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1

Physics

The science of the The science that studies

simplest and the most the general properties and

common matter motion the laws of substance and

forms and their relative field movements

transformations

motion forms are present A substance and a field

in all the most complex are forms of the matter

forms of it

2

The matter

The world around us, all that exist around us and revealed

by us per sensations

The motion is an essential matter property and its

existence form

The motion is various matter changes: from the simple

transfer to the most complex mentality processes

3

Kinematics Basis

4

The mechanics

Part of physics, which studies the motion laws and reasons that cause or

change this motion

laws of macroscopic

bodies with

velocities that are

comparable with

the speed of light

5

The branches of mechanics

1. Kinematics

Studies the objects movement without the causes that lead to this

movements

2. Dynamics

Studies the motion laws and causes that induce and change this

motion

3. Statics

Studies equilibrium laws of bodies system

If the motion laws are known, then the equilibrium laws could be

established

6

Physical models in mechanics

Physical models are used in mechanics for

describing bodies motion. This model depends

on specific tasks terms

Mass point is a body having a mass the size of

which can be disregarded in this task. It is an

abstract concept

Mass point system. Random macroscopic object

or bodies system can be represented as a mass

point system. In this system mass points interact

among themselves.

7

Physical models in mechanics

A perfectly rigid body

Is a body, that can not become deformed at any terms. The

distance between two particles of that body remains

constant at any terms.

A perfectly elastic body

Body deformation obeys the Hooke’s law.

After the termination of external forces the body takes its

original size and form.

A perfectly inelastic body

Body keeps strain state after termination of external forces.

8

Mechanical motion

Base, or frame

An indication body

z

The position of moving body is

determined relative to randomly

selected body (indication body).

r

Coordinate system

z

0 Is a system associated with an

x indication body.

y

x Base, or frame

y

Is a combination of the indication

body, the coordinate system and

the clock synchronized among

themselves.

9

Mechanical motion

Kinematic equation of mass point movement

z x=x(t)

y=y(t)

r z=z(t)

0 z or

x

y

x

r = r (t)

y

The position of mass point А at frame is described by three

coordinates x, y, z or radius-vector r. When mass point moves, its

coordinates change within time (t). So this movement is described

by the scalar equation system or the equivalent vector equation.

10

Trajectory

Trajectory is a line describing by moving mass point

(body) relative to selected base.

Depending on trajectory form there are several motion

types:

1. Rectilinear, or straight-line

2. Curvilinear

3. Circular motion and etc.

character and a base.

11

Path length and displacement

z vector

Displacement vector

A It is a vector from the start

r1

∆r position of the moving point

B to its position at this

r2 moment.

0

x Path length

It is a length of path AB

passed by mass point at a

y given period of time.

∆s=s(t) – a scalar time function.

12

Forward motion

It is a motion, when some straight line, inflexibly connected

with a moving body and drown between two random points,

stays parallel to itself.

In this case all body points are moving equally. Thus, the

forward motion of this body can be characterized by the

motion of some random body point (e.g., by body mass

center motion)

A’

A A’’

C’ C’’

C

B B’ B’’

13

Rotatory motion

It is a motion, when all body O

points are moving in circles,

which centers are lying on the

equal straight line called axis

of rotation.

The different body points are

moving differently, that is why,

its rotatory motion cannot be

characterized by a motion of

any point. O’

14

15

Velocity

A velocity is a vector quantity ∆s

A

that determines, from one

hand, the motion speed and ∆r v

from other hand, its direction B

at a given period of time. r1

A mean velocity is a vector r2

quantity that is determined

by ratio of the point radius- O

vector increment ∆r to the The mean velocity vector

time interval t within which

this increment has occurred. direction coincides with the

direction ∆r

16

Velocity

of forward and uniformly moving point,

with which this point in 1 second shifts at a

distance of 1 meter.

17

Acceleration

An acceleration is a non-uniform motion characteristic that

determines the velocity change rate in absolute value and in

direction.

A mean acceleration is a vector quantity that is determined

by ratio of velocity change ∆v to the time interval ∆t within

which this change occurred.

determined by first derivative of the velocity with time

18

Components of acceleration

1. A tangential acceleration

characterizes the velocity change

rate in absolute value. It is

directed along the tangent to

trajectory.

