Anda di halaman 1dari 122

Why do we need to conduct

research??
Research

Means to investigate again


…to search again
… to take another more careful look
… to find out more

Research according to Kerlinger: a phenomena


guided by theory and hypothesis about a
resumed relation among such phenomena.
Research

…is a systematic, objective and comprehensive


investigation of certain phenomena which
involves accurate gathering, recording and
critical analyzing and interpreting of all facts
about the phenomena.
…is the process of gathering data or information
to solve a particular or specific problem in a
scientific manner.
Major Types of Research

Pure or Theoretical – is a type of research


conducted for the sake of knowing. Its main
objective is to test or arrive at a theory with the
ultimate goal of establishing general principle.
Major Types of Research

 Applied or Practical – is a research done to


obtain knowledge for useful ends. In this kind of
research, the intention is not just to obtain
knowledge but also to use that knowledge to
solve certain difficulties or discomfort, or to
improve the prevailing conditions which in its
present state may be satisfactory but which has
still room or possibility for improvements.
Why do we conduct research??
Purposes of Research

Generally, its main purpose is for the preservation


and improvement of the quality of human life; and to
serve man for good life.
Purposes of Research

1. To discover new facts about known phenomena.


2. To find answers to problems which are only partially
solved by existing methods and information.
3. Improve existing techniques and develop new
instruments or products.
4. To order related, valid generalizations into
systematized science.
5. To improve educational practices or raising the
quality of school products.
Purposes of Research

6. To provide basis for decision-making in business,


industry, education, government or in other
undertakings.
7. To satisfy the researcher’s curiosity.
8. To find answers to queries by means of specific
method.
9. To acquire a better and deeper understanding about
one phenomenon that can be known and understood
better by research.
How does one know that a
problem is researchable?
When…
1. There is no answer or solution to it, such as a
gap in knowledge exist (when there is an
absence of information resulting in a gap of
knowledge).
2. There are possible solutions, the effectivity of
which is untested or unknown yet.
3. The existence of a phenomenon requires
explanation.
How does one know that a
problem is researchable?
When…
4. There are answers or solutions the possible result
of which may seem or maybe factually
contradictory. (When there are contradictory
results).
5. There are several possible and plausible
explanations for the undesirable conditions
(when fact exists and you intend to make your
study explain it).
Criteria of a Good Research Problem

1. The problem should be of great interest to the


researcher.
2. The problem should be relevant and useful to a
specific group of people.
3. A good problem is novel in that it possesses the
element of newness. (There is no such thing as
new topic in research).
4. A problem should be well defined or specified.
Criteria of a Good Research Problem

5. A problem should be measurable.


6. A problem is time bound.
7. A problem should contribute to the refinement of
certain important concepts, creation or
improvement of research instruments and
analytical system and will permit generalization.
8. A problem is good and researchable on the basis
of the investigator’s capability to meet what it
requires, expertise, manpower, money and time.
Elements of a Good Research Problem

1. Aim or purpose of the problem for investigation.


This answers the problems “why?”… Why is
there an investigation, inquiry or study?
2. The subject matter or topic to be investigated.
This answers the question ”what”? What is to
be investigated?
3. The place or locale where the research is to be
conducted. This answers the question
“where”? Where is the study to be
conducted?
Elements of a Good Research Problem

4. The period or time of the study during which


the data are to be gathered. This answers the
question “when”?
5. Population or universe from which the data are
to be collected. This answers the question
“who”? or from “whom”? From whom are the
data to be collected?
Elements of a Good Research Problem

1. Aim or purpose. Why?

2. Subject matter or topic. What?

3. Place or locale. Where?

4. Period or time. When?

5. Population or universe. Who or from whom?


Guidelines in Writing the Title

1. Generally, the title is formulated before the start of


the research work. It maybe revised and refined
later if there is a need.
2. The title must contain the main subject matter of the
study, or the main variables.
3. It must be broad enough to include all aspects of the
subject matter studied or to be studied. Hence, the
title indicates what is expected to be found inside the
thesis report.
Guidelines in Writing the Title

4. It must be as brief and concise as possible.


5. Avoid using the terms “An Analysis of”. “A Study of”,
“An Investigation of” and the like. All these things
are understood to have been done or to be done
when a research is conducted.
6. If the title contains more than one line, it must
be written like an inverted pyramid, all words in
capital letters.
Example:

THE TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS IN THE HIGH SCHOOL


OF CAMARINES SUR AS PERCEIVED BY THE MATH
TEACHERS AND STUDENTS SY 2014-2015

Subject matter : Teaching of Mathematics


Locale of the Study : HS of Camarines Sur
Population : Science Teachers and Students
Period of Study : SY 2014-2015
Chapter I – The Problem

This chapter is consist the following parts:


1.Introduction
2.Statement of the Problem
3.Assumption
4.Hypothesis
5.Significance of the Study
6.Scope and Delimitation
7.Definition of Terms
8.Notes
The Introduction

 The main purpose of the introduction is to


arouse the interest of the reader and convince
them that the research paper is worth reading.
A poor introduction will result in the paper or
research not being read by the intended clients.
Guidelines in Writing the Introduction

