Methods of Research

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Methods of Research

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research??

Research

…to search again

… to take another more careful look

… to find out more

guided by theory and hypothesis about a

resumed relation among such phenomena.

Research

investigation of certain phenomena which

involves accurate gathering, recording and

critical analyzing and interpreting of all facts

about the phenomena.

…is the process of gathering data or information

to solve a particular or specific problem in a

scientific manner.

Major Types of Research

conducted for the sake of knowing. Its main

objective is to test or arrive at a theory with the

ultimate goal of establishing general principle.

Major Types of Research

obtain knowledge for useful ends. In this kind of

research, the intention is not just to obtain

knowledge but also to use that knowledge to

solve certain difficulties or discomfort, or to

improve the prevailing conditions which in its

present state may be satisfactory but which has

still room or possibility for improvements.

Why do we conduct research??

Purposes of Research

and improvement of the quality of human life; and to

serve man for good life.

Purposes of Research

2. To find answers to problems which are only partially

solved by existing methods and information.

3. Improve existing techniques and develop new

instruments or products.

4. To order related, valid generalizations into

systematized science.

5. To improve educational practices or raising the

quality of school products.

Purposes of Research

industry, education, government or in other

undertakings.

7. To satisfy the researcher’s curiosity.

8. To find answers to queries by means of specific

method.

9. To acquire a better and deeper understanding about

one phenomenon that can be known and understood

better by research.

How does one know that a

problem is researchable?

When…

1. There is no answer or solution to it, such as a

gap in knowledge exist (when there is an

absence of information resulting in a gap of

knowledge).

2. There are possible solutions, the effectivity of

which is untested or unknown yet.

3. The existence of a phenomenon requires

explanation.

How does one know that a

problem is researchable?

When…

4. There are answers or solutions the possible result

of which may seem or maybe factually

contradictory. (When there are contradictory

results).

5. There are several possible and plausible

explanations for the undesirable conditions

(when fact exists and you intend to make your

study explain it).

Criteria of a Good Research Problem

researcher.

2. The problem should be relevant and useful to a

specific group of people.

3. A good problem is novel in that it possesses the

element of newness. (There is no such thing as

new topic in research).

4. A problem should be well defined or specified.

Criteria of a Good Research Problem

6. A problem is time bound.

7. A problem should contribute to the refinement of

certain important concepts, creation or

improvement of research instruments and

analytical system and will permit generalization.

8. A problem is good and researchable on the basis

of the investigator’s capability to meet what it

requires, expertise, manpower, money and time.

Elements of a Good Research Problem

This answers the problems “why?”… Why is

there an investigation, inquiry or study?

2. The subject matter or topic to be investigated.

This answers the question ”what”? What is to

be investigated?

3. The place or locale where the research is to be

conducted. This answers the question

“where”? Where is the study to be

conducted?

Elements of a Good Research Problem

the data are to be gathered. This answers the

question “when”?

5. Population or universe from which the data are

to be collected. This answers the question

“who”? or from “whom”? From whom are the

data to be collected?

Elements of a Good Research Problem

Guidelines in Writing the Title

the research work. It maybe revised and refined

later if there is a need.

2. The title must contain the main subject matter of the

study, or the main variables.

3. It must be broad enough to include all aspects of the

subject matter studied or to be studied. Hence, the

title indicates what is expected to be found inside the

thesis report.

Guidelines in Writing the Title

5. Avoid using the terms “An Analysis of”. “A Study of”,

“An Investigation of” and the like. All these things

are understood to have been done or to be done

when a research is conducted.

6. If the title contains more than one line, it must

be written like an inverted pyramid, all words in

capital letters.

Example:

OF CAMARINES SUR AS PERCEIVED BY THE MATH

TEACHERS AND STUDENTS SY 2014-2015

Locale of the Study : HS of Camarines Sur

Population : Science Teachers and Students

Period of Study : SY 2014-2015

Chapter I – The Problem

1.Introduction

2.Statement of the Problem

3.Assumption

4.Hypothesis

5.Significance of the Study

6.Scope and Delimitation

7.Definition of Terms

8.Notes

The Introduction

arouse the interest of the reader and convince

them that the research paper is worth reading.

A poor introduction will result in the paper or

research not being read by the intended clients.

Guidelines in Writing the Introduction

minds of the reader. What is the study about?

What need is being responded to by the study?

Who benefits from the study? These three

questions must be answered in the first

paragraph of the introduction.

2. Cite some relevant past attempts on the same

study and quote from the authors to establish

the need for the study in the second to the

third paragraph of your introduction.

