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COMPUTER SIMULATION OF

CONCRETE STRUCTURES

Vladimir Cervenka
Prague

CERVENKA CONSULTING
PRAGUE, CZECH REPUBLIC COMPUTER SIMULATION WITH ATENA 2011
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MOTIVATION: Design and development

Y
Y Z

Z X X

CERVENKA CONSULTING
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Bridge design

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MOTIVATION: New design methods
fib New Model Code 2010

LINEAR NON-LINEAR

structural analysis: linear non-linear

material models: not realistic realistic

safety assessment: local sections global response


non-linear material

concept: not consistent consistent

End of motivation

CERVENKA CONSULTING
PRAGUE, CZECH REPUBLIC COMPUTER SIMULATION WITH ATENA 2011
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in Prague, Czech Republic

Scope of activities:

Numerical analysis of concrete structures


simulation, virtual testing

Software ATENA, development, sales, support


Consulting
Research, EU, GACR, Custom

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CONTENTS
Motivation
Non-linear analysis, ATENA program
Safety formats
Validation
Examples of application

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ATENA Solution Methods

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ATENA Non-linear Models
Concrete material:
Fracture mechanics for cracking
Plasticity for crushing and confinement
Steel, reinforcement
Objectivity
Soil- crack width, brittle failure
Interfaces
independent of mesh size
Bond between reinforcement and concrete

Large
Size effect strains
- due to dissipated energy

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Tension stiffening effect

by Hartl 1977

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Crack width
Braam 1990

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ATENA plasticity model

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Confinement effect in concrete under compression

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Column under axial and lateral loading

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Column under axial and lateral loading

H
N

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300

250

Biegekraft [kN] 200

H kN 150

100

Versuch S5
50
ATENA S5

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Durchbiegung [mm]
Deflection

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End of constitutive laws

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ATENA software

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Scope of ATENA version 4
Atena Engineering 2D, 3D GUE
Pre-processor: geometrical modeling, meshing
Run: Solution control, monitoring
Post-processing, 3D cracks, crack width, iso-areas, tensors, vectors, activity, sections
Elements:
Brick, tetrahedral and wedge elements linear and high order
Shell high order elements
Combination of shell and solid elements
Beam-column high order elements
Adaptivity: combination of solid, shell and beam elements
Generalized boundary conditions: master – slave technique
Equation solvers: direct and iterative
Construction process
64 bit processing
Atena Science + GID
Creep visco-elastic, plastic, fracture
Heat and humidity, non-stationary transport
Coupled thermal-fracture-plastic stress analysis
Sandwich structures, fasade structures
Fire exposure. Fire simulation

Probabilistic analysis SARA


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ATENA Egr 2D user interface

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ATENA Egr 3D analysis and processing Pre-processing
FE Solution
Post-processing

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ATENA Science

Advanced features:
mechanics of reinforced concrete
transport of heat and moisture
fire
dynamics

GiD pre- and postprocessing

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GiD pre- and postprocessing: anchorage

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GiD pre- and postprocessing: anchorage

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GiD pre- and postprocessing: anchorage

2000

1500
Force [kN]

1000

500 Concrete block 360 mm

Concrete block 290 mm

0
0 1 2 3

Displacement [mm]

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3D elements of reinforced concrete

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High order solid elements

linear quadratic

brick
tetrahedron
wedge

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High order shell element

nodal points with


3 displacement DOFs

layered integration
points

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High order beam element

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ADAPTIVITY
Combination of solid and shell elements

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Bridge Modelling – solid elements

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Bridge Modelling – Box Girder with Shell Elements

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VALIDATION - EXAMPLES
Predictions
Shear tests
Safety formats
Anchor plate
NPP containment
Frame corner
Slabs, temperature actions
(more examples)

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Round Robin Prediction, ETH, Marti 2005
Shear strength of slabs with inclined reinforcement

ATENA predictions

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LARGE LIGHTLY REIFORCED BEAM

Experiments by Collins, Yoshida, University of Toronto 2000

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FE model YB2000/4
YB2000/0

Compressive strength fc = 37
MPa
Steel yield stress fy = 470 MPa

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Failure animation:

