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Public order and safety are provided by
the Prefectural Police under the oversight of
the National Police Agency (NPA). The NPA
is headed by the PuNational blic Safety
Commission thus ensuring that Japan's police
are an apolitical body and free of direct
central government executive control. They
are checked by an independent judiciary and
monitored by a free and active press.
The Police Act empowers the national
government to establish a central police
organization to control and supervise
prefectural police forces on matters of
national concern. The Police Act include
“protecting life, person, and property;
preventing, suppressing, and investigating
crimes; apprehending suspects; traffic
enforcement; and, maintaining public safety
and order.” The Code of Criminal Procedure
states that “when a judicial police official
deems an offense has been committed, he
shall investigate the offender and evidence
Accordingly, the police are empowered to
investigate not only penal code offenses but also
all illegal acts punishable under Japan’s judicial
system. Most cases are investigated by the police
and referred to the public prosecutor’s office for
prosecution. While public prosecutors are also
empowered to conduct investigations, their
investigations are generally supplementary. The
primary duty of the public prosecutor is to
determine case dispositions and prosecute
Until the Meiji Restoration in 1868, the
Japanese criminal justice system was
controlled mainly by daimyōs. Public officials,
not laws, guided and constrained people to
conform to moral norms. In accordance with
the Confucian ideal, officials were to serve as
models of behavior; the people, who lacked
rights and had only obligations, were expected
to obey. Such laws as did exist were
transmitted through local military officials in
the form of local domain laws. Specific
enforcement varied from domain to domain,
and no formal penal codes existed.
After 1868 the justice system underwent
rapid transformation. The first publicly
promulgated legal codes, the Penal Code of
1880 and the Code of Criminal Instruction of
1880, were based on French models, i.e. the
Napoleonic code. Offenses were specified, and
set punishments were established for particular
crimes. Both codes were innovative in that they
treated all citizens as equals, provided for
centralized administration of criminal justice,
and prohibited punishment by ex post facto law.
Guilt was held to be personal; collective guilt
and guilt by association were abolished.
Offenses against the emperor were spelled out
for the first time.
The Penal Code was substantially
revised in 1907 to ref lect the growing
inf luence of German law in Japan, and
the French practice of classifying
offenses into three types was eliminated.
More important, where the old code had
allowed very limited judicial discretion,
the new one permitted the judge to apply
a wide range of subjective factors in
 Is provided by the Prefectural Police under the
oversight of the National Police Agency or NPA.
 The NPA is administered by the National Public
Safety Commission, thus ensuring that Japan's police
are an apolitical body and free of direct central
government executive control.
 They are checked by an independent judiciary and
monitored by a free and active press.
Criminal procedure
The nation's criminal justice officials follow specified
legal procedures in dealing with offenders. Once a suspect is
arrested by police officers, the case is turned over to attorneys in
the Supreme Public Prosecutors Office, who are the government's
sole agents in prosecuting lawbreakers. Under the Ministry of
Justice's administration, these officials work under Supreme
Court rules and are career civil servants who can be removed from
office only for incompetence. Prosecutors presented the
government's case before judges in the Supreme Court and the
four types of lower courts:
1. high courts,
2. district courts,
3. summary courts, and;
4. family courts.
Penal and probation officials administer programs for convicted
offenders under the direction of public prosecutors.
1. High courts
Is the jurisdiction to hear appeals to
judgements rendered by district courts in the
first instance and family court. This excludes
cases under the jurisdiction of the supreme
court. Appeal to criminal cases go directly to
high courts.

2. District court
Civil case appeals first handled by district courts.
3. Summary court
They mostly handled small crime civil cases
as well as minor criminal offenses.

4. Family court
Primarily deal with juvenile delinquency
cases and divorce.
 Police also exercise wide discretion in
matters concerning juveniles.
 Police are instructed by law to identify and
counsel minors who appear likely to
commit crimes, and they can refer juvenile
offenders and non-offenders alike to child
guidance centers to be treated on an
outpatient basis.
 Police can also assign juveniles or those
considered to be harming the welfare of
juveniles to special family courts.
 Arrest
Police have to secure warrants to search
for or seize evidence. A warrant is also
necessary for an arrest, although if the crime
is very serious or if the perpetrator is likely to
f lee, it can be obtained immediately after
arrest. Within forty-eight hours after placing a
suspect under detention, the police have to
present their case before a prosecutor, who is
then required to apprise the accused of the
charges and of the right to counsel. Within
another twenty-four hours, the prosecutor has
to go before a judge and present a case to
obtain a detention order. Suspects can be
held for ten days (extensions are granted in
almost all cases when requested pending
an investigation and a decision whether or
not to prosecute.
 Prosecution
Prosecution can be denied on the
grounds of insufficient evidence or on the
prosecutor's judgment. Under Article 248 of
the Code of Criminal Procedure, after
weighing the offender's age, character, and
environment, the circumstances and gravity of
the crime, and the accused's rehabilitative
potential, public action does not have to be
instituted, but can be denied or suspended
and ultimately dropped after a probationary
period. Because the investigation and disposition
of a case can occur behind closed doors and the
identity of an accused person who is not
prosecuted is rarely made public, an offender can
successfully reenter society and be rehabilitated
under probationary status without the stigma of
a criminal conviction.
 Inquest of prosecution
Institutional safeguards check the
prosecutors' discretionary powers not to
prosecute. Lay committees are established in
conjunction with branch courts to hold
inquests on a prosecutor's decisions. These
committees meet four times yearly and can
order that a case be reinvestigated and
prosecuted. Victims or interested parties can
also appeal a decision not to prosecute.
 Trial
Most offenses are tried first in district
courts before one or three judges, depending
on the severity of the case. Defendants are
protected from self-incrimination, forced
confession, and unrestricted admission of
hearsay evidence. In addition, defendants
have the right to counsel, public trial, and
cross-examination. Trial by jury was
authorized by the 1923 Jury Law but was
suspended in 1943.
Status Police ranks
military ranks

No counterpart
Commissioner General (outside normal

Government General
Senior Commissioner Lieutenant general

Commissioner Major general

Superintendent Lieutenant colonel
Chief Inspector Major or Captain
or Lieutenant
Local police Warrant
personnel Police Sergeant
officer or Sergeant
Senior Police
Police officer Private
Therefore, we conclude that the policing
system of japan are clearly deference in
our country and its police rank/s.
Tarunga na inyong trabahu
PANGPAKUNGON tamung duha