Guidelines in Writing the Introduction

that will accrue on the discipline if the study is

not conducted. What will happen if the study

is not done?

5. In the final paragraph, repeat exactly what

your main objective is in conducting the study.

The Statement of the Problem

the general or main and specific or sub-

problems.

The main problem is a declaration of the title of

the study.

The specific problems or sub-problems are the

details or areas to be covered to describe the

whole thesis or main problem.

If the research problem is the Teaching of Mathematics, the

different aspects maybe the following:

a) qualification of teachers

c) facilities available

f) problems encountered

problem and then this should be broken

down into as many sub-problems or specific

questions as necessary.

Consider the example below:

teaching of Mathematics in the high school of Camarines Sur,

during the SY 2014-2015 as perceived by the teachers and

students. Specifically, answers the following questions will be

pursued:

subjects in the schools in Camarines Sur?

teachers in teaching Mathematics?

3. How adequate are the instructional as well as non-

instructional facilities for the teaching of Mathematics?

extended to the teachers relative to the teaching of

Mathematics.

perceptions of the teachers and those of the students

concerning the different aspects in the teaching of

Mathematics?

Mathematics?

Assumption

…is self- evident truth which is based upon a known fact

or phenomena.

…is any important fact presumed to be true but not

actually verified ( Gay,1996 ).

…are statements of facts related to the research

problem which are presumed to be true on the basis of

observations and experience although not actually

verified.

…are stated so as to provide foundation from which the

study will proceed, and an additional basis for validation

of variables of interest to the study.

… do not require testing nor confirmation

Example 1

Specific Problem:

How qualified are the teachers handling science?

There are certain qualifications that one should possess before

he can teach science.

Example 2

Specific Problem:

How adequate are the facilities that a school should acquire

before it can offer science as a subject?

Implicit Assumption:

There are certain required facilities that a school should acquire

before it can offer science as a subject.

HYPOTHESIS

…is an educated or intelligent guess or prediction

about the existence, attribute or relationship between

or among variables covered by the study.

Types of Hypothesis

The null hypothesis is a denial of an existence, an

attribute, a relationship, a difference or an effect. As

such, it is stated in the negative form of a statement.

The alternative hypothesis states the very opposite of

what the null hypothesis predicts.

Uses of Hypothesis

being considered.

various tests to be considered.

Example

effectiveness method and that of the deductive

method in the teaching of science?

There is a significant difference between the effectiveness

of the inductive method and all of the deductive methods

in the teaching of science.

Null Hypothesis:

There is no significant difference between the

effectiveness of the inductive method and that of the

deductive method in the teaching of science.

Significance of the Study

study. It is where the significant contributions of the results of the

study are enumerated. Such contributions may be viewed from

the point of the target beneficiaries like the researcher himself,

service provider, client, society, administrators, planners, decision-

makers, implementers, the community, the educational institutions,

legislatures, and practitioners.

It may also be viewed on their contributions to the accumulation of

knowledge, solving a problem which improves certain of refinement

of concepts and theories, improvement of research instruments and

methods and meeting the priorities of institutions.

Guidelines in Writing Significance

of the Study

1. The rationale, timeless and or relevance of the study to existing

conditions must be explained or discussed.

2. Possible solutions to existing problems or improvements to

unsatisfactory conditions.

3. It must be shown who are the individuals, groups, or communities

who may be placed in a more advantageous position on account

of the study.

4. Possible contribution to be a fount of knowledge.

5. It should discuss the implications, including the possible causes of

the problems discovered, the positive effects of the problems, and

the remedial measures to solve the problems.

6. Implications must include the good points of a system, which ought

to be continued or to be improved.

The use of the following phrases could help express the

importance of the study:

The useful and relevant information acquired from the

study will encourage them to continue ….

This study will encourage them to ….

This study will enhance involvement in the ….

Results could help benefit ….

It will also serve as basis in the study of ….

This study will also afford the management to know …

Similar organizations will benefit from the study in ….

Researchers may find the findings useful as ….

This study can help boost the ….

The findings may also serve as a guide to ….

The results hopefully, will be of value to ….

Through this study, students, will become aware of ….

This could motivate and challenge the ….

The results of this study will provide some insights and

information on how they ….

The study will provide ….

It will likewise serve ….

Hopefully, this study will eventually help ….

Finally, this study will make them aware of ….

This study will contribute to ….

It will also motivate the ….

SCOPE AND DELIMITATION

study in term of subjects, objectives, facilities, area, time

frame, and the issues to which the research is focused.

weaknesses, which are not within the control of the

researcher. Therefore, they are not expected to be

covered by the study.