1. Try to respond to the obvious questions in the


minds of the reader. What is the study about?
What need is being responded to by the study?
Who benefits from the study? These three
questions must be answered in the first
paragraph of the introduction.
2. Cite some relevant past attempts on the same
study and quote from the authors to establish
the need for the study in the second to the
third paragraph of your introduction.
Guidelines in Writing the Introduction

4. In the fourth paragraph, underscore the losses


that will accrue on the discipline if the study is
not conducted. What will happen if the study
is not done?
5. In the final paragraph, repeat exactly what
your main objective is in conducting the study.
The Statement of the Problem

The statement of the problem is composed of


the general or main and specific or sub-
problems.
The main problem is a declaration of the title of
the study.
The specific problems or sub-problems are the
details or areas to be covered to describe the
whole thesis or main problem.
If the research problem is the Teaching of Mathematics, the
different aspects maybe the following:

a) qualification of teachers

b) methods and strategies use

c) facilities available

d) adequacy of supervisory assistance

e) comparison of teachers’ and students’ perception


f) problems encountered

g) proposals to solve the problems

h) implication to the teaching of science

i) there should be a general statement of the


problem and then this should be broken
down into as many sub-problems or specific
questions as necessary.
Consider the example below:

Statement of the problem

This study aims to investigate all aspects of the


teaching of Mathematics in the high school of Camarines Sur,
during the SY 2014-2015 as perceived by the teachers and
students. Specifically, answers the following questions will be
pursued:

1. How qualified are the teachers handling Mathematics


subjects in the schools in Camarines Sur?

2. How effective are the methods and strategies used by the


teachers in teaching Mathematics?
3. How adequate are the instructional as well as non-
instructional facilities for the teaching of Mathematics?

4. How adequate are the forms of supervisory assistance


extended to the teachers relative to the teaching of
Mathematics.

5. Is there any significant difference between the


perceptions of the teachers and those of the students
concerning the different aspects in the teaching of
Mathematics?

6. What problems are encountered by the teachers in


Mathematics?
Assumption
 …is self- evident truth which is based upon a known fact
or phenomena.
 …is any important fact presumed to be true but not
actually verified ( Gay,1996 ).
 …are statements of facts related to the research
problem which are presumed to be true on the basis of
observations and experience although not actually
verified.
 …are stated so as to provide foundation from which the
study will proceed, and an additional basis for validation
of variables of interest to the study.
 … do not require testing nor confirmation
Example 1
Specific Problem:
How qualified are the teachers handling science?

Implicit (Unwritten) Assumption:


There are certain qualifications that one should possess before
he can teach science.

Example 2
Specific Problem:
How adequate are the facilities that a school should acquire
before it can offer science as a subject?

Implicit Assumption:
There are certain required facilities that a school should acquire
before it can offer science as a subject.
HYPOTHESIS
 …is an educated or intelligent guess or prediction
about the existence, attribute or relationship between
or among variables covered by the study.
 Types of Hypothesis
The null hypothesis is a denial of an existence, an
attribute, a relationship, a difference or an effect. As
such, it is stated in the negative form of a statement.
The alternative hypothesis states the very opposite of
what the null hypothesis predicts.
Uses of Hypothesis

 It provide guide and direction to the researcher.

 It indicate the major independent and dependent variables


being considered.

 It suggest the type of data that must be made.

 It indicate the type of statistical measures appropriate to


various tests to be considered.
Example

Question: Is there any significant difference between the


effectiveness method and that of the deductive
method in the teaching of science?

Alternative / Operational Hypothesis:


There is a significant difference between the effectiveness
of the inductive method and all of the deductive methods
in the teaching of science.

Null Hypothesis:
There is no significant difference between the
effectiveness of the inductive method and that of the
deductive method in the teaching of science.
Significance of the Study

 The researcher expresses the value or importance of the research


study. It is where the significant contributions of the results of the
study are enumerated. Such contributions may be viewed from
the point of the target beneficiaries like the researcher himself,
service provider, client, society, administrators, planners, decision-
makers, implementers, the community, the educational institutions,
legislatures, and practitioners.
 It may also be viewed on their contributions to the accumulation of
knowledge, solving a problem which improves certain of refinement
of concepts and theories, improvement of research instruments and
methods and meeting the priorities of institutions.
Guidelines in Writing Significance
of the Study
1. The rationale, timeless and or relevance of the study to existing
conditions must be explained or discussed.
2. Possible solutions to existing problems or improvements to
unsatisfactory conditions.
3. It must be shown who are the individuals, groups, or communities
who may be placed in a more advantageous position on account
of the study.
4. Possible contribution to be a fount of knowledge.
5. It should discuss the implications, including the possible causes of
the problems discovered, the positive effects of the problems, and
the remedial measures to solve the problems.
6. Implications must include the good points of a system, which ought
to be continued or to be improved.
The use of the following phrases could help express the
importance of the study:

The results of this study could help them realize ….