2. A normal acceleration

characterizes the velocity change an

rate in direction. It is directed to a

the trajectory curvature center.

aτ v

19

The full acceleration in curvilinear

motion

Geometric sum of the tangential and normal

acceleration component

20

Motion classification

aτ an Motion

0 0 Straight-line and uniform

Straight-line and uniformly

aτ = a = const 0

accelerated

Straight-line, with variable

aτ = f(t) 0

acceleration

0 const Uniform, in a circle

0 ≠0 Uniform and curvilinear

Curvilinear and uniformly

const ≠0

accelerated

Curvilinear, with variable

aτ = f(t) ≠0

acceleration

21

Uniform and uniformly accelerated motion

22

Uniform motion (v = v0 = const)

v

Velocity v0

Acceleration s

0 t

s

0 t

Passed way s

s0

0 t 23

Uniformly accelerated motion

(a = const) a

a

Acceleration v

0 t

v

Velocity

v s

0 t

24

Uniformly accelerated motion

(a = const)

s

Passed way 0 t

s

s0

0 t

25

Free fall

It is a motion that body would commit

only by gravity without air resistance.

If body free falls from low altitude h

(h<<R, R – the Earth radius), then it will

move with equal acceleration g, which

directs straight down.

g = 9.81 m/s2. It is free fall acceleration.

26

Kinematic equation of motion

motion with equal acceleration g and initial velocity v0

from the point r0, can be presented as follow:

27

Projection of kinematic equation

on the axis y

The axis directs straight down. The indication point is

put at the motion beginning point. t0 = 0

28

Free fall

The path passed by body in free fall at the moment t.

1. Free fall currency

2. Velocity

29

Motion of body thrown straight up

The body moves straight up with initial speed

v 0.

Without air resistance body acceleration a in

any motion period of time is equal to free fall

acceleration g (a = g).

To the highest rise point the motion is

uniformly decelerating, and, after, this is a free

fall without initial velocity.

30

Kinematic equations

with equal acceleration g and initial velocity v0 from the point

r0, can be presented as follow:

31

Projection of kinematic equation

on the axis y

The axis directs straight up. The indication point is put at the

motion beginning point. t0 = 0

y

vt1=0

h

v0

0

v

32

Motion of body thrown straight up

Rise time

33

Motion of body thrown straight up

The common time of motion

Time of falling

34

Motion of body thrown straight up

Finite velocity of motion

equal to the initial velocity. The “minus” means

that the finite motion velocity is directed against

an axis y, i.e. straight down.

35

36

Elementary rotation angle

Elementary, or infinitesimal, turns

are considered as vectors.

An absolute value of vector dφ is

equal to the rotation angle. Its dφ

direction coincides with forward ∆φ

motion direction of screw edge. 0

Screw head goes round in point

motion direction in a circle. In

other words, it obeys the rule of

the right screws.

37

Angular velocity

v

Vector ω is directed along the ω

rotation axis according to the dφ v

rule of the right screws. 0 R

0 R ω

An angular velocity is a

vector quantity that is v

determined by the first 0 v

R 0 R

derivative of the body rotation

angle with time. dφ ω

ω

38

Connection between linear and

angular velocity

Absolute value

dφ

∆φ

0

∆s

39

Connection between linear and

angular velocity

Vector

ω with vector v direction. Its

absolute value can be

presented as:

R

v

α r

40

Unit of angular velocity

revolving body. All its points in 1 second turn relative to the

axis on angle by 1 radian.

direction. In this case this vectors can be delayed from any

point on the rotation axis.

41

Uniform motion of mass point in a

circle

It is a motion when a mass point, or body, passes

equal circular arc lengths within equal time periods.

An angular velocity:

42

Rotation period T Rotation frequency

the time when a mass point to the number of turns that a

commits the full cycle in a mass point commits in one

circle, i.e. the mass point second.

turns by angle 2π.

43

Peculiarity of uniform motion in a

circle

Uniform motion in a circle is a v

special case of curvilinear v

motion. an

an

A mass point moves with 0

velocity that is constant in an

absolute value. R v

But the direction changes

during time.

Thus, the motion is accelerated.

44

Acceleration

Normal acceleration component v

is directed along the radius to v

an

the circle centre and an

perpendicularly to the velocity

0

vector. an

A mass point acceleration in R v

any point of the circle is

centripetal.

45

Angular acceleration

An angular acceleration is a vector quantity that is

determined by first derivative of a angular velocity with

time. An angular acceleration vector is dummy vector.