The use of the following phrases could help express the

scope of this portion:

The coverage of this study ….

The study covers the ….

The study focuses on ….

It includes ….

It is concerned with ….

It also involves the ….

The study consists of ….

The delimitation could be expressed using the

following phrases:

The study does not cover the ….

The investigator limited this research to ….

It does not seek to include ….

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Operational and (2) Conceptual or lexical definitions with the

research or exercising option in the use of these two

categories.

Operational definitions express the meaning of the terms as

used in a particular field of study.

Conceptual definitions are usually taken from the dictionary. It

carries a universal meaning easily understood by people.

NOTES

followed:

the work (underlined). The place of publication, followed

by a colon; name of publisher, followed by a comma; and

the date of publication (in parenthesis). Then, indicate the

page where the topic could be found.

Example:

For SINGLE author:

Consuelo G. Sevilla, A Research Primer (Quezon Ciy: Rex

Printing Company, Inc.,1990) pp. 35 – 40.

Laurentina P. Calmorin and Melchor A. Calmorin, Methods of

Research and Thesis Writing. (Quezon City: Rex Printing Co., Inc., 2001),

p. 22.

Nomenclature. (Naga City: AMS Press, 2005), pp. 10-15.

Chapter II – Review of Related Literature

1.Review of Related Literature

*Theoretical Framework

*Conceptual Framework

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

bearing or relation to the subject/problem under

investigation

*Relevance

*Congruity

*Pertinence

*Appropriateness

*Similarity

Literature is related if:

1. it dwells in constructs, concepts, ideas,

hypotheses, variables associated with the

study.

to operationalize the research.

interpretation.

Kinds of Related Literature

1. Conceptual literature – those from articles,

or books written by authorities giving their

opinions, and experiences, theories or ideas.

reports of actual research studies done

previously on the problem area.

Reasons for Making a Review

1. Provide the researcher knowledge and

background on the subject matter under study.

By reading what has been done in the past on

the issue, the researcher will come to know

what progress has been made in terms of

human inquiry on said concern.

duplicating or doing the same study that was

already done before.

Reasons for Making a Review

3. If a study on the same topic has been conducted

before, the review provides the researcher information

about the aspects of the problem which have not been

investigated or explored before. Knowledge on this will

improve basis for declining what new problem to work

on, the same subject on the same subject.

parts of the study such as definition of problems and

terms, research design, data gathering techniques and

instruments, level and statistical tools for analysis, and

form and style of report presentation.

Reasons for Making a Review

the weaknesses and problems of previous

studies. It will avoid some problems which he

may encounter in his own study.

proceed with the investigation. It will give him

guidance on how and where to start, who and

what he will consult, and what direction he

should be headed to.

Reasons for Making a Review

provides the researcher basis in determining

what variables are related with each other, the

types of their relationships and how to analyze

and measure these relationships.

past studies which the researcher may relate to

his own findings and conclusions.

Reasons for Making a Review

researcher motivation and impacts that will

ensure a good progress toward the goal of

completing the study.

Organization of Report

Chronological approach literature is presented

according to the time they were written, that is,

following the time-sequence pattern

findings of themes are grouped together

(Topical order)

country, or into a specific country (like the

Philippines) and into foreign countries.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

the previous studies and theories that the

researcher considered relevant to his research

problem.

makes use of a theory or theories in explaining

why a certain phenomenon, the subjects of the

study occurred

a theory is a set of concepts and their relations

which explains, predicts and interprets how a

particular phenomenon exists and operates

T It a set of interrelated

H constructs (concepts)

definitions, and propositions

E that present a systematic view

of phenomena by specifying

O relations among variables with

R the purpose of explaining and

predicting phenomena

y (Kerlinger, 1973).

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

phenomenon of interest. The concepts and linkages

between them are represented by the use of

symbols such as boxes, circles, diamonds, arrows,

lines, dots and other symbols. Diagrams clarify

concerns and their associations in enabling the

researcher to place the problem in appropriate

theoretical context and in delineating the areas of

inquiry.

TYPES OF VARIABLES

variable which is chosen by the researcher to

determine its relationship to an observed

phenomenon.

variable which is observed and measured to

determine the effect of the independent

variable.

TYPES OF VARIABLES

special type of independent variable chosen

by the researcher to ascertain if it alters or

modifies the relationships between the

independent and dependent variables.

4. Intervening variable – this is a variable which

interferes with the independent and

Dependent variables, but its effects can either

strengthen or weaken the independent and

dependent variables.