The useful and relevant information acquired from the
study will encourage them to continue ….
This study will encourage them to ….
This study will enhance involvement in the ….
Results could help benefit ….
It will also serve as basis in the study of ….
This study will also afford the management to know …
Similar organizations will benefit from the study in ….
Researchers may find the findings useful as ….
This study can help boost the ….
The findings may also serve as a guide to ….
 The results hopefully, will be of value to ….
 Through this study, students, will become aware of ….
 This could motivate and challenge the ….
 The results of this study will provide some insights and
information on how they ….
 The study will provide ….
 It will likewise serve ….
 Hopefully, this study will eventually help ….
 Finally, this study will make them aware of ….
 This study will contribute to ….
 It will also motivate the ….
SCOPE AND DELIMITATION

 The scope identifies the boundaries or coverage of the


study in term of subjects, objectives, facilities, area, time
frame, and the issues to which the research is focused.

 The delimitations of the study define the constraints or


weaknesses, which are not within the control of the
researcher. Therefore, they are not expected to be
covered by the study.
The use of the following phrases could help express the
scope of this portion:

This study will focus on ….


The coverage of this study ….
The study covers the ….
The study focuses on ….
It includes ….
It is concerned with ….
It also involves the ….
The study consists of ….
The delimitation could be expressed using the
following phrases:

This study is limited to ….


The study does not cover the ….
The investigator limited this research to ….
It does not seek to include ….
DEFINITION OF TERMS

 Definition of terms may be of two categories, namely: (1)


Operational and (2) Conceptual or lexical definitions with the
research or exercising option in the use of these two
categories.
Operational definitions express the meaning of the terms as
used in a particular field of study.
Conceptual definitions are usually taken from the dictionary. It
carries a universal meaning easily understood by people.
NOTES

In writing notes (NCF Style), the following order is


followed:

Author’s or Editor’s name (comma). The full title of


the work (underlined). The place of publication, followed
by a colon; name of publisher, followed by a comma; and
the date of publication (in parenthesis). Then, indicate the
page where the topic could be found.
Example:
For SINGLE author:
Consuelo G. Sevilla, A Research Primer (Quezon Ciy: Rex
Printing Company, Inc.,1990) pp. 35 – 40.

For TWO authors:


Laurentina P. Calmorin and Melchor A. Calmorin, Methods of
Research and Thesis Writing. (Quezon City: Rex Printing Co., Inc., 2001),
p. 22.

For MORE THAN TWO authors:

Rachelle A. De Leon, et al. Chemical Structure and


Nomenclature. (Naga City: AMS Press, 2005), pp. 10-15.
Chapter II – Review of Related Literature

This chapter is consist the following parts:


1.Review of Related Literature
*Theoretical Framework
*Conceptual Framework
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

• It implies that the literature are connected or have


bearing or relation to the subject/problem under
investigation

*Relevance
*Congruity
*Pertinence
*Appropriateness
*Similarity
Literature is related if:
1. it dwells in constructs, concepts, ideas,
hypotheses, variables associated with the
study.

2. it provides conceptual definitions that can serve


to operationalize the research.

3. it provides standards/norms for data


interpretation.
Kinds of Related Literature
1. Conceptual literature – those from articles,
or books written by authorities giving their
opinions, and experiences, theories or ideas.

2. Research literature – refers to published


reports of actual research studies done
previously on the problem area.
Reasons for Making a Review
1. Provide the researcher knowledge and
background on the subject matter under study.
By reading what has been done in the past on
the issue, the researcher will come to know
what progress has been made in terms of
human inquiry on said concern.

2. The review will enable the researcher to avoid


duplicating or doing the same study that was
already done before.
Reasons for Making a Review
3. If a study on the same topic has been conducted
before, the review provides the researcher information
about the aspects of the problem which have not been
investigated or explored before. Knowledge on this will
improve basis for declining what new problem to work
on, the same subject on the same subject.

4. The researcher will be helped in developing various


parts of the study such as definition of problems and
terms, research design, data gathering techniques and
instruments, level and statistical tools for analysis, and
form and style of report presentation.
Reasons for Making a Review

5. The review provides the researcher insights on


the weaknesses and problems of previous
studies. It will avoid some problems which he
may encounter in his own study.

6. It also provides the researcher ideas on how to


proceed with the investigation. It will give him
guidance on how and where to start, who and
what he will consult, and what direction he
should be headed to.
Reasons for Making a Review

7. In relational and explanatory study, the review


provides the researcher basis in determining
what variables are related with each other, the
types of their relationships and how to analyze
and measure these relationships.

