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The Cell

THE BASIC UNIT OF LIFE


Objective:
 We will try to develop an
understanding of living systems
and the environment.
Science Concepts
We understand that cells are the basic structures
of all living things and have specialized parts that
perform specific functions, and that viruses are
different from cells and have different properties
and functions.
 The history of biology and contributions of
scientists.
 Study of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

 Functions of different compartments and the


overall structure/ ultrastructure of cells.
Cell History
 Cytology- study of cells

 1665 English Scientist


Robert Hooke

 Used a microscope to
examine cork (plant)

 Hooke called what he


saw "Cells"
Cell History
 Robert Brown
 discovered the NUCLEUS in
1833.

 Matthias Schleiden
 German Botanist Matthias
Schleiden in 1838,
 ALL PLANTS "ARE
COMPOSED OF CELLS".

 Theodor Schwann
 German Physiologist also in
1838, discovered that,
 ANIMALS WERE MADE OF
CELLS
Cell History

 Rudolf Virchow
 1855, German Physician established,
 " THAT CELLS ONLY COME FROM
OTHER CELLS".

 His statement debunked


"Theory of Spontaneous Generation"
Cell Theory
 The COMBINED
work of Schleiden,
Schwann, and
Virchow make up the
modern
CELL THEORY.
The Cell Theory states that:
1. All living things are composed of a cell
or cells.

2. Cells are the basic unit of life.

3. All cells come from preexisting cells.


Plant vs. Animal Lab

You will observe different types of plant and


animal cells under the microscope and record
your observations.
Cell Diversity

 Cells within the same organism show


Enormous Diversity in:

 Size
 Shape
 Internal Organization
1. Cell Size

 Female Egg - largest cell in the human

body; seen without the aid of a microscope

 Most cells are visible only with a

microscope.
Cell Size
Cells are small for 2 Reasons
Reason 1:
 Limited in size by the RATIO between their Outer
Surface Area and Their Volume.
A small cell has more SURFACE AREA than a
large cell for a GIVEN VOLUME OF CYTOPLASM.
Cells are Small
Reason 2:
 THE CELL'S NUCLEUS (THE BRAIN)
CAN ONLY CONTROL A CERTAIN
AMOUNT OF LIVING, ACTIVE
CYTOPLASM.
2. Cell Shape

 Diversity of form reflects a


diversity of function.

 THE SHAPE OF A CELL


DEPENDS ON ITS
FUNCTION.
3. Internal Organization
Cell membrane Cytoplasm

Prokaryotic Cell
Cell membrane

Cytoplasm
Eukaryotic Cell Nucleus

Organelles
Compare and Contrast

Prokaryotes Eukaryotes
Nucleus
Endoplasmic reticulum
Cell membrane Golgi apparatus
Contain DNA Lysosomes
Ribosomes Vacuoles
Cytoplasm Mitochondria
Cytoskeleton
Prokaryotic Examples

ONLY Bacteria
Prokaryotic Cells
 Prokaryotes – lack a membrane-bounded nucleus
and are structurally less complicated than the
eukaryotes
 Prokaryotes are responsible for either all or
significant portions of all of the following
 Nutrient recycling – mineralization; nitrogen fixing
 Decomposition of dead organisms
 Disease (infectious) – tuberculoses; anthrax
 Commercial uses – foodstuffs; antibiotics; insulin
 Prokaryotes are divided into two domains
 Domain Bacteria
 Domain Archaea
Prokaryotic Cells
 Nuclear body is not bounded by a nuclear membrane
 Usually contains one circular chromosome composed
of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
 The nuclear body is called a nucleoid
 Extra chromosomal piece of DNA called plasmid
 Structurally simple
 Three basic shapes:
 Bacillus (rod)
 Coccus (spherical)
 Spirilla (spiral)
Prokaryotic Cells: The Envelope
 Cell Envelopes include
 Glycocalyx
 Layer of polysaccharides outside cell wall
 May be slimy and easily removed, or
 Well organized and resistant to removal (capsule)
 Cell wall
 Consist of peptidoglycan (amino disaccharide & peptide)
 Maintains shape of the cell
 Plasma membrane
 Like in eukaryotes – a phospholipid bilayer with proteins
 Form internal pouches (mesosomes), why?
Prokaryotic Cells: Cytoplasm
 Cytoplasm - semifluid solution bounded by a plasma
membrane containing
 Nucleoid – location of the single bacterium chromosome
(coiled)
 Plasmid – extrachromosomal piece of circular DNA
 Inclusion bodies – Stored granules of various substances
 Ribosomes – tiny particles where protein is synthesized
(contain RNA & protein in 2 subunits)
 Thylakoids – extensive internal membranes found in
cyanobacteria,function?
Prokaryotic Cells: Appendages
 Appendages are made of protein that include
 Flagella – the most common form of bacterial
motility (made up of a filament, hook & basal
body)
 Fimbriae – small, bristle-like fibers that sprout from
the cell surface (attach bacteria to a surface)
 Conjugation pili – rigid tubular structures used to
pass DNA from cell to cell
EUKARYOTIC CELLS