Meaningful Learning

Theory

(Ausebel)

[Relating New Concepts

with Existing

Knowledge]

Learner

Constructivist Theory

(Bruner)

Activity Theory [Constructing New

Ideas

(Vygotsky) Based Upon Current

[Experiential and

Learning] Previous Knowledge]

Figure 1

Theoretical Paradigm

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE DEPENDENT VARIABLE

*Student Factors

-Attitude towards Math

-Allowance per day

-Number of hours devoted to study

Performance in

Math

Basic Mathematics

*School Factors

College Algebra

-Faculty qualification

-Professional performance

-Classroom management

-Instructional process / Methodologies

-Administrative support

-Student services

-Co-curricular program and services English

-Guidance program and services Natural Science

*Home Factors Biological Science

-Parents’ education

-Parents’ occupation

-Parents’ income

-Family size

-Parental influence

Figure 2

Conceptual Paradigm

Chapter III – METHODS & PROCEDURES

Research Method & Design

Population/Respondents of the Study/Sampling

Technique

Instrumentation

Procedure of Investigation

Statistical Analysis Used

Research Method & Design

past. (what was).

2. Descriptive design – the study is focused in

the present condition (what is).

3. Experimental design – the study is focused in the

future condition (what will be).

4. Case study design – the study deals with the

past, present and future conditions

Research Method & Design

5. Ex post facto research – this is sometimes called

causal-comparative method. The research

investigates a problem by studying the variables

in retrospect.

6. Alternative Research

*Participative – participatory research is taken as an effort to

give this ower to the “native” or the person being researched.

*Indigenous research – this an attempt of indigenization of

Philippine research.

*Ethnographic research – the researcher lives in the field

where the research is conducted as participant and

observer.

Types of Experimental Design

1. Single-group design. This design involves a single

treatment with two or more levels.

Illustration:

An investigator wants to determine the effectiveness of

teaching Mathematics using the different methods. Single

group of subject is exposed to three different methods of

teaching Mathematics. ANOVA is used to determine the

significant difference of the achievement of subjects.

Types of Experimental Design

2. Two-group design. This design has two

comparable groups which are employed as

experimental and control groups.

Example:

An investigator wants to determine the effectiveness of teaching

Mathematics using the traditional and modern approaches. The

former is the control group (traditional approach) and the latter,

experimental group (modern approach). The t test is used to

determine the effectiveness of teaching Mathematics using the

traditional (control group) and the modern approach

(experimental group).

Types of Experimental Design

3. Two-pair group design. This design is an

elaboration of the two-group design wherein

there are two experimental groups and two

control groups.

Example:

A researcher wishes to determine the effectiveness of teaching

Reading using two traditional approaches as control groups and two

modern approaches as experimental groups. ANOVA is used to

determine the effectiveness of teaching reading using two traditional

and two modern approaches.

Types of Experimental Design

4. Parallel-group design. This is a design in which

two or more groups are used at the same time

with only one single variable (control group)

manipulated or changed. The experimental

group varies while the parallel group serves as

control for comparative purposes.

Example:

An investigator wishes to determine the effectiveness of teaching

Science in traditional and modern approaches. There is only one

traditional approach (control group) and two modern approaches

(experimental groups) in teaching Science. The ANOVA is used to

determine the effectiveness in teaching Science in traditional

approach and two modern approaches.

Types of Experimental Design

5. Pretest-Posttest group design. This design involves the

experimental group and the control group which are

carefully selected through randomization procedures.

Both groups are given pretest at the beginning of the

semester and posttest at the end of the semester. But

the control group is isolated from all experimental

influences.

Types of Experimental Design

5. Pretest-Posttest group design.

Example:

Suppose a researcher wishes to find out the effect of traditional and

modern methods of teaching Physics. He takes two groups which are

carefully chosen through randomization procedures. The control will

undergo the traditional method of teaching Physics and the experimental

group will undergo the modern method teaching physics. Both control

and experimental groups are given pretest at the beginning of the

semester and posttest at the end of the semester. The mean scores of the

pretest and posttest of the control and experimental groups are evaluated

by using the t-test. If the results show significant difference, this means that

the control and experimental groups really differ with each other where

one is better than the other. On the other hand, if no significant difference

exists, this means that both the control and the experimental groups are

almost the same.

Types of Experimental Design

6. Counterbalanced or Latin square design. This

design is also called “rotation design.” It

involves an exchange of two or more treatments

taken by the subjects during the experiment. The

arrangement employed in this design is Latin

square in which each variable is a form of square

occurring once in each row or column. This is also

called quasi-experimental design.