8. The review provide findings and conclusions of


past studies which the researcher may relate to
his own findings and conclusions.
Reasons for Making a Review

9. Finally, studies reviewed will provide the


researcher motivation and impacts that will
ensure a good progress toward the goal of
completing the study.
Organization of Report
 Chronological approach literature is presented
according to the time they were written, that is,
following the time-sequence pattern

 Findings or theme approach literature of similar


findings of themes are grouped together
(Topical order)

 Country approach - literature are classified by


country, or into a specific country (like the
Philippines) and into foreign countries.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

a proposed theoretical model after a review of


the previous studies and theories that the
researcher considered relevant to his research
problem.
makes use of a theory or theories in explaining
why a certain phenomenon, the subjects of the
study occurred
a theory is a set of concepts and their relations
which explains, predicts and interprets how a
particular phenomenon exists and operates
T It a set of interrelated
H constructs (concepts)
definitions, and propositions
E that present a systematic view
of phenomena by specifying
O relations among variables with
R the purpose of explaining and
predicting phenomena
y (Kerlinger, 1973).
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Schematic models or diagrams that represent the


phenomenon of interest. The concepts and linkages
between them are represented by the use of
symbols such as boxes, circles, diamonds, arrows,
lines, dots and other symbols. Diagrams clarify
concerns and their associations in enabling the
researcher to place the problem in appropriate
theoretical context and in delineating the areas of
inquiry.
TYPES OF VARIABLES

1. Independent variable – this is the stimulus


variable which is chosen by the researcher to
determine its relationship to an observed
phenomenon.

2. Dependent variable – this is the response


variable which is observed and measured to
determine the effect of the independent
variable.
TYPES OF VARIABLES

3. Moderate variable- this is a secondary or


special type of independent variable chosen
by the researcher to ascertain if it alters or
modifies the relationships between the
independent and dependent variables.
4. Intervening variable – this is a variable which
interferes with the independent and
Dependent variables, but its effects can either
strengthen or weaken the independent and
dependent variables.
Meaningful Learning
Theory
(Ausebel)
[Relating New Concepts
with Existing
Knowledge]

Learner

Constructivist Theory
(Bruner)
Activity Theory [Constructing New
Ideas
(Vygotsky) Based Upon Current
[Experiential and
Learning] Previous Knowledge]

Figure 1

Theoretical Paradigm
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE DEPENDENT VARIABLE

*College Entrance Test


*Student Factors
-Attitude towards Math
-Allowance per day
-Number of hours devoted to study
Performance in
Math
Basic Mathematics
*School Factors
College Algebra
-Faculty qualification
-Professional performance
-Classroom management
-Instructional process / Methodologies
-Administrative support
-Student services
-Co-curricular program and services English
-Guidance program and services Natural Science
*Home Factors Biological Science
-Parents’ education
-Parents’ occupation
-Parents’ income
-Family size
-Parental influence

Figure 2

Conceptual Paradigm
Chapter III – METHODS & PROCEDURES

This chapter is consist the following parts:


Research Method & Design
Population/Respondents of the Study/Sampling
Technique
Instrumentation
Procedure of Investigation
Statistical Analysis Used
Research Method & Design

1. Historical design – the study is focused in the


past. (what was).
2. Descriptive design – the study is focused in
the present condition (what is).
3. Experimental design – the study is focused in the
future condition (what will be).
4. Case study design – the study deals with the
past, present and future conditions
Research Method & Design
5. Ex post facto research – this is sometimes called
causal-comparative method. The research
investigates a problem by studying the variables
in retrospect.
6. Alternative Research
*Participative – participatory research is taken as an effort to
give this ower to the “native” or the person being researched.
*Indigenous research – this an attempt of indigenization of
Philippine research.
*Ethnographic research – the researcher lives in the field
where the research is conducted as participant and
observer.
Types of Experimental Design
1. Single-group design. This design involves a single
treatment with two or more levels.

Illustration:
 An investigator wants to determine the effectiveness of
teaching Mathematics using the different methods. Single
group of subject is exposed to three different methods of
teaching Mathematics. ANOVA is used to determine the
significant difference of the achievement of subjects.
Types of Experimental Design
2. Two-group design. This design has two
comparable groups which are employed as
experimental and control groups.