ω2 ω2

ω1 ω1

ε

0 0

46

Angular acceleration

1 radian per second squared is equal to angular

acceleration of uniformly rotating body, that

changes angular acceleration on 1 radian per

second within 1 second.

47

Inertial frames. Mass and pulse. Force

48

Newton’s first law

Every object in a state of

uniform motion tends to remain

in that state of motion unless an

external force is applied to it.

There are such frames for which

forward moving bodies save

their velocity constant, unless

another bodies act on them.

Newton’s first law content

composes statement about

Sir Isaac Newton

inertial frames existence.

1642-1727

49

Newton’s first law

Inertial frame is a frame for

which a mass point, free

from external impacts, stays

at rest or moves straight and

uniform.

Noninertial frame is a frame

that moves with acceleration

relative to inertial frame.

It was empirically

established that the

heliocentric frame could be

considered as inertial system.

50

Inertia, or force of inertia

Inertia is a force specified

by accelerated base motion

relative to measurable base.

Inertia is generated by

accelerated base motion, not

by reaction between bodies.

Thus, this forces do not

obey to Newton’s laws,

because there is no

antagonistic force while

force of inertia effects to

any body. Galileo Galilei

(1564-1642)

51

52

Mass

Inertness is a inherent property. There

is resistance to velocity change in

absolute value and in direction.

Mass is a physical quantity that

determines inertial and gravity matter

properties.

Currently there is an evidence that

inertial and gravity mass are equal.

Mass is an additive quantity (composite

body mass is equal to mass sum of its

parts); mass does not change with

motion, i.e. it is constant quantity.

1 kilogram is a mass of international

kilogram prototype.

53

Pulse of mass point

It is a vector quantity that is equal to product of body mass

to its velocity. Pulse vector direction coincides with

velocity vector direction.

mass in 1 kilogram and it moves with velocity in 1 metre

per second.

54

Force

Vector quantity. It is a measure of mechanical impact from

other bodies or fields that results in accelerated motion or

changes of form and size.

At every time moment, the force is characterized by:

numeric value,

direction in space,

application point.

55

56

Common formulation

Mass point pulse change velocity is equal to

the acting force.

This equation also is known as a mass point

motion equation.

57

Formulation with acceleration

An obtained mass point acceleration is in proportion to a

force, that generates it, and inversely proportional to its

mass.

An acceleration direction coincides with the force.

58

Force unit

1 Newton is a force that imparts to the mass of 1 kilogram

an acceleration of 1 metre per squared second along force

direction.

59

Principle of superposition

If few forces have an effect on mass point, then each of

them will impart an acceleration to the mass point

according to Newton’s second law, as if other forces do

not existe.

60

Force components

Fn F

a

an

aτ Fτ

61

62

Formulation. Forces

Forces, with which mass

points effect to each other,

are always equal in absolute

value, but direct inversely.

They effect along straight

line drown between these

two points.

These forces, when applied

to different mass points,

always effect in pairs. They

are the forces of the same

nature.

63

Friction types

64

Frictional force

It is tangential force that occurs from contact between

body surfaces and prevents their displacement.

Frictional forces depend on comparative bodies velocities.

They can have different nature, but result in

transformation of mechanical energy into the internal

energy of adjoining bodies.

Forces of friction are directed along tangent line to the

friction surfaces, or layers. They oppose the relative

surfaces displacement.

65

Friction

rest dry, friction friction

Sliding Rolling

friction friction

66

Friction types

An external friction is a friction that occurs in the plane of

two bodies contacted with their relative displacement.

1.Sliding friction occurs in the case when a body slides

on the base surface.

2.Rolling friction occurs when a body rolls on the base

surface.

Friction of rest is a friction without relative displacement

of two bodies contacted.

An internal friction is a friction between parts of the same

body, e.g. between different layers of liquid or gas; while

their velocities are changed from one layer to another.

There is no friction of rest.

67

Friction of rest

The relative body motion occurs when an external friction

F > (Ffr0)max

N – normal pressure force.

68

Sliding friction

Sliding friction is

proportional to normal

pressure force N with which a

body acts on another one.

coefficient that depends on

properties of surfaces contact. It

is dimensionless quantity.

69

70

Basic concepts

A mechanical system is a mass points set, considered as a

whole.

Internal forces act between mass points of mechanical

system.

External forces act upon mass points of mechanical

system.