Types of Experimental Design

6. Counterbalanced or Latin square design

Illustration:

A researcher wishes to determine the effectiveness of the four methods of

teaching Mathematics taught by four instructors to four groups of subjects.

Each instructor is required to use each method of instruction. The first

treatment combination consists of M1I1S1 where M stands for the method: I,

instructors, and S subject. The second combination is M2I2S2 and so on. It will

be noted that S is the diagonal of the square and appears in each position

from the first method to the fourth method. ANOVA is used to determine the

effectiveness of the 4 methods of teaching Mathematics taught by 4

instructors.

Types of Experimental Design

7. Complete randomized design. This is a design in

which a group of test plants or animals is studied

only once but subsequent treatment is applied to

determine the cause of change. There is no

control in this design but the subjects will undergo

randomization procedures.

Types of Experimental Design

7. Complete randomized design.

Illustration:

An investigator whishes to determine the significant difference in the

treatment of pellets as supplemental feed upon the yield of prawn

cultured in the fishpond. He uses 300 pieces of prawn fry and three

compartments in the pond.

The 300 pieces of prawn fry are placed at random. Of the 300 prawn

fry, 100 pieces are placed in each compartment. The weight of the

prawn in each compartment should be observed carefully and

ecological parameters such as pH, salinity, oxygen, etc., should be

taken into consideration. Different levels or proportion of pellets are

applied as supplemental feed in each compartment.

Types of Experimental Design

8. Randomized complete block design (RCBD). This

experimental design uses a group of test plants

and animals as subjects of the study which are

studied once but subsequent treatments applied

are replicated to determine the cause of

change. There is control in this design, and the

subjects will undergo randomization process.

Types of Experimental Design

Randomized complete block design (RCBD).

Illustration:

Suppose the researcher wishes to determine the

effectiveness of cultivating milkfish in the fishpond using fish

meal, bread meal, and ipil-ipil leaves as supplemental

feeds. There are four groups in this experimental study

treated with different feeds. These are as follows: 1. First

treatment, control group, lab-lab only as natural food of

milkfish; 2. Second treatment, first experimental group, lab-

lab and fish meal; 3. Third treatment, second experimental

group, lab-lab and bread meal; 4. Fourth treatment, third

experimental group, lab-lab and ipil-ipil leaves.

Each group is replicated three times. In other words, there are

3 compartment for the control group or first treatment (T1); 3

compartments for the second experimental group or third treatment

(T3); and 3 for the third experimental group or fourth treatment (T4). A

total of 12 compartments in all are under study. Table below shows the

sample of cultivating milkfish in the fishpond using fish meal, bread

meal, and ipil-ipil leaves as supplemental feeds.

Treatment Replications

T1 x x x

T2 x x x

T3 x x x

T4 x x x

Types of Experimental Design

9. Correlational design. This experimental design

is used to determine the relationship of two

dependent variables (x and y) on how they are

manipulated by the independent variable.

Illustration:

The researcher wishes to determine the weight and

length relationship of grouper (tropical fish) cultured in a

concrete tank using fish meal as supplemental feed.

Fish meal is the independent variable and weight (x)

and length (y) of grouper are the dependent variables.

The weight (x) and length (y) of fish are dependent on

the feed used.

Types of Experimental Design

Correlational design

The correlation coefficient is the statistical tool used to

determine the weight and length relationship of

grouper. If the significant relationship is very high and

high relationship occur on the x and y, this means that

the heavier the weight, the longer the fish and the

lighter the weight, the shorter the length. If no

relationship exists, this means that the heavier the

weight, the shorter the length and the lighter the weight,

the longer the length of fish.

On the other hand, correlation coefficient is applicable

statistical tool to both descriptive and experimental

designs.

SAMPLES AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

Sampling is necessary, especially if the population of the

study is too large where the 4ms (man, money, material

and machinery) resources of the investigator are limited.

under study is less than 100. But if the total population is

equal to 100 or more, it is advisable to get a sample in

order to be effective, efficient and economical in

gathering data; provided however, that the sample is a

representative cross section of the population and is

scientifically selected.

SAMPLES AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

Sampling – is a method of getting a representative

portion of a population. It is a process of obtaining

information from a proper subset of a population. The

ultimate purpose of sampling is to be able to describe

the population characteristics through the values

obtained from a sample as accurately as possible. It is

therefore evident that if one were to draw conclusion

based on a small sample, then, the sample must mimic

the behavior of the original population as closely as

possible.

Population - is an aggregate or total objects, persons,

families, species or orders of plants or of animals.