 Example:
An investigator wants to determine the effectiveness of teaching
Mathematics using the traditional and modern approaches. The
former is the control group (traditional approach) and the latter,
experimental group (modern approach). The t test is used to
determine the effectiveness of teaching Mathematics using the
traditional (control group) and the modern approach
(experimental group).
Types of Experimental Design
3. Two-pair group design. This design is an
elaboration of the two-group design wherein
there are two experimental groups and two
control groups.
 Example:
A researcher wishes to determine the effectiveness of teaching
Reading using two traditional approaches as control groups and two
modern approaches as experimental groups. ANOVA is used to
determine the effectiveness of teaching reading using two traditional
and two modern approaches.
Types of Experimental Design
4. Parallel-group design. This is a design in which
two or more groups are used at the same time
with only one single variable (control group)
manipulated or changed. The experimental
group varies while the parallel group serves as
control for comparative purposes.
 Example:
An investigator wishes to determine the effectiveness of teaching
Science in traditional and modern approaches. There is only one
traditional approach (control group) and two modern approaches
(experimental groups) in teaching Science. The ANOVA is used to
determine the effectiveness in teaching Science in traditional
approach and two modern approaches.
Types of Experimental Design
5. Pretest-Posttest group design. This design involves the
experimental group and the control group which are
carefully selected through randomization procedures.
Both groups are given pretest at the beginning of the
semester and posttest at the end of the semester. But
the control group is isolated from all experimental
influences.
Types of Experimental Design
5. Pretest-Posttest group design.
Example:
 Suppose a researcher wishes to find out the effect of traditional and
modern methods of teaching Physics. He takes two groups which are
carefully chosen through randomization procedures. The control will
undergo the traditional method of teaching Physics and the experimental
group will undergo the modern method teaching physics. Both control
and experimental groups are given pretest at the beginning of the
semester and posttest at the end of the semester. The mean scores of the
pretest and posttest of the control and experimental groups are evaluated
by using the t-test. If the results show significant difference, this means that
the control and experimental groups really differ with each other where
one is better than the other. On the other hand, if no significant difference
exists, this means that both the control and the experimental groups are
almost the same.
Types of Experimental Design
6. Counterbalanced or Latin square design. This
design is also called “rotation design.” It
involves an exchange of two or more treatments
taken by the subjects during the experiment. The
arrangement employed in this design is Latin
square in which each variable is a form of square
occurring once in each row or column. This is also
called quasi-experimental design.
Types of Experimental Design
6. Counterbalanced or Latin square design
 Illustration:
A researcher wishes to determine the effectiveness of the four methods of
teaching Mathematics taught by four instructors to four groups of subjects.
Each instructor is required to use each method of instruction. The first
treatment combination consists of M1I1S1 where M stands for the method: I,
instructors, and S subject. The second combination is M2I2S2 and so on. It will
be noted that S is the diagonal of the square and appears in each position
from the first method to the fourth method. ANOVA is used to determine the
effectiveness of the 4 methods of teaching Mathematics taught by 4
instructors.
Types of Experimental Design
7. Complete randomized design. This is a design in
which a group of test plants or animals is studied
only once but subsequent treatment is applied to
determine the cause of change. There is no
control in this design but the subjects will undergo
randomization procedures.
Types of Experimental Design
7. Complete randomized design.
 Illustration:
An investigator whishes to determine the significant difference in the
treatment of pellets as supplemental feed upon the yield of prawn
cultured in the fishpond. He uses 300 pieces of prawn fry and three
compartments in the pond.
The 300 pieces of prawn fry are placed at random. Of the 300 prawn
fry, 100 pieces are placed in each compartment. The weight of the
prawn in each compartment should be observed carefully and
ecological parameters such as pH, salinity, oxygen, etc., should be
taken into consideration. Different levels or proportion of pellets are
applied as supplemental feed in each compartment.
Types of Experimental Design
8. Randomized complete block design (RCBD). This
experimental design uses a group of test plants
and animals as subjects of the study which are
studied once but subsequent treatments applied
are replicated to determine the cause of
change. There is control in this design, and the
subjects will undergo randomization process.
Types of Experimental Design
Randomized complete block design (RCBD).
Illustration:
Suppose the researcher wishes to determine the
effectiveness of cultivating milkfish in the fishpond using fish
meal, bread meal, and ipil-ipil leaves as supplemental
feeds. There are four groups in this experimental study
treated with different feeds. These are as follows: 1. First
treatment, control group, lab-lab only as natural food of
milkfish; 2. Second treatment, first experimental group, lab-
lab and fish meal; 3. Third treatment, second experimental
group, lab-lab and bread meal; 4. Fourth treatment, third
experimental group, lab-lab and ipil-ipil leaves.
Each group is replicated three times. In other words, there are
3 compartment for the control group or first treatment (T1); 3
compartments for the second experimental group or third treatment
(T3); and 3 for the third experimental group or fourth treatment (T4). A
total of 12 compartments in all are under study. Table below shows the
sample of cultivating milkfish in the fishpond using fish meal, bread
meal, and ipil-ipil leaves as supplemental feeds.

Treatment Replications

T1 x x x

T2 x x x

T3 x x x

T4 x x x
Types of Experimental Design
9. Correlational design. This experimental design
is used to determine the relationship of two
dependent variables (x and y) on how they are
manipulated by the independent variable.
Illustration:
The researcher wishes to determine the weight and
length relationship of grouper (tropical fish) cultured in a
concrete tank using fish meal as supplemental feed.
Fish meal is the independent variable and weight (x)
and length (y) of grouper are the dependent variables.
The weight (x) and length (y) of fish are dependent on
the feed used.
Types of Experimental Design
Correlational design
 The correlation coefficient is the statistical tool used to
determine the weight and length relationship of
grouper. If the significant relationship is very high and
high relationship occur on the x and y, this means that
the heavier the weight, the longer the fish and the
lighter the weight, the shorter the length. If no
relationship exists, this means that the heavier the
weight, the shorter the length and the lighter the weight,
the longer the length of fish.
 On the other hand, correlation coefficient is applicable
statistical tool to both descriptive and experimental
designs.
SAMPLES AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
 Sampling is necessary, especially if the population of the
study is too large where the 4ms (man, money, material
and machinery) resources of the investigator are limited.

