Anda di halaman 1dari 43

Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT)

Agreement
Irna Nurhayati
Departemen Hukum Dagang
Fakultas Hukum UGM
(2019)
Materi
• Pengantar
• Lingkup penerapan
• Prinsip-prinsip
• Ketentuan kelembagaan & prosedural
• S&D treatment untuk negara berkembang
• Penyelesaian sengketa
Pengantar
• Hambatan perdagangan internasional: kuantitatif dan
kualitatif
• Art XI GATT – amanat untuk menghapus hambatan
kuantitatif, dapat mengenakan tarif maupun pajak
– Pengurangan tarif dan hambatan kuantitatif
• Meningkatnya hambatan non-tarif dan hambatan
kualitatif, i.e. peraturan perdagangan: kepabeanan,
standar kualitas, kesehatan
– TBT Agreement dan SPS Agreement
• Era modern menuntut berbagai produk harus memenuhi
persyaratan (wajib/tidak wajib)
• Tujuan measures/persyaratan mungkin didasarkan pada
kualitas produk, perlindungan kesehatan, lingkungan,
konsumen…etc.
• Persyaratan tersebut berpotensi menimbulkan hambatan
perdagangan—walaupun tidak selalu sebagai diskriminasi
perdagangan—persyaratan tersebut meningkatkan biaya
dan tantangan untuk akses pasar
• Negara anggota WTO diberikan hak untuk mengatur &
membuat persyaratan perdagangan
• Isu bahwa persyaratan tersebut penting dalam
perdagangan internasional, tetapi dapat menjadi
proteksi terselubung—TBT digunakan untuk
menghambat impor
– EC-Asbestos (2001), EC-Sardines (2002), US-Clove
Cigarettes (2012), US-Tuna II (Mexico) (2012), US-Coal
(2012)
• TBT Agreement diartikan untuk memampukan
negara anggota untuk membedakan motivasi yang
legal (legitimate) dan proteksionis dari sebuah TBT
measures
• Tujuan TBT Agreement untuk mewujudkan
keseimbangan antara hak negara anggota untuk
mengatur persyaratan perdagangan dengan tujuan
untuk liberalisasi perdagangan
• TBT Agreement ditujukan untuk memastikan
bahwa prosedur dan persyaratan produk yg
digunakan untuk menilai kepatuhan
terhadapnya tidak menimbulkan hambatan yg
tidak perlu (unnecessary obstacles)
Lingkup Penerapan
• Penerapan TBT measures
– Technical regulations
– Standards
–Conformity assessment procedures
(Annex 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 ---definisi)
– Document which lays down product characteristics or their related
processes and production methods, including the applicable
administrative provisions, with which compliance is mandatory. It may
also include or deal exclusively with terminology, symbols, packaging,
marking or labelling requirements as they apply to a product, process or
production method.
– Document approved by a recognized body, that provides,
for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines or
characteristics for products or related processes and
production methods, with which compliance is not
mandatory. It may also include or deal exclusively with
terminology, symbols, packaging, marking or labelling
requirements as they apply to a product, process or
production method.
– Any procedure used, directly or indirectly, to determine
that relevant requirements in technical regulations or
standards are fulfilled.
• Tiga rangkaian tes untuk menentukan apakah suatu
peraturan/tindakan adalah regulasi teknis
– Wajib diterapkan terhadap produk atau kelompok
produk yang identifiable
– Tindakan wajib didasarkan pada product
characteristics
– Kesesuaian dengan karakteristik produk yang
ditentukan dalam tindakan bersifat mandatory
• Article 4: Preparation, Adoption and Application of Standards
• 4.1 Members shall ensure that their central government
standardizing bodies accept and comply with the Code of Good
Practice for the Preparation, Adoption and Application of
Standards in Annex 3 to this Agreement … They shall take such
reasonable measures as may be available to them to ensure that
local government and non-governmental standardizing bodies
within their territories, as well as regional standardizing bodies of
which they or one or more bodies within their territories are
members, accept and comply with this Code of Good Practice.
Prosedur penilaian kepatuhan (Conformity assessment procedures (Arts
5-8)):
• Digunakan untuk menentukan apakah suatu produk memenuhi
persyaratan yang diatur dalam regulasi teknik yang relevan atau
standards.
• Biasanya meliputi: inter alia, testing, inspection and certification
procedures procedures for sampling, evaluation, verification and
assurance of conformity; registration, accreditation and approval as
well as their combinations.”
• Isu kunci untuk WTO adalah prosedur penilaian kepatuhan yang
mana yang digunakan dalam situasi tertentu, e.g., independent
certifier or supplier?
• TBT Agreement diterapkan terhadap technical regulations,
standards and conformity assessment procedures untuk:
– Produk (termasuk produk industri dan pertanian)
– Metode dan proses produksi (PPMs)