A closed system is a mechanical system without external

forces acting.

71

Momentum conversation

There is a mechanical system that includes n bodies. Their

mass and velocity are equal: m1, m2, … , mn and v1, v2, …

, vn respectively.

Closed system pulse is conserved, i.e. it does not change

within a time.

This law is an universal fundamental law of Nature.

72

Mass center

It is an imaginary point C that characterizes weight

deposition of that system, or body.

Mass center radius-vector

73

Law of mass center motion

whole mass system. Forces, that act on it, are equal to

geometric sum of all external forces.

74

75

Energy. Work.

An energy is universal measure of different motion forms

and their interaction.

There are different forms of energy: mechanical power,

heat, electromagnetic energy, nuclear power, etc.

Work is a quantitative characteristic of energy interchange

between interacting bodies.

F

α Fs

s

76

Work

Fs 2

dr

α

1

F

Work is a scalar quantity.

77

Fs

Work

1 dA

2

A

s

ds

shaded figure area on the chart.

1 joule is a work committed by force, that is equal to 1

Newton, in the way 1 meter.

78

James Watt

Power 1736 – 1819

It is a physical quantity that is

characterizing by the velocity

of the commitment work.

Power, developed, by force F

is equal to product of force

vector by velocity vector.

Power is a scalar quantity.

1 Watt is a power at which the

work 1 Joule is committed

within 1 second .

79

80

Kinetic energy

It is an energy of mechanical system

motion.

Kinetic energy is determined by the work

that should be committed to impart the

velocity.

81

Characteristics of kinetic energy

1. It is always positive

2. It varies in different

inertial bases

3. It is system state

function.

82

Linkage of work and kinetic energy

The kinetic energy increment of mass point on the

elementary displacement is equal to the elementary work

on the same movement.

The force F, acting on a body at rest and calling its

motion, commits the work; moving body energy increases

by expended work amount.

The work dA of force F on the way, that the body passes

within a time of velocity increment from 0 to v, spends on

kinetic body energy increment.

83

Kinetic energy

The kinetic energy of the body with mass m, moving with

velocity v, is determined by work, which should be

performed in order to impart the velocity to the body.

from point 1 to point 2

84

Theorem of kinetic energy

The kinetic energy increment of mass point at a certain

displacement is equal to algebraic sum of all the forces

acting on a mass point in the same movement.

85

86

Potential field

A field, in which the work performed by forces,

when the body moves from one position to

another, does not depend on what trajectory

occurred this motion, it depends only on the

initial and final positions.

87

Conservative forces

It is a force, whose work does not depend on the path

on which the body moves from the first point to

another one, but only depends on the initial (1) and

final (2) body position. E.g., gravity.

1 2

88

Dissipative force

It is a force, whose work depends on the body

displacement trajectory from the first point to another one.

E.g., frictional force or resisting force.

89

Work of conservative forces along

a closed path

Works A1b2 and A2a1,

they do not depend on

displacement trajectory.

They are equal in a

absolute value.

2

They differ only by

signs. 1

b

90

91

Potential energy

It is a mechanical energy of bodies

system, that is determined by their

relative position and character of

forces interacting between them.

Specific form of the function

depends on the force field nature.

In the case of a bow and arrow, the energy is converted from the potential

energy in the archer's arm to the potential energy in the bent limbs of the bow

when the string is drawn back. When the string is released, the potential energy

in the bow limbs is transferred back through the string to become kinetic

energy in the arrow as it takes flight.

92

Work of conservative forces and

potential energy

Work of conservative forces does not depend on the trajectory.

It is equal to zero on any closing path.

A change in potential energy is equal to the amount of work.

This change does not depend on the trajectory as well.

Therefore, the potential energy content is determined only by

the initial and final system configuration.

The work of conservative forces is equal to the potential energy

increment with a “minus” within the elementary (infinitesimal)

system reconfiguration, as the work is committed by the loss of

the potential energy.

93

Characteristics of potential energy

The potential energy is considered equal to zero in a

certain position. In other words, zero reference level is

selected.

The body energy is counted relative to zero.

94

Conservative force and potential

energy

- scalar gradient U;

i, j, k – unit vectors of the

axes

95

Potential energy of the body with

mass m at a height h

Potential energy is equal to the gravity work when a body

is falling from the height h on the Earth surface.

Height is measured from zero, for which U0=0 and g –

free fall acceleration.

