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LECTURE-1

NFC-IET MULTAN
Department of Petroleum & Gas
Engineering
FACILITATOR’S INTRODUCTION
Engr. Mehwish Chishti
Chishti_mehwish@yahoo.com
 Masters in Project Management from SZABIST, Islamabad
 Bachelors in Mechanical Engineering from BZU, Multan
 Six Sigma Yellow Belt Certificate Holder
 Worked as Planning Engr. At New Islamabad International
Airport, Islamabad
 Worked as Trainee Officer At VTT Global, Islamabad
 Worked as an Internee at H.M.C. and Pak Arab Fertilizers.
CLASS OVERVIEW
Name
Education
Expectation from this course
Reason of joining this field
Future Goals
COURSE WALKTHROUGH
Stress
Strain
Mechanical Properties of material
Axial Load
Torsion
Bending
Combined Loading
Deflections of beams and shafts
Buckling of columns
MUTUAL DISCUSSION
 Ground Rules
 Use of mobile & mobile ringing
 Cross Arguments
 Class Attendance
 Late Comings
 Communication
 Marks Distribution & Reference Books
REFERENCE BOOKS
Mechanics of Materials, Sixth Edition By R.C.
Hibbeler
Strength of Materials by A. Pytel, F.L. Singer
Strength of Materials, By Schaum’s Outline
Series
CHAPTER NO 1
STRESS
OBJECTIVE
Review important Principles of Statics
How these principles are used to determine the internal
resultant loadings in a body.
Concepts of normal and shear stress
Specific applications of the analysis and design of
members subjected to axial load or direct shear
INTRODUCTION
 Mechanics of Materials is a branch of mechanics that studies the
relationship between the external loads applied to a deformable body
and the intensity of internal forces acting within the body.
 It also involves the computing of deformations of the body and also
provide the study of the body’s stability when the body is subjected to
external forces.
 Design of any structure or machine, its necessary to use the principles
of statics to determine the forces acting both on and within its various
members.
 The size of the members, their deflections and their stability depends
not only on the internal loadings, but also on the type of material from
which the members are made.
EQUILIBRIUM OF DEFORMABLE BODY
Statics plays an important role in both the development and application of mechanics of
materials, it is very important to have a good grasp of its fundamentals. For this reason
some of the main principles of statics are discussed below:

 External Loads: A body is subjected to only two types of external Loading,


namely, Surface forces and Body Forces.
Surface Force: Caused by the direct contact of one body with the surface of
another. In all cases these forces are distributed over the area of contact between the
bodies.
Concentrated Forces: if the area is small in comparison with the total surface
area of the body, then the surface force can be idealized as a single
concentrated force, which is applied to a point on the body.
Linear Distributed Load: w(s), If the surface loading is applied along a narrow
area then the loading can be idealized as linear distributed load.
 Loading is measured as having an intensity of Force/Length along the area and is
represented graphically by a series of arrows along the line.
 The Resultant Force FR of w(s) is equivalent to the area under the distributed loading
curve.
EQUILIBRIUM OF DEFORMABLE BODY
 External Loads:
Body Forces: A body force is developed when one body
exerts a force on another body without direct physical
contact between the bodies. E.g. electromagnetic field.
In case of gravitation this force is called weight of the
body and acts through the body’s center of gravity.

 Support Reactions: The surface forces that


develop at the supports or points of contact
between the bodies are called reactions.
 If the support prevents translation in a given
direction, then a force must be developed on
the member in that direction. Likewise if
rotation is prevented, a couple moment
must be exerted on the member.
EQUILIBRIUM OF DEFORMABLE BODY
 Equations of Equilibrium: A body is said to be in equilibrium when all the
applied forces are equal to zero, Equilibrium of a body requires both a balance forces.
These conditions can be expressed mathematically by the two vector equations

 Internal Resultant Loading: Resultant loading that acts within the body.
Three Dimension:
Normal Force, N: Acts perpendicular to the area
Shear Force, V: Lies in the plane of the area, and is developed when the
external loads tend to cause the two segments of the body to slide over one
another.
Torsional Moment or Torque T: External loads tends to twist one segment of
the body w.r.t. the other.
Bending Moment, M: External Loads tends to bend the body about an axis
lying within the plane of the area .
EQUILIBRIUM OF DEFORMABLE BODY
 Internal Resultant Loading
Coplanar Loadings: If the body is subjected to
a coplanar system of forces then only normal-
force, shear force, and bending moment
components will exits.
PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS
Finding Support Reactions.
Draw Free-Body Diagram
Apply Equations of Equilibrium
Analyze your result.
EXAMPLE 1.1
Determine the resultant internal loadings
acting on the cross section at C of the
beam shown in fig below.
EXAMPLE 1.2
Determine the resultant internal loadings acting on the
cross section at C of the machine Shaft shown in fig
below. The shaft is supported by Journal Bearings at A
and B, which exert only vertical forces on the shaft.
EXAMPLE 1.4
Determine the resultant loadings acting on the cross
section at G of the wooden beam shown in fig below.
Assume the joints at A,B,C,D and E are pin connected.
PERFORM BY YOURSELF

Problem No. 1-1, 1-2, 1-3