Advantages of Sampling

1. It saves time, money and effort. The researcher can save time,

money and effort because the number of subjects involved is

small. There are only a small number to be collected, tabulated,

presented, analyzed and interpreted, but the use of sample gives

comprehensive information of the results of the study.

2. It is more effective. Sampling is more effective if every individual of

the population without bias has an equal chance of being

included in the sample and data are scientifically collected,

analyzed and interpreted.

3. It is faster and cheaper. Since sample is only a “drop in a bucket,”

the collection, tabulation, presentation, analysis and interpretation

of data are rapid and less expensive because of the small number

of subjects.

Advantages of Sampling

4. It is more accurate. Fewer errors are made due to the small size of

data involved in collection, tabulation, presentation, analysis and

interpretation.

investigation of the study due to a small sample, the results give

more comprehensive information because all members of the

population have an equal chance of being included in the

sample.

Limitations of Sampling

1. Sample data involve more care in preparing detailed

sub-classifications because of a small number of

subjects.

2. If the sampling plan is not correctly designed and

followed, the results may be misleading.

3. Sampling requires an expert to conduct the study in an

area. If this is lacking, the results could be erroneous.

4. The characteristic to be observed may occur rarely in a

population, e.g., teachers over 30 years of teaching

experience.

5. Complicated sampling plans are laborious to prepare.

To determine the sample size of the population, the formula

of Slovin (1960) is given as follows:

N

N = ------------

1 + Ne2

N = population size

E = desired margin or error

sample is used instead of a population.

Gay (1976) offers some minimum acceptable sizes

depending on the types of research as follows:

a. Descriptive research. 10 percent of the population. For

a smaller population, a minimum of 20 percent may be

required.

b. Correlation research: 30 subjects

c. Experimental research: 15 subjects per group. Some

authorities believe that 30 subjects per group should be

considered the minimum for experimental research.

d. Ex-post-facto or causal research: 15 subjects per group.

Two General Types of Sampling

Designs/Methods

1. Probability Sampling

a. Each of the units in the target population has the same chance of

being included in the sample.

b. Greater possibility of representative sample of the population.

c. Conclusion derived from data gathered can be generalized for the

whole population.

2. Non-Probability Sampling

a. No way that each of the units in the target population has the same

chance of being included in the sample.

b. No assurance that every unit has some chance of being included.

c. Conclusion derived from data gathered is limited only to the sample

size.

Types of Probability Sampling

1. Simple Random Sampling. This is the basic probability

sampling design. It means that we are giving every unit

of the population an equal chance and non-zero

probability of being included in the sample. In simple

terms, we allow chance and the technique of allowing

chance to operate to be the basis of selection.

a. Lottery method. Names of each member of the population are

written on different pieces of paper; are placed in a box and

mixed well; the pieces of paper are taken one tat a time until

the total sample size is reached.

b. The use of a Table of Random Numbers. Each sampling unit of

the population is listed an given a number. Example from 1 to

50. there is a table of random numbers, from 1 to 50.

Types of Probability Sampling

2. Systematic Sampling. This is used when there is a ready

list of the total universe or population.

a. Get a list of the total universe or population

b. Divide the total population by the desired sample

size to get the sampling interval. Supposing the total

population is 5,000 and the desired sample size is 100,

the sampling interval is equal to 5000/100 = 50.

Types of Probability Sampling

3. Stratified Sampling. This scheme is used to ensure that

different groups of a population are adequately represented

in the sample. The procedures in using this scheme are as

follows:

a. Get a list of the universe. Determine the different groups according to

criteria.

b. Decide on the sampling size or the actual percentage of the universe

that should be considered as sample.

c. Get a proportion of sample from each group. For example: 10

percent sample per group is desired. 500 students x .10 = 50

600 businessmen x .10 = 60

400 teachers x .10 = 40

500 farmers x .10 = 50

Total sample = 200

d. Select the 200 respondents either by simple random sampling or

systematic sampling.

Types of Probability Sampling

4. Cluster Sampling. This is used in large-scale surveys.

a. The researcher arrives at the set of sampling units to be

included in the sample by first sampling larger grouping, called

clusters.

b. The cluster is selected by simple or stratified sampling.

c. If not all the sampling units in the clusters are to be included in

the sample, the final selection from within the cluster is also

carried out by a simple random or stratified sampling

procedure. Example: A survey of urban households may need

a sample of cities; within each city that is selected, a sample of

districts; and within each selected district, a sample of

households.

Types of Probability Sampling

5. Multi-Stage Sampling. This is usually used for national,

regional, provincial or country level studies. The

selection of the sample is accomplished in two or more

steps.