96

Potential energy of the elastic

deformation (spring)

Force work of spring deformation

spends on the potential energy

increment of it.

k – elasticity coefficient.

97

Total mechanical energy

It is a mechanical motion and interaction

energy, or kinetic and potential energy

sum.

98

Law of energy conservation

The total amount of energy in an isolated system remains

constant over time.

For an isolated system, energy can change its location

within the system, it can also change form within the

system, but energy is neither created nor destroyed.

99

Elastic and inelastic collision

100

Collision

It is a collision of two or more bodies, when the

interaction takes a very short time.

Interaction forces between the colliding bodies (striking,

or instantaneous forces) are so large that the external

forces, acting on them, can be neglected.

Thus, the bodies system can be considered approximately

as a closed system during their collision. In that case the

laws of conservation are applied to this system.

101

Essence of strike

Kinetic energy of the colliding bodies is converted into

elastic energy in a short space of time.

There is an energy redistribution between the colliding

bodies during collision.

Observations show that the relative velocity does not

reach its original value after the collision.

This occurs due to the fact that there is no perfect elastic

bodies and perfect smooth surfaces.

102

Coefficient of restitution

It is a ratio of the normal bodies velocity components after

(vn’) and before (vn) collision.

to 0 , body will be considered as absolutely inelastic.

In a case if a body has the restitution coefficient ε that is equal

to 1, body will be considered as absolutely elastic.

103

Line of impact

is a straight line passing through the bodies contact point

and the normal to the contact surface.

Central impact

is a impact, when bodies move along a straight line passing

through their gravity center.

104

Central absolutely elastic collision

It is a collision of two bodies, when both interacting bodies

have not deformed.

All kinetic energy, that the bodies possessed before collision,

turns again into kinetic energy.

Velocity vector projections on the

v1 v2 straight line passed through the

m1 m2 balls centers are equal to velocity

module.

Their directions are taken into

account by such signs as:

v’1 v’2 “positive” value is a motion to

the right;

“negative” value is a motion

to the left

105

Laws of conservation

Conservation of momentum

106

Velocities after elastic collision

107

Special cases

m1=m2 => v’1 = v2; v’2=v1.

Balls with equal mass exchange their energy.

108

Special cases

109

Special cases

110

Special cases

111

Special cases

112

Central absolutely inelastic

collision

It is a collision of two bodies, when both bodies move

forward together as a unit.

113

Conservation of mechanical energy

There are forces between balls in the central absolutely

inelastic collision.

These forces do not depend on the deformation, but on the

velocities only.

Therefore, the forces are similar to friction forces, and

conservation of mechanical energy is not observed.

Kinetic energy ‘loss’ is a result of deformation. Energy

transforms into heat or other energy forms.

114

Difference between the kinetic

energy before and after collision

115

Special case

If the immobile body mass is very large (m1>>m2), then

v<<v1 and almost all the kinetic energy transforms into

other energy forms.

116

Inertia. Kinematic energy of rotation.

117

118

Body inertia relative to fixed axis

It is a physical quantity that is

equal to the sum of products of m2

elementary masses and the

distance squares from mass r2 m

3

point to the axis. r1

r3

Inertia is a additive value: inertia

is a body parts inertia sum. m1

119

Inertia in the case of persistent

mass distribution

Integrals are taken in a whole body volume, and the

quantities ρ and r are point functions.

ρ – body density at a given point;

dm= ρdV – mass of small body element with volume dV

that is distance r away from rotation axis.

120

Inertia of solid cylinder

There are separate hollow concentric

cylinders with an infinitesimal

thickness dr, inner r and outer r + dr

radius.

121

Parallel axis theorem,

or Huygens–Steiner theorem

The theorem determines the moment of inertia J of a rigid

body about any given axis, given that moment of inertia JC

about the parallel axis through the center of mass C of an

object and the perpendicular distance a between the axes.

122

Inertia moments of homogeneous

rigid bodies

123

Inertia moments of homogeneous

rigid bodies

124

The kinetic energy of a rotating

rigid body

Body rotates around a fixed axis

z

z.

Assume that the body is divided

into elementary mass m1, m2, … ,

mi, … at a distance r1, r2, … , ri, ri

…. mi

Rotating solid volume elements ω vi

with mass mi perform motion

along circles of different radii ri.

Angular rotation velocity of all

elements is identical.