 Total population is advisable if the number of subjects


under study is less than 100. But if the total population is
equal to 100 or more, it is advisable to get a sample in
order to be effective, efficient and economical in
gathering data; provided however, that the sample is a
representative cross section of the population and is
scientifically selected.
SAMPLES AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
 Sampling – is a method of getting a representative
portion of a population. It is a process of obtaining
information from a proper subset of a population. The
ultimate purpose of sampling is to be able to describe
the population characteristics through the values
obtained from a sample as accurately as possible. It is
therefore evident that if one were to draw conclusion
based on a small sample, then, the sample must mimic
the behavior of the original population as closely as
possible.
 Population - is an aggregate or total objects, persons,
families, species or orders of plants or of animals.
Advantages of Sampling

1. It saves time, money and effort. The researcher can save time,
money and effort because the number of subjects involved is
small. There are only a small number to be collected, tabulated,
presented, analyzed and interpreted, but the use of sample gives
comprehensive information of the results of the study.
2. It is more effective. Sampling is more effective if every individual of
the population without bias has an equal chance of being
included in the sample and data are scientifically collected,
analyzed and interpreted.
3. It is faster and cheaper. Since sample is only a “drop in a bucket,”
the collection, tabulation, presentation, analysis and interpretation
of data are rapid and less expensive because of the small number
of subjects.
Advantages of Sampling
4. It is more accurate. Fewer errors are made due to the small size of
data involved in collection, tabulation, presentation, analysis and
interpretation.

5. It gives more comprehensive information. Since thee is a thorough


investigation of the study due to a small sample, the results give
more comprehensive information because all members of the
population have an equal chance of being included in the
sample.
Limitations of Sampling
1. Sample data involve more care in preparing detailed
sub-classifications because of a small number of
subjects.
2. If the sampling plan is not correctly designed and
followed, the results may be misleading.
3. Sampling requires an expert to conduct the study in an
area. If this is lacking, the results could be erroneous.
4. The characteristic to be observed may occur rarely in a
population, e.g., teachers over 30 years of teaching
experience.
5. Complicated sampling plans are laborious to prepare.
To determine the sample size of the population, the formula
of Slovin (1960) is given as follows:

N
N = ------------
1 + Ne2

Where, n = sample size


N = population size
E = desired margin or error

Error is the percentage allowable for non-precision since a


sample is used instead of a population.
Gay (1976) offers some minimum acceptable sizes
depending on the types of research as follows:
a. Descriptive research. 10 percent of the population. For
a smaller population, a minimum of 20 percent may be
required.
b. Correlation research: 30 subjects
c. Experimental research: 15 subjects per group. Some
authorities believe that 30 subjects per group should be
considered the minimum for experimental research.
d. Ex-post-facto or causal research: 15 subjects per group.
Two General Types of Sampling
Designs/Methods
1. Probability Sampling
a. Each of the units in the target population has the same chance of
being included in the sample.
b. Greater possibility of representative sample of the population.
c. Conclusion derived from data gathered can be generalized for the
whole population.

2. Non-Probability Sampling
a. No way that each of the units in the target population has the same
chance of being included in the sample.
b. No assurance that every unit has some chance of being included.
c. Conclusion derived from data gathered is limited only to the sample
size.
Types of Probability Sampling
1. Simple Random Sampling. This is the basic probability
sampling design. It means that we are giving every unit
of the population an equal chance and non-zero
probability of being included in the sample. In simple
terms, we allow chance and the technique of allowing
chance to operate to be the basis of selection.
a. Lottery method. Names of each member of the population are
written on different pieces of paper; are placed in a box and
mixed well; the pieces of paper are taken one tat a time until
the total sample size is reached.
b. The use of a Table of Random Numbers. Each sampling unit of
the population is listed an given a number. Example from 1 to
50. there is a table of random numbers, from 1 to 50.
Types of Probability Sampling
2. Systematic Sampling. This is used when there is a ready
list of the total universe or population.
a. Get a list of the total universe or population
b. Divide the total population by the desired sample
size to get the sampling interval. Supposing the total
population is 5,000 and the desired sample size is 100,
the sampling interval is equal to 5000/100 = 50.
Types of Probability Sampling
3. Stratified Sampling. This scheme is used to ensure that
different groups of a population are adequately represented
in the sample. The procedures in using this scheme are as
follows:
a. Get a list of the universe. Determine the different groups according to
criteria.
b. Decide on the sampling size or the actual percentage of the universe
that should be considered as sample.
c. Get a proportion of sample from each group. For example: 10
percent sample per group is desired. 500 students x .10 = 50
600 businessmen x .10 = 60
400 teachers x .10 = 40
500 farmers x .10 = 50
Total sample = 200
d. Select the 200 respondents either by simple random sampling or
systematic sampling.
Types of Probability Sampling
4. Cluster Sampling. This is used in large-scale surveys.
a. The researcher arrives at the set of sampling units to be
included in the sample by first sampling larger grouping, called
clusters.
b. The cluster is selected by simple or stratified sampling.
c. If not all the sampling units in the clusters are to be included in
the sample, the final selection from within the cluster is also
carried out by a simple random or stratified sampling
procedure. Example: A survey of urban households may need
a sample of cities; within each city that is selected, a sample of
districts; and within each selected district, a sample of
households.
Types of Probability Sampling
5. Multi-Stage Sampling. This is usually used for national,
regional, provincial or country level studies. The
selection of the sample is accomplished in two or more
steps.
Types of Non-Probability Sampling
1. Accidental or Convenience Sampling. It is obtained
when the researcher selects whatever sampling units
are conveniently available.
Example: You have decided on a sample size of 100. You
can interview the first 100 people that you meet.