• Karakteristik produk meliputi, tidak hanya features dan


quality intrinsic dari produk, tetapi juga terkait dengan
extrinsic characteristics, misalnya pengidentifikasi,
presentasi dan appearance of a product
• TBT Agreement mencakup semua perdagangan barang (pertanian dan
industrial) - Art.1.3.
• TBT Agreement tidak mencakup:
- services (Art. 1.3 & Annex 1);
- purchasing specifications by government bodies for production or
consumption requirements of governmental bodies (Art. 1.4)
- measures covered by the SPS Agreement) (Art. 1.5).
• TBT comprises 15 articles and 3 annexes, articles utama: 2 & 5.
• Tidak seperti SPS Agreement, TBT Agreement cukup komprehensif dan
detail
• Lembaga yang terkena TBT Agreement
– Central government bodies and
– Local government bodies and Non-governmental bodies involved
in the preparation, adoption and application of technical
regulations, standards and/or conformity assessment procedures
• Local government: provinces or municipalities
• Non-governmental bodies: bodies other than central and local
government bodies
• TBT Agreement diterapkan terhadap technical regulations
yang berlaku pada 1 January 1995 - Art 28 Vienna
Convention on the Law of Treaties
• Kaitan dengan persetujuan WTO lainnya
– Agreement on Government procurement (Art 1.4)
– SPS Agreement (Art 1.5)
– GATT (General Interpretative Note to Annex 1A of
the WTO Agreement)
• Dalam hal terjadi konflik antara ketentuan GATT 1994
dan ketentuan pada persetujuan multilateral WTO
lainnya, the latter will prevail
SPS measures typically deal with:
• additives in food or drink
• contaminants in food or drink
• toxic substances in food or drink
• residues of veterinary drugs or pesticides in food or drink
• certification: food safety, animal or plant health
• processing methods with implications for food safety
• labelling requirements directly related to food safety
• plant/animal quarantine
• declaring areas free from pests or disease
• preventing disease or pests spreading to or in a country
• other sanitary requirements for imports (e.g. imported pallets used to transport
animals)
TBT measures typically deal with:
• labelling of composition or quality of food, drink and drugs
• quality requirements for fresh food
• volume, shape and appearance of packaging
• packaging and labelling for dangerous chemicals, toxic substances, pesticides and
fertilizer
• regulations for electrical appliances
• regulations for cordless phones, radio equipment etc.
• textiles and garments labelling
• testing vehicles and accessories
• regulations for ships and ship equipment
• safety regulations for toys
Key Provisions & Scope of the TBT Agreement
1. Technical Regulations (arts 2 – 3 & Annex 2)
2. Standards (art. 4 & Annex 3)
3. Conformity with the Technical Regulations (arts 5 – 9)
5. Transparency and Consultation (arts 2, 5, 7, 10)
6. Administration (arts 10 – 15, Annex 2 & 3)
6. Developing and Least Developed Countries (arts 11 – 12)
7. The TBT Committee (art.13)
8. Disputes and dispute settlement (art. 14 & Annex 2)
“ANNEX 1: Terms And Their Definitions For The
Purpose Of This Agreement