125

The kinetic energy of a rotating

rigid body

126

The kinetic energy of the body in

planar motion

The kinetic energy is composed of the forward motion

energy with a velocity, that is equal to the mass center

velocity, and rotation energy about an axis passing

through the body mass center.

m – body mass; vC – mass center velocity; JC – body

inertia moment relative to the axis passing through the

mass center; ω – angular velocity.

127

128

Torque relative to a fixed point

Torque is a physical quantity, that is defined by the vector

product of the radius-vector, drawn from purchase 0 to A,

by the force F.

M is a pseudovector. Its direction coincides with the

forward motion direction of right-hand screw.

M

0 r F

l α

A

129

Torque relative to a fixed axis

Torque is a scalar quantity z

that is equal to the torque F

Mz

vector M projection on the

axis z. M A

r

0

130

Dynamics equation of rigid body

rotation

The body is solid.

Work of this force is

equal to the work that is

done at the whole body

turn.

131

132

Angular momentum of a mass

point relative to a fixed point

Angular momentum is a Li

physical quantity that is

defined by the vector product

of the mass point radius-vector 0 pi

ri

r, drawn from point 0, by the α

l

mass point pulse. mi

Li is a pseudovector. Its

direction coincides with the

right screw forward motion

direction.

133

Angular momentum of a mass

point relative to a fixed axis

Angular momentum is a

scalar quantity, that is equal

to the angular momentum z

vector projection on the axis pi

Liz

z.

Li mi

r

0

134

Angular momentum of a rotating

rigid body point

When a rigid body revolves about a fixed axis z, every

separate body point moves in a circle of constant radius ri

with a certain velocity vi.

Velocity and pulse is perpendicular to this radius, i.e.

radius is a vector arm mivi.

Angular momentum direction is defined by right screw

rule.

135

Angular momentum of a rigid body

relative to a fixed axis

Angular momentum is a separate particles angular

momentum sum relative to the same axis.

It is equal to the product of body angular momentum

relative to the same axis by angular velocity.

136

137

Dynamics equation of rotation

motion

is equal to the external forces moment.

138

Conservation of an angular

momentum

Angular momentum of a closed system is conserved, i.e. it

does not change within a time.

fundamental law of nature.

The law of angular momentum conservation is a

consequence of the space isotropy.

Space isotropy is the invariance of physical laws relative

to the frame axis direction choice, or relative to the closed

system rotation in space at any angle.

139

Types of deformation

140

Deformation

These are shape and size changes of solids under the

external forces action.

141

Compliance

It is a deformation that

disappears with a cessation of

the external forces action.

142

Plastic deformation

It is a deformation that is

prolonged with the

termination of the external

forces action.

Deformation of the real

body is always plastic, as

they never completely

disappear after the

termination of the external

forces action .

However, if the residual

deformations are small,

they can be neglected.

143

Strain

It is a quantitative measure that characterizes the

deformation degree. This measure is determined by the

ratio of the absolute deformation ∆x to the quantity x.

Strain specifies the initial body size and shape.

144

Longitudinal strain

Longitudinal strain is the relative change in the rod length.

145

Transverse tension (compression)

Tension (compression) is the relative change in the rod

diameter.

146

147

Stress, tension, or strain

It is the force which is acting on the area unit of body

cross-section.

If the force is perpendicular to the surface, the stress is

normal; if the force is tangential to the surface, the stress

is tangential.

to each other for small deformations.

148

Young's modulus

Young's modulus, also known as the tensile

modulus or elastic modulus, is an elastic material stiffness

measure and is a quantity used to characterize materials.

Young's modulus is determined by the stress causing an

elongation that is equal to one.

149

Hooke’s law

The body extension is in direct

proportion with the load applied to it.

Hooke's law holds only for elastic

deformations.

In the case where l is

the displacement of the spring's end

from its equilibrium position, F is the

restoring force exerted by the spring

on that end, and k is a constant called

the rate or spring constant. Robert Hooke

1635 – 1703

150

Potential energy of the stretched

(compressed) rod

Potential energy is equal to the work, that is committed by

external forces during the deformation.

151

Kepler’s laws. The law of gravity

152

153

The first Kepler’s law

The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one

of the two foci.

Note that the Sun is not at the center of the ellipse, but at

one of its foci.

The other focal point, marked with a lighter dot, has no

physical significance for the orbit.

The center of an ellipse is the midpoint of the line

segment joining its focal points.