Two Kinds:
Plant and Animal
Eukaryotic Example
Section 7-2

Smooth endoplasmic
Vacuole reticulum
Ribosome
(free)
Chloroplast
Ribosome
(attached)
Cell
Membrane
Nuclear
Cell wall envelope

Nucleolus

Golgi apparatus
Nucleus

Mitochondrion Rough endoplasmic reticulum

Plant Cell
Venn Diagrams

Compare and Contrast

Animal Cells Plant Cells

Cell membrane
Ribosomes
Nucleus
Endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi apparatus Cell Wall
Centrioles
Lysosomes Chloroplasts
Vacuoles
Mitochondria
Cytoskeleton
Eukaryotic Cells
 Domain Eukarya
o Protists
o Fungi
o Plants
o Animals
 Eukaryotic cells contain:
o a true nucleus, bound by a double membrane
o a complex collection of organelles
o a plasma membrane
Internal Organization
 Cells contain
ORGANELLES.

Cell Components that


PERFORMS SPECIFIC
FUNCTIONS FOR THE
CELL.
Eukaryotic Cells :Organelles
 Compartmentalization:
 Allows eukaryotic cells to be larger than
prokaryotic cells
 Isolates reactions from others
 Two classes:
 Endomembrane system:
 Organelles that communicate with one another
 via membrane channels and small vesicles
 Energy related organelles
 Mitochondria & chloroplasts
 Basically independent & self-sufficient
Cellular Organelles
The Plasma membrane
 The boundary of the
cell.
 Composed of three
distinct layers.
 Two layers of fat and
one layer of protein.
The Nucleus
 Brain of Cell
 Bordered by a porous
membrane - nuclear
envelope.
 Contains thin fibers of DNA
and protein called
Chromatin.
 Rod Shaped Chromosomes
 Contains a small round
nucleolus
 produces ribosomal RNA
which makes ribosomes.
Ribosomes
 Small non-membrane
bound organelles.
 Contain two sub units
 Site of protein synthesis.
 Protein factory of the cell
 Either free floating or
attached to the
Endoplasmic Reticulum.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
 Complex network of
transport channels.
 Two types:
1. Smooth- ribosome
free and functions in
poison detoxification.
2. Rough - contains
ribosomes and
releases newly made
protein from the cell.
Golgi Apparatus
 A series of flattened
sacs that modifies,
packages, stores,
and transports
materials out of the
cell.
 Works with the
ribosomes and
Endoplasmic
Reticulum.
Lysosomes
 Recycling Center
 Recycle cellular debris
 Membrane bound
organelle containing a
variety of enzymes.
 Internal pH is 5.
 Help digest food
particles inside or out
side the cell.
Centrioles
 Found only in animal
cells
 Paired organelles
found together near the
nucleus, at right angles
to each other.
 Role in building cilia
and flagella
 Play a role in cellular
reproduction
Cytoskeleton
Cell membrane

Endoplasmic
reticulum

Microtubule

Microfilament

Ribosomes Mitochondrion
Cytoskeleton
 Framework of the cell
 Contains small microfilaments and larger
microtubules.
 They support the cell, giving it its shape
and help with the movement of its
organelles.
Mitochondrion

 Double Membranous
 It’s the size of a bacterium
 Contains its own DNA;
mDNA
 Produces high energy
compound ATP
The Chloroplast
 Double membrane
 Center section contains
grana
 Thylakoid (coins) make
up the grana.
 Stroma - gel-like
material surrounding
grana
 Found in plants and
algae.
The Vacuole
 Sacs that help in
food digestion or
helping the cell
maintain its water
balance.
 Found mostly in
plants and protists.
Cell Wall
 Extra structure surrounding its plasma
membrane in plants, algae, fungi, and
bacteria.
 Cellulose – Plants
 Chitin – Fungi
 Peptidoglycan - Bacteria
Section 7-1

Review

A. The Discovery of the Cell


1.Robert Hooke
2.The Cell Theory
B. Exploring Cell Diversity
1. Size
2. Shape
3. Internal Organization
C. Two types of cells
1. Prokaryote
2. Eukaryote
Cell Types (Review)
Eukaryotic Prokaryotic
1. Contains a nucleus and 1. Does not contain a nucleus
other membrane bound or other membrane bound
organelles. organelles.

2. Rod shaped chromosomes 2. Circular chromosome

3. Found in all kingdoms 3. Found only in the


except the Eubacteria and Eubacteria and
Archaebacteria Archaebacteria Kingdoms