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T

ERQUARTER
TH
RGYAND SPACE

nics
D
ution
C
SCIENCE 10
volcanoes
earthquake epicenters
B
mountain ranges
oundaries
ses and landforms along
A
daries
l structure of the Earth
nism (possible causes of
)
ce of plate movement
REVIEW

tekhnologic
1 L AND ANSWER

2 I SLANDS ANSWER

3 T HICK ANSWER

4 H EAT ANSWER

5 O CEAN ANSWER

6 S OIL ANSWER

7 P LATES ANSWER

8 H YDROSPHERE ANSWER

9 E ARTH ANSWER

10 R OCKS ANSWER

11 E ARTHQUAKES ANSWER
Lithosphere
• It consist of the crust and the upper part of the mantle
Where is the lithosphere?

Lithosphere
Crust
• Made up of a variety of solid rocks
• Average density = 2.8 g/cm3
• Thickness = 5 – 50 km
• Thickest = mountain is present
• Thinnest = along the ocean floor
Kinds of Crust

Mantle

•Continental Crust = thicker but less dense


•Oceanic Crust = relatively thinner but denser
Content Standard
• The learner demonstrates understanding of the
relationship among the locations of volcanoes,
earthquake epicenter and mountain ranges.
Performance Standard
• The learner shall be able to demonstrate ways to
ensure disaster preparedness during earthquakes,
tsunamis and volcanic eruptions.
Learning Competencies
• The learner...
• describes the distribution of active volcanoes, earthquake
epicenters and major mountain belts;
• describe the different types of plate boundaries and
• explain the different processes that occur along the plate
boundaries
Key Question
• What is the relationship among the locations of
volcanoes, earthquake epicenters and mountain
ranges?
Topics
• What is Plate Tectonics?
• Types of Plate Boundaries
• Convergent Boundaries
• Divergent Boundaries
• Transform Boundaries
What is plate tectonics?
Earth is a dynamic planet.
Splitting of continental blocks results in the
formation of new bodies of water
This movement causes
earthquakes...
Volcanic eruptions
Mountains
So what forces causes the formation of
mountains, volcanoes and the occurrence of
earthquakes?
Plate Tectonics
Plate Tectonics Theory
Some of the plates are composed
mostly of oceanic crust
Most of the larger plates contain both
continents and ocean basins
What is the largest tectonic plate?
Plate Tectonics Theory
• The entire lithosphere of the Earth is broken into numerous segments
called plates.
• Each plate moves a single unit.
• All interactions between plates occur along their margins (Plate
boundaries).
One of the consequences of moving crustal
plates which is crucial in studying plate
tectonics:
Locating the
Earthquake
Epicenter
Background Information
• Earthquake releases three types of seismic waves:
• Primary waves (P-waves)
• Secondary waves (S-waves)
• Long surface waves (L-waves)
• P and S waves travel into the Earth’s interior and in different velocities
• P-waves > S-waves > L-waves
Focus and Epicenter
A

B
Seismograph
Seismogram
Seismic Waves
• Since P-waves and S-waves do not travel at the same velocities, thus
they do not arrive at the recording station at same time
• The farther the recording station from the focus, the greater is the
interval between the arrival of the P-wave and S-wave.
• The difference in the arrival time will tell us the distance between the
earthquake’s focus and the recording station.
But...
• It does not tell in which direction it came from.
Solution
• We need three recording stations that can tell how far away from
them the earthquake occurred.
• Therefore, the epicenter can be determined using Triangulation
method
Triangulation Method

Epicenter