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Crack pattern at failure

Experiment

Analysis

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Mesh size effect with parameter set A

600

500

400
Load [kN]

300

200 Experiment Y0
M 200
100 M 100
M 50
0
0 2 4 6 8 10
Displacement [mm]

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Parameter identification:
Neural network + random sampling
Y0
700

600

500
Load [kN]

400

300
experiment
200 identification

100

0
0 2 4 6 8 10
Displacement [mm]

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Probabilistic analysis – random sampling LHS

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Safety formats: Partial safety factors
Without shear reinforcement Global safety
Full probabilistic
YB2000/0

0.006

0.005

0.004
PDF (P)

0.003

0.002
safety
0.001

0
0 200 400 600 800

P[kN]

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Safety formats: Partial safety factors
With light shear reinforcement Global safety
Full probabilistic

YB2000/4

0.003

0.0025

0.002
PDF (P)

0.0015

0.001

0.0005

0
0 500 1000 1500 2000
P[kN] End validation

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PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS

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Anchor plate in concrete under shear loading loading

Horizontal force at 0,0889m


above concrete surface

Plate 0.2032x0.2032x0.0127m

Stud 0.0127m

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Simulation of failure – anchor plastic

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Simulation of failure – anchor plastic

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Simulation of failure – anchor elastic

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Simulation of failure – anchor elastic

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plastic strain

plastic strain

stress confinement
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300

250

200
Load H [MPa]

Anchor elastic
150
Anchor plastic

100

50

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Displacem ent [m m ]

End anchor plate

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Pre-stressed nuclear power plant
containment vessel

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Olkiluoto Construction, May 2008

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Finite Element Model

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Steel liner
3D shell elements 3D brick elements 2D membrane
elements

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3D shell element geometry

layers

reinforcement

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Prestressing tendons

vertical horizontal
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How reinforcement 1D elements
connect to 3D elements

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Tendon prestressing
including losses

Tendon 106

1600

1400

1200
Prestressing [MPa]

1000

800

600

400

200

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Distance along Cable [m]

initial applied

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Simulation of Accident

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Simulation of Accident

2.0
1.8
1.6

Internal Pressure [MPa]


1.4
1.2 Safety factor 3.5
1.0
0.8
0.6
Radial displ @ z=23 m
0.4
0.2 Radial displ @ z=10 m
0.0
-100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Radial Displacement [mm]
Accident load

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Liner Anchoring

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Steel
liner
anchoring

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initial
imperfection
Liner buckling

studs L-anchors

deflection

End Olkiluoto
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Berounka Bridge in Prague

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Design – full scale model: foundation, pier, box girder

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Design – construction sequence
segments prestressing cables

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loading

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Results – crack widths

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Results – compressive failure

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Old masonry bridge München Köglweg

-1.560E-01

-1.560E-01

-1.560E-01

-1.560E-01

-1.560E-01
-1.560E-01

-1.560E-01

-8.000E-02
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Symmetrical load

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Symmetrical load

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Symmetrical load

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Symmetrical load

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Unsymmetrical load

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Unsymmetrical load

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Unsymmetrical load

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west portals, spring 2007

New Connection in Prague – junction of three


main railway corridors in Czech Republic

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west portals, 2008

New Connection in Prague – junction of three


main railway corridors in Czech Republic

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east portals, spring 2007

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Step 26, NSf-UZL - nevyztuzene osteni 300, MSP, zima, liniove pruzne ulozeni
Cracks: in elements, openning: <-1.544E-04;1.592E-03>[m], Sigma_n: <-1.237E+00;9.998E-01>[MPa], Sigma_T : <1.017E-16;5.182E

