.01
= 0.6877 g

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Empirical Formulae
and
Molecular Formulae
Step 2 : Calculate the mass of
Hydrogen
Mass of H2O = 0.443 g

## Mass of H in H2O = 0.443 x 2(1.01)

18.02
= 0.0497 g

32
Empirical Formulae
and
Molecular Formulae
Step 3 : Calculate the mass of Oxygen

Mass of C = 0.6877 g
Mass of H = 0.0497 g

## Hence, mass of O = 1.00 – (0.6877 + 0.0497)

= 0.2626 g

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Element C H O
Mass (%) 0.6877 0.0497 0.2626
Number of 0.6877 0.0497 0.2626
moles 12.01 1.01 16.00
= = =
Simplest 0.0573 0.0492 0.0164
ratio of 0.0573 0.0492 0.0164
moles 0.0164 0.0164 0.0164
= 3.5 =3 =1

## Empirical 3.5 x 2 3x2 1x2

formula =7 C7=H66 O2 =2

34
Empirical Formulae
and
Molecular
Try this 1: Formulae
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) cures scurvy and
may help to prevent the common cold. It is
composed of 40.92% carbon, 4.58%
hydrogen and 54.50% oxygen by mass. The
molar mass of ascorbic acid is 176 g mol-1.
Determine the empirical formula and
molecular formula.

35
Empirical Formulae
and
Molecular
Try this 2: Formulae
A combustion of 0.202 g of an organic
sample that contains carbon, hydrogen and
oxygen produce 0.361g carbon dioxide and
0.147 g water. If the relative molecular
mass of the sample is 148, what is the
molecular formula.

Ans: 36

## Molecular formula = C6H12O4

Empirical Formulae
and
Molecular
Try this 3: Formulae
A complete combustion of a hydrocarbon
compound yields 2.64 g of carbon dioxide
and 0.540 g of water. What is the empirical
formula of the hydrocarbon?

## If the relative molecular mass of the

hydrocarbon is 78, what is the molecular
formula?
Ans:
Empirical formula = CH 37