ANNEX 2: Technical Expert Groups

ANNEX 3: Code Of Good Practice For The


Preparation, Adoption And Application Of Standards”
Ketentuan Substantif
• Prinsip Non-diskriminasi:
– MFN obligation
– National Treatment obligation
• Kewajiban untuk mencegah unnecessary obstacles dalam
perdagangan internasional
• Kewajiban untuk mendasarkan TBT pada international
standards
• Kewajiban lainnya: transparency and notification, S&D
treatment equivalence and mutual recognition, product
requirements in terms of performance,
Prinsip non-diskriminasi
• MFN obligation and National Treatment obligations
– Art 2.1 TBT Agreement
– Members shall ensure that in respect of technical
regulations, products imported from the territory of any
Member shall be accorded treatment no less favourable
than that accorded to like products of national origin and
to like products originating in any other country
– Tiga rangkaian tes untuk menilai konsistensi: “technical
regulations”, “like products” dan treatment no less
favourable”
• “Likeness” dapat ditentukan dari the objectives and purpose of
technical regulations (Art 2.1 TBT Agreement), the nature and extent of
a competitive relationship between and among products (Art III GATT
1994)
• “Treatment no less favourable” mungkin ditentukan dari detrimental
impact on the competitive conditions in relevant market (Art III:4 GATT
1994), dilarang adanya diskriminasi secara de jure maupun de facto
terhadap produk impor (Art 2.1 TBT Agreement)
– The Appellate Body’s interpretation in US - Clove Cigarettes (DS406): prohibiting
both de jure and de facto discrimination against imported products, while at the
same time permitting detrimental impact on competitive opportunities for
imports that stems exclusively from legitimate regulatory distinctions
• Kewajiban untuk mencegah timbulnya unnecessary obstacles dalam
perdagangan internasional
– Art 2.2 TBT Agreement:
Members shall ensure that technical regulations are not prepared, adopted or
applied with a view to or with the effect of creating unnecessary obstacles to
international trade. For this purpose, technical regulations shall not be more
trade-restrictive than necessary to fulfil a legitimate objective, taking account of
the risks non-fulfilment would create. The legitimate objectives includes: national
security, the prevention of deceptive practices, the protection of human health
and safety, animal or plant life or health, and the protection of the environment.
In assessing such risks, it is relevant to consider, inter alia: available scientific
information, related processing technology, or intended end-uses of products
– Art 2.2 menentukan tiga tes untuk menilai konsistensi: apakah
tindakannya “trade restrictive”, “fulfils a legitimate objective” dan
“not more trade-restrictive than necessary”
– Trade restrictive: ‘having a limiting effect on trade’, its degree is
significant in both relational and comparative analysis
– Legitimate objective: an aim that is lawful, justifiable or proper.
“Fulfil”: provide fully with what is wished for. Fulfil legitimate
objective concerns with the degree of contribution that the
technical regulation makes toward the achievement of the
legitimate objective
– Not more trade restrictive than necessary seharusnya
mempertimbangkan (i) the degree of contribution
made by the measure to the legitimate objective at
issue (ii) the trade restrictiveness of the measure (iii)
the nature of the risk at issue and the gravity of
consequences that would arise from non-fulfilment of
the objective pursued by Member through the
measures
• Comparison of the challenged measure and possible
alternative measures should be undertaken
Prinsip Harmonisasi
• Kewajiban untuk mendasarkan TBT pada standar internasional
• Art 2.4
Where technical regulations are required and relevant international standards exist
or their completion is imminent, Members shall use them, or the relevant parts of
them, as a basis for their technical regulations except when such international
standards or relevant parts would be an ineffective or inappropriate means for the
fulfilment of the legitimate objectives pursued, for instance because of
fundamental climatic or geographical factors or fundamental technological
problems.
– Tiga tes: whether a relevant international standard exists, whether the
relevant standard is used as a basis for the technical regulation at issue,
whether the relevant international standard is an effective and appropriate
means to fulfil the legitimate objective pursued
– Sebuah standar disebut sebagai standar internasional bila
it is approved by an international standardising body,
which engaged in standardising activities
– Digunakan sebagai dasar penerapan dari tindakan atau
kewajiban
– Ineffective or inappropriate: effectiveness bears upon the
results of the means employed, whilst appropriatenes
relates more to the nature of the means employed.
Effective: has the capacity to accomplish the objective
pursued, appropriate: suitable for the fulfilment thereof
Prinsip Equivalensi
• Kewajiban lainnya: (i) equivalence and mutual recognition, (ii) product
requirements in terms of performance, (iii) transparency and
notification, (iv) S&D treatment
– Art 2.7
Members shall give positive consideration to accepting as equivalent technical
regulations of other Members, even if these regulations differ from their own,
provided they are satisfied that these regulations adequately fulfil the objectives
of their own regulations.
– Art 6.1
Members shall ensure, whenever possible, that results of conformity assessment
procedures in other Members are accepted, even when those procedures differ
from their own, provided they are satisfied that those procedures offer an
assurance of conformity with applicable technical regulations or standards
equivalent to their own procedures
Persyaratan Produk
– Art2.8
Wherever appropriate, Members shall specify technical
regulations based on product requirements in terms of
performance rather than design or descriptive characteristics
Prinsip Transparansi
– Art 2.9
Whenever a relevant international standard does not exist
