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Application Layer Protocols

Services -7
Delivered By:
Avinash Bhagat
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
1. Domain Name System (DNS) Chapter 25
2. TELNET Chapter 26
3. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol and Post Office Protocol Chapter 26
4. File Transfer Protocol Chapter 26
5. World Wide Web www Chapter27
6. Hyper text transfer Protocol HTTP Chapter27
7. Terminologies in Network Security Chapter30
8. Firewalls Chapter32
9. Virtual Private Network (VPN) Chapter32
Terminologies of Network Security

The science and art of transforming messages to make them secure and immune
to attacks.
4 Some Basic Terminology
 plaintext - original message
 ciphertext - coded message
 key - info used in cipher known only to sender/receiver
 encipher (encrypt) - converting plaintext to ciphertext
 decipher (decrypt) - recovering plaintext from ciphertext
 cryptography - study of encryption principles/methods

 cryptanalysis (codebreaking) - study of principles/

methods of deciphering ciphertext without knowing key
 cryptology - field of both cryptography and
Terminologies of Network Security


The original message, before being transformed, is called plaintext.


After the message is transformed, it is called ciphertext.

Terminologies of Network Security

An encryption algorithm transforms the plaintext into ciphertext;

a decryption algorithm transforms the ciphertext back into plaintext.

We refer to encryption and decryption algorithms as ciphers. The term cipher is also
used to refer to different categories of algorithms in cryptography.
A key is a number (or a set of numbers) that the cipher, as an
algorithm, operates on.

To encrypt a message, we need an encryption algorithm, an

encryption key, and the plaintext. These create the

To decrypt a message, we need a decryption algorithm, a

decryption key, and the ciphertext. These reveal the original
Alice, Bob, and Eve
In cryptography, it is customary to use three characters in an
information exchange scenario; we use Alice, Bob, and Eve.

Alice is the person who needs to send secure data.

Bob is the recipient of the data.

Eve is the person who somehow disturbs the communication

between Alice and Bob by intercepting messages to uncover
the data or by sending her own disguised messages. These three
names represent computers or processes that actually send or
receive data, or intercept or change data.
Categories of Ciphers

All the cryptography algorithms (ciphers) divided into two groups:

• Symmetric key (also called secret-key) Ciphers:
In symmetric-key cryptography, the same key is used by both
parties. The sender uses this key and an encryption algorithm to
encrypt data; the receiver uses the same key and the
corresponding decryption algorithm to decrypt the data
• Asymmetric key (also called public-key) Ciphers:
In asymmetric or public-key cryptography, there are two keys: a
private key and a public key. The private key is kept by the
receiver. The public key is announced to the public.
10 Symmetric Encryption

 or conventional / private-key / single-key

 sender and recipient share a common key
 all classical encryption algorithms are private-key
 was only type prior to invention of public-key in 1970’s
 and by far most widely used
11 Symmetric Cipher Model