-02
-4.766E-02
-4.427E
Results from NLA

-4.236E
-02

-8.330E-03
normal forces -6

5.
.7

32
49

4
-6

E-
.69 E-
bending moments 02

03
7E
-0 03
2
6 E-
0
.0
-1

unreinforced

ultimate limit state -2.763E-02


-2.745E-02

dead load
1.7

-5.099E-04

-5.037E-04
1.252E-04
1.081E-04

-03
5

6E
2E

7
-02

8.0
creep -01
8.5
1-61E
.2-40
. 258E 83E
- 1 -01
shrinkage

1.784E-02
temperature in winter

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Step 26, NSf-UZL - nevyztuzene osteni 300, MSU, zima, liniove pruzne ulozeni
Scalars:iso-areas, Basic material, in nodes, Principal Stress, Max., <-5.027E-01;9.964E-01>[MPa]

-5.027E-01

Results from NLA -4.500E-01


-3.000E-01
-1.500E-01
0.000E+00
1.500E-01
Tensile stress 3.000E-01
4.500E-01
6.000E-01
7.500E-01
9.000E-01
9.964E-01

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StepStep
26, NSf-UZL - nevyztuzene
26, NSf-UZL osteni
- nevyztuzene osteni300, MSP,
300, MSP,zima, liniove
zima, liniovepruzne
pruzneulozeni
ulozeni
Cracks: in elements,
Cracks: openning:
in elements, <-1.544E-04;1.592E-03>[m],
<2.000E-04; Sigma_n: <-1.237E+00;9.998E-01>[MPa],
...), openning: <-1.544E-04;1.592E-03>[m], Sigma_T : <1.017E-16;5.182E-01
Sigma_n: <-1.237E+00;9.998E-01>[MPa], Sigma_T : <1.017E-
Results from NLA

Crack width

4
4.493E-0
4
3E-0
9.772E-04 7.42
3
1.269E-0
1.592E-03

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Non-linear FEA can be used in design for:
Optimizing reinforcement detailing
Checking serviceabiliy and load-bearing capacity
Safety assessment

THANK YOU !

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CERVENKA CONSULTING
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ATENA Current Development

Elements: Beam 3D element

Materials: Fatique, Corrosion

Mechanics: Dynamic loading

3D GUE: Integration of new features,


Parametric input tools

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ATENA development:
Compact 3D user environment
Shells, beams – layered
Fire exposure, fatigue
Temperature and humidity transport
Timber
Probabilistic analysis
Dynamics, impact

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ATENA Applications
Frame corner

Brixen University
Design: K.Bergmeister

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2D MODEL

cracks

compressive
stresses

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3D MODEL

deformation

cracks

compressive stress
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2D 3D

cracks

compressive
stresses

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Comparison of 2D and 3D models

120

3D ductile
100

2D ductile
Loading [kN/m]

80 3D brittle

60

2D brittle
40

Live Load
20
Dead Load
0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Deflection at midspan [mm]

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RC structure without thermal expansion joints

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permanent load

permanent load+temperature+live load


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Bar reinforcement

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deflection

crack width

End Brixen

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Prestressing anchor test

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Prestressing anchor test

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Prestressing anchor test

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Prestressing anchor test

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Casting

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Prestressing anchor test

10

prediction test
8
Load [MN]

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Displacement [mm]

End Anchor PC

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Nusle Bridge in
finite Prague
element
ATENA Applications
model
concrete elements

cable elements

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Animation of crack propagation

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Construction Process

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Non-linear FEA can be used in design for:
Optimizing reinforcement detailing
Checking serviceabiliy and load-bearing capacity
Safety assessment

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ATENA Current Development

Elements: Beam 3D element

Materials: Fatique, Corrosion

Mechanics: Dynamic loading

3D GUE: Integration of new features,


Parametric input tools

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ATENA development:
Compact 3D user environment
Shells, beams – layered
Fire exposure, fatigue
Temperature and humidity transport
Timber
Probabilistic analysis
Dynamics, impact

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Bhahba Atomic Research Center - INDIA
Prediction Competition – pressure experiment, 1:4 model

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Comparison of 2D and 3D results

0.6

0.5
Internal Pressure [MPa]

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1 Axi-symmetric
3D
0
-0.005 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04
Radial Displacement [m]

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Axi-symmetric Analysis

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3D Analysis

End BARC

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