or the technical content of a proposed technical regulation
is not in accordance with the technical content of relevant
international standards, and if the technical regulation may
have a significant effect on trade of other Members,
Members shall:
(i)publish a notice in a publication (ii) notify other
Members (iii) upon request provide copy of the proposed
technical regulation (iv) allow Members to provide
comments
– Art 2.11
Members shall ensure that all technical regulations which have been
adopted are published promptly or otherwise made available in such a
manner as to enable interested parties in other Members to become
acquainted with them
– Art 2.12
Members shall allow a reasonable interval between the publication of
technical regulations and their entry into force in order to allow time for
producers in exporting Members, and particularly in developing country
Members, to adapt their products or methods of production to the
requirements of the importing Member
– Doha Ministerial Decision on Implementation-Related Issues and
Concerns of 14/11/2001 WT/MIN(01)/17 dated 20/11/2001
Subject to the conditions specified in paragraph 12 of the
Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, the phrase ‘reasonable
interval’ shall be understood to mean normally a period of not
less than 6 months, except when this would be ineffective in
fulfilling the legitimate objective pursued
In US – Clove Cigarrette, the Appellate Body conclude that the US
had acted inconsistency with Art 2.12, since the interval between
the publication of the technical regulation at issue and its entry
into force was three months
– Art 10
Each Member shall ensure that an enquiry point exists which is able to
answer all reasonable enquiries from other Members and interested
parties in other Members as well as to provide the relevant documents
regarding:
(i)any technical regulation adopted or proposed (ii) any standards
adopted or proposed (iii) any conformity assessment procedures (iv) the
membership or participation of the Member (v) the location of notices
published (vi) the location of the enquiry point
The WTO Secretariat provides TBT Information Management System (TBT
IMS) to enhance the implementation of transparency provisions
S&D treatment principle
– Art 12.1
Members shall provide differential and more favourable
treatment to developing country Members to this Agreement,
through the following provisions as well as through the relevant
provisions of other Articles of this Agreement
– Art 12.2
Members shall give particular attention to the provisions of this
Agreement concerning developing country Members' rights and
obligations and shall take into account the special development, financial
and trade needs of developing country Members in the implementation
of this Agreement, both nationally and in the operation of this
Agreement's institutional arrangements
– Art 12.3
Members shall, in the preparation and application of
technical regulations, standards and conformity
assessment procedures, take account of the special
development, financial and trade needs of developing
country Members, with a view to ensuring that such
technical regulations, standards and conformity
assessment procedures do not create unnecessary
obstacles to exports from developing country Members
See also Art 12.4, Art 12.6, Art 12.8
• Technical assistance
– Art 11.2
– Members shall, if requested, advise other Members,
especially the developing country Members, and shall grant
them technical assistance on mutually agreed terms and
conditions regarding the establishment of national
standardizing bodies, and participation in the international
standardizing bodies, and shall encourage their national
standardizing bodies to do likewise
Aspek Kelembagaan
• TBT Committee
– Menjadi wadah bagi negara anggota untuk
konsultasi terkait penerapanTBT Agreement, ex.
mendiskusikan specific trade concerns, Annual
review penerapan TBT Agreement, review tiga
tahunan (more in-depth review)
Penyelesaian Sengketa
• Dispute settlement
– Art XXII and Art XXIII GATT (DSU)
– Art 14.2, 14.3, 14.4 of and Annex 2 to the TBT Agr
• Automaticity principle
– Kecuali TPR mechanism
54 TBT cases:
• DS532 Russian Federation — Measures Concerning the
Importation and Transit of Certain Ukrainian Products
– CONSULTATIONS REQUESTED: 13 OCTOBER 2017
– CURRENT STATUS: IN CONSULTATIONS
• DS2 United States — Standards for Reformulated and Conventional
Gasoline
– CONSULTATIONS REQUESTED: 24 JANUARY 1995
– CURRENT STATUS: IMPLEMENTATION NOTIFIED BY RESPONDENT
The 5 cases leading with TBT-cited infringements:
• U.S. — Measures Affecting Production & Sale of Clove Cigarettes (Complainant: Indonesia)
(see following)
• EC — Measures Prohibiting the Importation and Marketing of Seal Products (Complainant:
Norway) (see also case DS400)
• U.S. — Certain Country of Origin Labelling Requirements (“COOL”)
• (Complainants: Mexico & Canada (see also case DS384)
• U.S. — Measures Concerning Importation, Marketing & Sale of Tuna and Tuna Products
(Complainant: Mexico)
• EC — Trade Description of Sardines (Complainant: Peru)
Kasus melibatkan Indonesia — Complainant
• DS406 United States — Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove
Cigarettes
– CONSULTATIONS REQUESTED: 7 APRIL 2010
– CURRENT STATUS: MUTUALLY ACCEPTABLE SOLUTION ON IMPLEMENTATION NOTIFIED
• DS467 Australia — Certain Measures Concerning Trademarks, Geographical Indications
and Other Plain Packaging Requirements Applicable to Tobacco Products and
Packaging
– CONSULTATIONS REQUESTED: 20 SEPTEMBER 2013
– CURRENT STATUS: REPORT(S) ADOPTED, NO FURTHER ACTION REQUIRED
– (See also DS434 (Ukraine), DS435 (Honduras), DS441 (Dominican Republic), and DS458
(Cuba).
Indonesia – Respondent:
• DS484 Indonesia — Measures Concerning the Importation of Chicken
Meat and Chicken Products
– CONSULTATIONS REQUESTED: 16 OCTOBER 2014
– CURRENT STATUS: REPORT(S) ADOPTED, WITH RECOMMENDATION
TO BRING MEASURE(S) INTO CONFORMITY
• DS506 Indonesia — Measures Concerning the Importation of Bovine
Meat
– CONSULTATIONS REQUESTED: 4 APRIL 2016
– CURRENT STATUS: IN CONSULTATIONS