Anda di halaman 1dari 12



Ruchi Sharma

Ruchi Sharma


 Intelligence – The integral part of AI

 Artificial Intelligence – General Idea

 AI – Some Applications

 Knowledge – Formal definitions

 Knowledge - Meaning

 Knowledge – Types

 Expert Systems - Concept

 Expert Systems – Properties

 Building Expert Systems – Knowledge Engineering

Ruchi Sharma

Intelligence – The integral part of AI

Intelligence, in general, is a blend of

 the ability to learn quickly

 the ability to exercise thought and reason
 the ability to plan, solve problems, think abstractly and
comprehend complex ideas
 the ability to acquire, understand, retain and apply
 the knowledge we acquire through experience,
perception, imagination and activities as reading, writing

Ruchi Sharma

Artificial Intelligence – General Idea

AI aims at

 programming computers to behave intelligently

 making the computers capable of
 learning new concepts & tasks
 reason & draw useful conclusions about the real
world situations and/or things
 understand a natural language
 observe and/or understand a given situation
 exhibit human type intelligent behaviour as and
when required

Ruchi Sharma

Artificial Intelligence – Some Applications

AI finds application in

 Medicine – diagnosing, prescribing treatment and

monitoring patient response
 Planning and scheduling – commercial tasks as scheduling
of flights, personnel, manufacturing process planning etc
 Finance – to detect fraud (as in case of credit cards) &
analyzing risk and/or advising for financial transactions
 Transportation – features as automatic gearboxes in

Ruchi Sharma

Knowledge – Formal definitions

Knowledge can be defined as

 Acquaintance with facts, truths or principles as acquired from study

or investigation

 Expertise and skill acquired through experience or education

 Acquisition of facts and information

 Body of accumulated facts and principles

Ruchi Sharma

Knowledge – meaning

Knowledge is having a familiarity with language, concepts, procedures,

rules, ideas, abstractions, places, customs, facts and associations,

coupled with an ability to use* these notions effectively in different

aspects of world.

* - The ability to use the facts is the most important aspect as without

this, the acquired concepts are of no use.

Ruchi Sharma

Knowledge - Types

Knowledge can be categorized broadly into three types :

 Procedural - compiled knowledge related to the performance of a

task. e.g. – steps to solve an algebraic equation

 Declarative – passive knowledge expressed as statements of facts.

e.g. – employee data stored in a company’s database

 Heuristic – strategies/tricks/rules of thumb acquired with experience

& used to simplify the solutions of problems

Ruchi Sharma

Expert Systems - Concept

 Expert system is a system that depends on a rich base of

knowledge & possess expert inference capability in a particular

domain to perform difficult task(s)

 An expert system has two principle parts

 Knowledge base(KB) – contains both factual and heuristic


 Inference-control unit – a collection of inference programs to

use the knowledge contained in the KB & draw conclusions

Ruchi Sharma

Expert Systems - Properties

An expert system

 tries to simulate human reasoning capability about a specific


 use knowledge rather than data to control the solution process

 is capable of explaining how a particular conclusion was reached

Ruchi Sharma

Building Expert Systems – Knowledge Engineering

A knowledge engineer builds an expert system. The engineer need to

 Choose one or more forms in which to represent the required

knowledge. The common knowledge representation schemes are

 Semantic nets

 Frames

 Predicate logic

 Rule based systems

 Choose a number of reasoning or inference methods that the expert

system can use while delivering the output

Ruchi Sharma

o u

Ruchi Sharma