Types of Non-Probability Sampling

1. Accidental or Convenience Sampling. It is obtained

when the researcher selects whatever sampling units

are conveniently available.

Example: You have decided on a sample size of 100. You

can interview the first 100 people that you meet.

units are selected subjectively by the researcher, who

attempts to obtain a sample that appears to be

representative of the population. The chance that a

particular sampling unit will be selected as the sample

depends upon the subjective judgment of the

researcher.

Types of Non-Probability Sampling

3. Quota sampling. In this method, the researcher

determines the sampling size which should be filled up.

numbers of Catholics and Muslims, the researcher selects an

equal number of Catholics and Muslims in the sample. In

quota sampling, researchers have an assignment of a

“quota” or a certain number that must be covered by the

research. It may also be specified how many will be

included according to some criteria such as gender, age,

and social, class, etc.

Types of Non-Probability Sampling

4. Snowball Sampling. This sampling starts with the known

sources of information, who or which will in turn give

other sources of information. As this goes on, data

accumulate. Snowball sampling is used when there is

inadequate information for making the sampling frame.

devalued urban populations such as addicts,

alcoholics, child abusers and criminals, because they

are usually “hidden from outsiders.”

Instrumentation

A term used for a measurement device (survey, test,

questionnaire, etc.).

The instrument is the device and instrumentation is the

course of action or the process of developing, testing,

and using the device.

The researchers should chose which type of instrument,

or instruments, to use based on the research question.

Types of Instruments

Researcher-completed Subject-completed

Instruments Instruments

Rating Scales Questionnaires

Interview Schedules/guides Self-Checklists

Tally Sheets Attitude Scales

Flow Charts Personality Inventories

Performance Checklists Achievement/Aptitude tests

Time-and-motion logs Projective Devices

Observation Forms Socio-metric Devices

Instrumentation

Usability refers to the ease with which an instrument can

be administered, interpreted by the participant, and

scored/interpreted by the researcher. Example usability

problems include:

a. Students are asked to rate a lesson immediately after class, but

there are only a few minutes before the next class begins

(problem with administration).

b. Students are asked to keep self-checklists of their after school

activities, but the directions are complicated and the item

descriptions confusing (problem with interpretation).

c. Teachers are asked about their attitudes regarding school

policy, but some questions are worded poorly which results in

low completion rates (problem with scoring/interpretation).

Instrumentation

Validity and reliability concerns (discussed below) will

help alleviate usability issues. For now, we can identify

five usability considerations:

2. Are the directions clear?

3. How easy is it to score?

4. Do equivalent forms exist?

5. Have any problems been reported by others who

used it?

Chapter IV – RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Research Method & Design

Population/Respondents of the Study/Sampling

Technique

Instrumentation

Procedure of Investigation

Statistical Analysis Used

- The processing of converting information into

> quantitative form (NUMERICAL VALUE)

> qualitative form (DESCRIPTIVE INTERPRETATION)

respondents to the measuring / data gathering instrument

- The results of the study which are presented in data matrix form

= STATISTICAL TABLE

related data in which classes of numerical facts or

data are given each a row and their subclasses

are given each a column in order to present the

relationship of the sets / numerical facts / data in a

definite, compact and understandable form(s).

2. BIVARIATE = involves two variables

3. MULTIVARIATE = with three or more variables

Table 1

Adequacy of Instructional Materials in Secondary School in Region V

Descriptive

School Mean

U Interpretation

N

I A 3.6 Very Adequate

V

A B 2.4 Adequate

R

I

C 2.9 Adequate

A

T

D 1.4 Inadequate

E

Scale: 4 = Very Adequate

3 = Adequate

2 = Fairly Adequate

1 = Inadequate

Table 2

Students’ Perception on the Extent of implementing

the Guidance in Secondary School in Naga City

B Guidance

Public School Private School

I Service

V Counseling 3.93 GE 4.90 VGE

A Follow-up 3.93 GE 4.88 VGE

R Information 3.84 GE 4.20 VGE

I Placement 3.77 GE 3.67 GE

A Testing 3.67 GE 3.49 GE

T Individual 2.86 ME 3.39 ME

Inventory

E

Scale: 4.20-5.00= Very Great Extent (VGE)

3.40-4.19= Great Extent (GE)

2.60-3.39= Moderate Extent (ME)

1.80-2.59= Low Extent (LE)

1.00-1.79= Very Low Extent (VLE)