A circle is a special case of an ellipse where both focal

points coincide.

154

155

The first Kepler’s law

The perihelion is the point in the orbit of

a planet, asteroid or comet where it is nearest to the sun.

The aphelion is the point in the orbit of

a planet or comet where it is farthest from the Sun.

Earth comes closest to the sun every year about January 3.

It is farthest from the sun every year about July 4.

The difference in distance between Earth's nearest point to

the sun in January and the farthest point from the sun in

July is not very great.

Earth is about 147.1 million kilometers from the sun in

early January, in contrast to about 152.1 million

kilometers in early July.

156

The second Kepler’s law

A line joining a planet and the

Sun sweeps out equal areas

during equal intervals of time.

157

The third Kepler’s law

The square of the orbital period of a planet is

directly proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of

its orbit.

Kepler's third law as applied to the planets and satellites,

allows, in particular, to calculate the planets masses.

158

The law of gravity

Every object in the Universe attracts every other object

with a force directed along the centers line for the two

objects that is proportional to the product of their masses

and inversely proportional to the separation square

between the two objects.

Fg is the gravitational force

m1 & m2 are the two objects

masses

r is the separation between the

objects

G is the universal gravitational

constant (6,67 * 1011 N*m2/kg2)

159

Gravitational field

It is the field,

through which

the gravitational

interaction occurs

between the

bodies.

This field is

generated by the

bodies and is a

matter existence

form.

160

Generalized law of Galileo

All the bodies fall with the same acceleration (free fall

acceleration) in the same gravitational field.

The free fall acceleration on Earth, near the Earth surface

is 9.8 m/s2. On the moon it is 1.6m/s2

But as the object moves further and further away from the

Earth, or any massive body, the acceleration due to gravity

decreases by the inverse square law.

Thus rather than being a constant value, the acceleration

infinitely approaches zero as the object infinitely

approaches infinity.

161

162

Gravity

Gravity is the force acting on any body located near the

surface.

It is directed straight down.

163

Gravity force and gravitation

the Earth and the body height above the Earth.

m is the body mass;

M is the Earth mass;

R is the Earth radius;

G is the universal gravitational constant.

164

Body weight

Weight is the force with which the body effects on the

support, or suspension due to the Earth gravitation, that

keeps the body from free fall.

Gravity force always exists. Weight is revealed, when

there are other forces except the gravity force, acting on

the body.

Thus, the body moves with acceleration a, not with free

fall acceleration g.

165

Weightlessness (imponderability)

It is a body state in which it is moving only by gravity.

If the body is moving freely in the gravitational field

along any path along any direction, the acceleration is

equal to the free fall acceleration and the weight is equal

to zero, i.e. body is weightless.

166

167

168

Distinctive peculiarity of liquids

and gases

Gas molecules commit a random and chaotic motion.

They are not connected or are very poorly connected by

the interaction forces. Therefore, they are moving freely.

As a result of collisions they tend to fly away in order to

fill all given amount, i.e. amount of gas is determined by

the volume of the vessel.

Liquid has a certain amount. And it takes the shape of the

vessel in which it is contained. But in liquids, in contrast

to the gas, average distance remains almost constant

between the molecules. Thus, the liquid has almost the

same amount.

169

Liquids and gases

The liquids and gases behavior is defined by the same

parameters and identical equations in a number of

mechanical phenomena. Thus there is a single term

“liquid”.

Incompressible fluid is a liquid or gas, where the

density dependence of the pressure can be neglected.

170

Fluid pressure

If the lamina is placed into the static fluid, the fluid parts

from different sides will act on each element with forces,

that are equal to the absolute values and their directions

are perpendicular to the plate.

Fluid pressure is a physical quantity, that is defined by

forces acting from the fluid side on the area unit in a

perpendicular direction to the surface.

171

Pressure unit

1 Pascal is the pressure generated by the force 1 Newton

that is distributed along the normal to the surface with

area 1 meter squared.

172

173

Pascal’s law

Pascal's Laws relates to pressures in fluids - liquid or

gaseous state:

if the weight of a fluid is neglected the pressure throughout

an enclosed volume will be the same

the static pressure in a fluid acts equally in all directions

the static pressure acts at right angles to any surface in

contact with the fluid.

E.g., hydraulic lift.

174

Archimedean principle

A body immersed in a fluid

undergoes an apparent loss in

the weight equal to the weight

of displaced fluid.

