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◦ Literature is a word which may mean anything. It is not

just a mere collection of writings or a subject needed to
be taken. It is more than that. Literature is part of our
lives – our experiences. Literature as best defined is a
collection of the best literary writings of the best
experiences by the best authors/writers. Not all writings
can be considered a literary piece. To be considered
one, it should follow some standards. Literature may
cover a lot or a wide variety of subjects including
language, art, philosophy, mythology and others. Thus,
teaching it means teaching all of those.
◦ Students should work collaboratively and actively to construct meaning in the
◦ It should be discussion-based.
◦ The teacher should direct discussion only when students get off track, the rest of the
time guiding subtly and mostly allowing students to create meaning and work with one
another to analyze text and make connections.
◦ This is in direct contrast to a text-centered transmission approach to studying literature,
which assumes the teacher has expert knowledge of the text, and the students should
learn from that knowledge.
◦ In a group discussion, students can share their interpretations of the text and through
this sharing gain a deeper understanding of the reading.
◦ Ideally, the discussion should be guided by the students because the best way to
garner interest is to give students the reigns to focus on the aspects of the text that
intrigue or confuse them.
◦ Teacher can use Christenbury and Kelly’s questioning circle which incorporates three
main components: reader, text and world to help students from varied and open-
ended questions.
◦ Through discussion, students should be able to connect the text to self and world, as
well as other texts.
◦ The classroom becomes student-centered, and the teacher takes the back seat in
interpreting the text.
Supplementing cannon literature
with more modern texts
◦ Classic literature should be supplemented with recent texts that can be linked
thematically or stylistically to the canon text.
◦ This is because modern texts are more accessible for students, as they can relate more
to the language and characters, and are less intimidating.
◦ Canon has flourished because of the timeless themes and meaning authors like
Shakespeare and Orwell masterfully incorporated in their works.
◦ High school literature curriculum should also incorporate more modern texts to engage
students in discussion and to serve as stepping stones to more difficult canon literature.
◦ Starting with a less difficult text that deals with the same time period and themes will
hopefully spark students’ interest in the cannon text.
◦ Literature teachers should expose their students to all different forms of literature and
show that reading can be more than just sifting through dense texts for meaning and to
get a good grade in class. Promoting literacy of any form is essential.
Not simply teaching literature but
teaching citizenship of a global
◦ The study of literature is the study of human nature.
◦ By reading books from a variety of cultures about a variety of experiences, students will
be exposed to new and different perspectives, and, therefore, become better-
rounded and gain empathy for others, even those not like them
◦ Students can examine moral and ethical dilemmas and develop skills to solve these
◦ Through the study of texts from around the world, students can take the point of biew
of someone different from themselves.
SIGNIFICANCE (Culjat, 2013)

◦Communication skills – acquiring

communicative competence for
EFL learners

◦Cultural Growth

◦Intellectual value
◦Spiritual values
◦Literature has an aesthetic appeal and thus
possesses a sense of beauty.
◦This is a quality which appeals to our sense of
◦This is a quality that describes a novel's ability to
reveal and convey hidden truth and beauty
Intellectual value
◦ It stimulates critical thinking that enriches mental
processes of abstract and reasoning, making man
realize the fundamental of truths of life and its nature.
◦ A literary work that stimulates thought. These should
enrich our mental life by making us realize about the
fundamental truths towards life and human nature.
◦ Intellectual value is determined by the novel's
relevance to society and its ability to stimulate thought.
Spiritual values
◦Literature elevates the spirit and the soul and
thus has the power to motivate and to inspire.
◦Elevates the spirit by bringing out the moral
values of a person or situation into the realm of
the physical world. It should present moral values
necessary for us to reflect and eventually inspire
us to become a better person.
◦ It unravels man’s emotional power to define symbolism, nuances,
implied meanings, images and messages, giving and evoking
visions above and beyond the plane of ordinary life and
◦ Associated with the emotion power of a literary piece to make us
feel deeply and stir our imagination. It should trigger and evoke
visions above and beyond the plane of ordinary life experiences.
◦ It is the novel's ability to appeal to the reader's emotions and
imagination and to open them up to new possibilities.
◦ Literature appeals to everyone, regardless of culture, race, sex,
and time which are all considered significant.
◦ A great literary work is timeless and timely. It is forever relevant, it
appeals to one and all, anytime, and anywhere because it deals
with an array of individual's perceptions as well as orientations
toward fundamental truths and universal conditions.
◦ Universality is defined as a work of art that can appeal to a great
number of people, regardless of gender, race, nationality or
income. Works that appeal to a person's heart or describe the
condition of human nature are considered universal texts.
◦Literature presents peculiar ways on how man
sees life as evidence by the formation of his
ideas, form, structures, and expressions which are
marked by their memorable substance.
◦It is peculiar way in which a writer sees life, form
his or her ideas expresses them. Great works are
marked as much by their memorable substances
as by their distinctive style.
◦ Literature endures across time and draws out the time factor:
timeliness (occurring at a particular time) and timelessness
(remaining invariable throughout time).
◦ A great literary work endures and can be read again as each
readings gives fresh delights and new insights. It should not be
ephemeral or merely a passing hype to the audience; it should
be long-lasting.-Is determined by how well a novel endures
through the ages. There are many novels that were popular in
their time but gradually faded into obscurity and irrelevance.