Table 3

M Summary of Regressions of Managerial Attributes on School Effectiveness

U Attribute School Effectiveness

L TJS GR PR DOR

T Gender 0.321 .073 .391 .436

I Civil Status 0.508 .431 .002** .509

V Age 0.003** .004** .738 .391

Education 0.023* .273 .431 .003**

I

A Scale: PV< .01** - highly significant

PV< .05* - significant

TJS

GR

– Teachers’ Job Satisfaction

– Graduation Rate

T PV> .05ns - not significant DOR

PV

- Drop-out Rate

- Participation Rate

E

Table 10

Title

Master Caption

Stubhead Column Column Column Column

Caption Caption Caption Caption

Row Entry Entry Entry Entry Entry

The title should tell about the following:

2. Where such subject matter is situated, or to

what entity . Persons it belongs, or from

whom the data about subject matter were

gathered.

3. When the data about such subject matter

were gathered or the period when such data

were existent

4. Sometimes how the data about such

subject matter are classified.

1. Statistical Tables are concise, and because data

are systematically grouped and arranged, explanatory matter

is minimal

because of their systematic and logical arrangement into

rows and columns. The reader can understand and interpret

a great bulk of data rapidly because he can see significant

relationships of data at once.

numerals with textual matter. This is so because tables are

so constructed that the ideas they convey can be understood

even without reading their textual presentation

There should always be unity in table. To

achieve this, presenting too many ideas in a

single table should be avoided. One subject

matter is enough, one that can be divided into

categories which in turn can be divided into

common classification.

Example:

The subject matter is degrees and

majors. Degrees is divided into AB, BS,

BSE . . . . . The subclasses could

be History, Math, Biology etc. . .

- A chart representing the

quantitative variation or changes of a

variable itself or quantitative changes

of a variable / variables in pictorial or

diagrammatic form.

P

U

To present the variation, changes

R and relationship of data in a most

P attractive, appealing, effective and

O convincing way

S

E

1. It attracts attention more effectively than do tables.

2. The use of colors and pictorial diagrams make a

list of figures in thesis / research reports more

meaningful.

3. It gives a comprehensive view of quantitative data.

quickly and without much trouble.

numerical data.

-Do not show much information at a time

as do tables

more expensive than tables

have been tabulated

1. BAR GRAPHS

a. Single vertical bar graphs

b. Single horizontal bar graphs

c. Grouped / multiple / composite bar graph

d. Duo-directional / bilateral bar graph

e. Subdivided / component bar graph

h. histogram

2. Linear Graph

a. Time series . Chronological mine chart

b. Composite time chart

c. Frequency polygon

d. Ogive

E. Band chart

a. Subdivided bar or rectangular bar graph

b. Circle / pie graph

4. pictograph

1.Textual In Topic I (The Cell), the pretest of the

Non-CAI groups obtained a mean

score of 6.08 higher than what was

obtained by the students CAI groups,

(4.84).

2.Tabular SCHOOL

CSSAC

FEMALE

34

MALE

6

TOTAL

40

NCF 25 34 59

USI 67 3 70

3.Graphical

Should be organized according to the:

a. research question

b. specific problem

c. objectives of the study

Analysis should be done first before interpretation. It is

useless without interpretation, while interpretation is impossible

without analysis.

are used to give meaning to the data gathered from the

subjects / respondents. A set of raw data per se is

meaningless but has meaning once it is interpreted.

is the examination of data or facts in terms of

quantity, quality, attributes, traits, pattern,

trend, relationship among others, so as

to answer research questions which

involve statistical techniques

and procedures.

-Specific problems

-Objectives

-Measuring instruments

-Statistical tools

The researcher should give meaning to the findings.

= Give the meaning

LEVEL 2 = Make inferences

= Cite application of findings

= Give implications

= Link the findings with related literature

or theories

LEVEL 3 = Integrate and generalize

Level 1

- Answers the question WHAT DO THE DATA MEAN IN

THE CONTEXT OF THE STUDY?

Level 2

The researcher needs to address himself with the

questions:

* WHAT MIGHT HAVE BEEN HAPPENING WITHIN THE

METHODOLOGY TO ACCOUNT FOR THE

INCONGRUENCES IN THE FINDINGS?

* WHY DID THE RESULTS NOT TURN-OUT AS

HYPOTHESIZED OR EXPECTED?

* WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES ACCOUNTED FOR THE

UNEXPECTED OUTCOMES?

* WHAT WERE THE SHORTCOMMINGS OF THE STUDY?

* WHAT ARE SOME OF THE LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY?

Level 3

The researcher should not only unravel

findings and inconsistencies, but the study must

also attempt to put the pieces together to achieve

meaningful conclusions and generalization.

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