Archimedes

Thoughtful by Fetti (1620)

175

Hydrostatic pressure

Fluid pressure in equilibrium horizontally always the

same, otherwise an equilibrium does not exist.

Therefore, free surface fluid at rest is always horizontal in

a distance from the vessel walls.

If the fluid is incompressible, its density will not depend

on the pressure.

The pressure varies linearly with height.

176

177

Basic concepts

Current is a liquid motion.

Stream is a totality of particles in a moving fluid.

Stream-line is a line, in which every point has a tangential

line that coincides with the velocity vector direction at a

given time. Stream-line pattern can characterize direction

and absolute value of velocity at different space points, i.e.

it characterizes the fluid state.

Fluid tube is a fluid part within a stream-line.

Sustained stationary current is a fluid current, when the

shape and location of the stream-lines and velocities

values do not change within a time at each point.

178

Equation of continuity for

incompressible fluid

Product of an incompressible fluid velocity on the tube

cross-section is constant for a given tube.

179

180

Basic data

Perfect fluid is an imaginary fluid, where there are no

internal friction forces (physical abstraction).

181

Total fluid energy

Total energy derived from the kinetic and potential energy

in the gravity field.

According to the law of energy conservation, the change

in the total energy of perfect incompressible fluid is equal

to external forces work to move the fluid mass between

the sections.

182

Work of external forces

incompressible fluid Sv=const, the volume occupied by

liquid remains constant.

183

The Bernoulli equation

Bernoulli performed his

experiments on liquids, so his

equation in its original form is

valid only for incompressible

flow and for real fluids with small

internal friction force.

Daniel Bernoulli

8 February 1700 –

17 March 1782

184

185

Viscosity (internal friction)

It is a quantity of real liquids that describes the resistance

to displacement of the first fluid part relative to another

one.

When one layer of a real fluid moves relative to another

layer, there are internal friction forces directed along the

tangential to the layers surface.

These forces consist in the fact that:

the layer, moving quickly, effects on the layer, moving

slowly, with accelerating force.

the layer, moving slowly, effects on the layer, moving

quickly, with inhibitory force.

186

Velocity gradient

It is a quantity that shows

how fast velocity changes

within a passage from the

first layer to the next layer

in the direction x, that is

perpendicular to the layers

motion direction.

187

Internal friction force

Internal friction force

depends on the fact, how

much the velocity changes

within a passage from the

first layer to another one.

188

Dynamic viscosity

It is defined by internal friction force, that is acting at the

layer surface unit, when there is a velocity gradient, which

is equal to one.

189

Unit of dynamic viscosity

If a fluid with a viscosity of 1 Pascal-second is placed

between two plates, and one plate is pushed sideways with

a shear stress of 1 Pascal, the fluid moves a distance equal

to the thickness of the layer between the plates in

1 second.

190

191

Laminar flow

Laminar flow (or streamline flow) occurs when a fluid

flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between the

layers.

Laminar flow occurs when a fluid moves with lower

velocities.

The external layers are immovable because of molecular

adhesion forces.

The following layers velocities are increasing with

increment of a distance to the pipe surface.

192

Turbulent flow

In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow

regime characterized by chaotic and stochastic property

changes.

193

Reynolds number

The Reynolds number is a dimensionless measure that

determines fluid current character.

If Re≤1000, the flow will be laminar.

1000 ≤ Re≤2000 there is a passage from laminar flow to

the turbulent.

If the pipe is smooth and Re=2300, the flow will be

turbulent.

194

Reynolds number

For the same Re a flow is

the same for different

fluids in pipes with

different section.

Osborne Reynolds

(1842–1912)

195

196

Stokes’ technique

This technique is based on the

velocity measure of small

slowly moving spheres in a

fluid.

(1819–1903)

197

Stokes’ technique

Gravity

Archimedes force

Resistance force

is a free fall acceleration; v is a ball velocity.

198

Stokes’ technique

199

Pouiseuille’s technique

This technique is based on the

laminar flow in a fine capillary.

There is a capillary with radius R

and with length l. There is mentally

divided cylindrical layer with

radius r and thickness dr.

(1797–1869)

200

Pouiseuille’s technique

Internal friction force acting on the

lateral layer surface dS

pressure force acting on its base.

201

Pouiseuille’s technique

Fluid particles velocities

Koefficient of dynamic

viscosity

202

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