2. Purposive sampling. Under this scheme, the sampling


units are selected subjectively by the researcher, who
attempts to obtain a sample that appears to be
representative of the population. The chance that a
particular sampling unit will be selected as the sample
depends upon the subjective judgment of the
researcher.
Types of Non-Probability Sampling
3. Quota sampling. In this method, the researcher
determines the sampling size which should be filled up.

*For instance, if it is known that the population has equal


numbers of Catholics and Muslims, the researcher selects an
equal number of Catholics and Muslims in the sample. In
quota sampling, researchers have an assignment of a
“quota” or a certain number that must be covered by the
research. It may also be specified how many will be
included according to some criteria such as gender, age,
and social, class, etc.
Types of Non-Probability Sampling
4. Snowball Sampling. This sampling starts with the known
sources of information, who or which will in turn give
other sources of information. As this goes on, data
accumulate. Snowball sampling is used when there is
inadequate information for making the sampling frame.

5. Networking Sampling. This is used to find socially


devalued urban populations such as addicts,
alcoholics, child abusers and criminals, because they
are usually “hidden from outsiders.”
Instrumentation
 A term used for a measurement device (survey, test,
questionnaire, etc.).
 The instrument is the device and instrumentation is the
course of action or the process of developing, testing,
and using the device.
 The researchers should chose which type of instrument,
or instruments, to use based on the research question.
Types of Instruments

Researcher-completed Subject-completed
Instruments Instruments
Rating Scales Questionnaires
Interview Schedules/guides Self-Checklists
Tally Sheets Attitude Scales
Flow Charts Personality Inventories
Performance Checklists Achievement/Aptitude tests
Time-and-motion logs Projective Devices
Observation Forms Socio-metric Devices
Instrumentation
 Usability refers to the ease with which an instrument can
be administered, interpreted by the participant, and
scored/interpreted by the researcher. Example usability
problems include:
a. Students are asked to rate a lesson immediately after class, but
there are only a few minutes before the next class begins
(problem with administration).
b. Students are asked to keep self-checklists of their after school
activities, but the directions are complicated and the item
descriptions confusing (problem with interpretation).
c. Teachers are asked about their attitudes regarding school
policy, but some questions are worded poorly which results in
low completion rates (problem with scoring/interpretation).
Instrumentation
 Validity and reliability concerns (discussed below) will
help alleviate usability issues. For now, we can identify
five usability considerations:

1. How long will it take to administer?


2. Are the directions clear?
3. How easy is it to score?
4. Do equivalent forms exist?
5. Have any problems been reported by others who
used it?
Chapter IV – RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter is consist the following parts:


Research Method & Design
Population/Respondents of the Study/Sampling
Technique
Instrumentation
Procedure of Investigation
Statistical Analysis Used
- The processing of converting information into
> quantitative form (NUMERICAL VALUE)
> qualitative form (DESCRIPTIVE INTERPRETATION)

- Involves input, process and output mechanisms

-Looks into the responses of the subjects /


respondents to the measuring / data gathering instrument

- Involves statistical procedures and techniques

- The results of the study which are presented in data matrix form
= STATISTICAL TABLE

Defined as a systematic arrangement of


related data in which classes of numerical facts or
data are given each a row and their subclasses
are given each a column in order to present the
relationship of the sets / numerical facts / data in a
definite, compact and understandable form(s).

1. UNIVARIATE = involves one variable


2. BIVARIATE = involves two variables
3. MULTIVARIATE = with three or more variables
Table 1
Adequacy of Instructional Materials in Secondary School in Region V

Descriptive
School Mean
U Interpretation

N
I A 3.6 Very Adequate
V
A B 2.4 Adequate
R
I
C 2.9 Adequate
A
T
D 1.4 Inadequate
E
Scale: 4 = Very Adequate
3 = Adequate
2 = Fairly Adequate
1 = Inadequate
Table 2
Students’ Perception on the Extent of implementing
the Guidance in Secondary School in Naga City

B Guidance
Public School Private School
I Service
V Counseling 3.93 GE 4.90 VGE
A Follow-up 3.93 GE 4.88 VGE
R Information 3.84 GE 4.20 VGE
I Placement 3.77 GE 3.67 GE
A Testing 3.67 GE 3.49 GE
T Individual 2.86 ME 3.39 ME
Inventory
E
Scale: 4.20-5.00= Very Great Extent (VGE)
3.40-4.19= Great Extent (GE)
2.60-3.39= Moderate Extent (ME)
1.80-2.59= Low Extent (LE)
1.00-1.79= Very Low Extent (VLE)
Table 3
M Summary of Regressions of Managerial Attributes on School Effectiveness
U Attribute School Effectiveness
L TJS GR PR DOR
T Gender 0.321 .073 .391 .436
I Civil Status 0.508 .431 .002** .509
V Age 0.003** .004** .738 .391

A Monthly Income 0.831 .071 0.0019** .532

R Admin. Exp. 0.002** .091 0.002** .005**


Education 0.023* .273 .431 .003**
I
A Scale: PV< .01** - highly significant
PV< .05* - significant
TJS
GR
– Teachers’ Job Satisfaction
– Graduation Rate
T PV> .05ns - not significant DOR
PV
- Drop-out Rate
- Participation Rate
E
Table 10
Title
Master Caption
Stubhead Column Column Column Column
Caption Caption Caption Caption
Row Entry Entry Entry Entry Entry
The title should tell about the following:

1. The subject matter the said table deals with.


2. Where such subject matter is situated, or to
what entity . Persons it belongs, or from
whom the data about subject matter were
gathered.
3. When the data about such subject matter
were gathered or the period when such data
were existent
4. Sometimes how the data about such
subject matter are classified.
1. Statistical Tables are concise, and because data
are systematically grouped and arranged, explanatory matter
is minimal

2. Data are more easily read and understood and compared


because of their systematic and logical arrangement into
rows and columns. The reader can understand and interpret
a great bulk of data rapidly because he can see significant
relationships of data at once.

3. Tables give the whole information even without combining


numerals with textual matter. This is so because tables are
so constructed that the ideas they convey can be understood
even without reading their textual presentation
There should always be unity in table. To
achieve this, presenting too many ideas in a
single table should be avoided. One subject
matter is enough, one that can be divided into
categories which in turn can be divided into
common classification.
Example:
The subject matter is degrees and
majors. Degrees is divided into AB, BS,
BSE . . . . . The subclasses could
be History, Math, Biology etc. . .
- A chart representing the
quantitative variation or changes of a
variable itself or quantitative changes
of a variable / variables in pictorial or
diagrammatic form.

P
U
To present the variation, changes
R and relationship of data in a most
P attractive, appealing, effective and
O convincing way
S
E
1. It attracts attention more effectively than do tables.
2. The use of colors and pictorial diagrams make a
list of figures in thesis / research reports more
meaningful.
3. It gives a comprehensive view of quantitative data.

4. Enable the busy executive to grasp the essential facts


quickly and without much trouble.

5. They add simplicity to the presentation of


numerical data.
-Do not show much information at a time
as do tables

- Do not show data as accurately as table do

-Charts require more skill, more time, energy and


more expensive than tables

-Can be made only after the data


have been tabulated
1. BAR GRAPHS
a. Single vertical bar graphs
b. Single horizontal bar graphs
c. Grouped / multiple / composite bar graph
d. Duo-directional / bilateral bar graph
e. Subdivided / component bar graph
h. histogram
2. Linear Graph
a. Time series . Chronological mine chart
b. Composite time chart
c. Frequency polygon
d. Ogive
E. Band chart

3. Hundred percent graph / charts


a. Subdivided bar or rectangular bar graph
b. Circle / pie graph

4. pictograph
1.Textual In Topic I (The Cell), the pretest of the
Non-CAI groups obtained a mean
score of 6.08 higher than what was
obtained by the students CAI groups,
(4.84).
2.Tabular SCHOOL
CSSAC
FEMALE
34
MALE
6
TOTAL
40
NCF 25 34 59
USI 67 3 70

3.Graphical
Should be organized according to the:
a. research question
b. specific problem
c. objectives of the study
Analysis should be done first before interpretation. It is
useless without interpretation, while interpretation is impossible
without analysis.

In analyzing the data, STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES


are used to give meaning to the data gathered from the
subjects / respondents. A set of raw data per se is
meaningless but has meaning once it is interpreted.
is the examination of data or facts in terms of
quantity, quality, attributes, traits, pattern,
trend, relationship among others, so as
to answer research questions which
involve statistical techniques
and procedures.

-Specific problems
-Objectives
-Measuring instruments
-Statistical tools
The researcher should give meaning to the findings.

LEVEL 1 = Describe the trend and pattern of data


= Give the meaning
LEVEL 2 = Make inferences
= Cite application of findings
= Give implications
= Link the findings with related literature
or theories
LEVEL 3 = Integrate and generalize
Level 1
- Answers the question WHAT DO THE DATA MEAN IN
THE CONTEXT OF THE STUDY?

Level 2
The researcher needs to address himself with the
questions:
* WHAT MIGHT HAVE BEEN HAPPENING WITHIN THE
METHODOLOGY TO ACCOUNT FOR THE
INCONGRUENCES IN THE FINDINGS?
* WHY DID THE RESULTS NOT TURN-OUT AS
HYPOTHESIZED OR EXPECTED?
* WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES ACCOUNTED FOR THE
UNEXPECTED OUTCOMES?
* WHAT WERE THE SHORTCOMMINGS OF THE STUDY?
* WHAT ARE SOME OF THE LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY?
Level 3
The researcher should not only unravel
findings and inconsistencies, but the study must
also attempt to put the pieces together to achieve
meaningful conclusions and generalization.