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Efisiensi Boiler – ASME PTC 4.

Rembang, 26-28 Februari 2018


Efisiensi Boiler
• Efisiensi boiler menunjukkan kinerja suatu boiler
• Plant Heat Rate dipengaruhi oleh kinerja boiler
• Banyak parameter yang mempengaruhi kinerja
boiler
• Efisiensi boiler umumnya dihitung menggunakan
ASME Standard PTC 4.1
• Dua metode perhitungan dalam PTC 4.1:
– Direct method (input-output method)
– Indirect method (loss method)
ASME Standard PTC 4.1
ASME Standard PTC 4.1 – Direct Method

• Dikenal juga sebagai input-output method


karena perhitungan hanya memerlukan steam
output dan heat input (bahan bakar) untuk
mengevaluasi efisiensi.
• Formula efisiensi direct method:
ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡
𝐵𝑜𝑖𝑙𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 = 𝑥100%
ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡
ASME Standard PTC 4.1 – Losses Method

• Losses method atau indirect method lebih sering


digunakan karena data tersedia pada control room
• Lebih akurat tetapi perlu lebih banyak input data yang
harus disediakan
• Terdapat 8 macam kerugian yang mempengaruhi
efisiensi boiler
• Efisiensi dihitung dengan mengurangkan 100 dengan
semua kerugian
• Formula efisiensi losses method:
𝐵𝑜𝑖𝑙𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 = 100 − (𝐿1 + 𝐿2 + 𝐿3 + 𝐿4 + 𝐿5 + 𝐿6 + 𝐿7 + 𝐿8 )
ASME Standard PTC 4.1 – Losses Method

• L1 – Loss due to dry fue gas (sensible heat)


• L2 – Loss due to hydrogen in fuel
• L3 – Loss due to moisture in fuel
• L4 – Loss due to moisture in air
• L5 – Loss due to carbon monoxide
• L6 – Loss due to surface radiation, convection,
and other uncounted
• L7 – Unburnt carbon losses in fly ash
• L8 – Unburnt carbon losses in bottom ash

𝐵𝑜𝑖𝑙𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 = 100 − (𝐿1 + 𝐿2 + 𝐿3 + 𝐿4 + 𝐿5 + 𝐿6 + 𝐿7 + 𝐿8


ASME Standard PTC 4.1 – Losses Method

• Data:
– C 49.32% GCVfuel 4200 kcal/kg
– H 2,03% Cpflue gas 0,23 kcal/kg.K
– O 6,28% Cpsh 0,45 kcal/kg.K
– S 0,53% Humidity ratio 0,0204 kg/kg dry air
– TM 36,6% Vm 2 m/s
– Ash 5,0% GCVfly ash 37,45 kcal/kg
– %O2 3,48% GCVbottom ash 101,756 kcal/kg
– %CO 0,55% Ts 333 K
– Tf 143°C Ta 306 K
ASME Standard PTC 4.1 – Losses Method

• Step-1: hitung kebutuhan udara stoikiometrik


– SA = 4,882 kg/kg batu bara
• Step-2: hitung excess air (EA)
– EA = 19,6%
• Step-3: Hitung udara suplai aktual (AAS)
– AAS = (1+EA/100) x udara stoikiometrik = 7,287 kg/kg
batu bara
• Step-4: Hitung massa flue gas
– m = massa flue gas = massa CO2 + massa SO2 + massa
N2 + massa O2
– m = 7,69 kg/kg batu bara
ASME Standard PTC 4.1 – Losses Method

• L1 = m x Cpflue gas x (Tf – Ta) x 100/GCVfuel


L1 = 7,69 x 0,23 x (149-33) x 100/4200 = 4,88%
• L2 = 9 x H2 x (584 + Cpsteam x (Tf-Ta)) x 100/GCVfuel
L2 = 9 x 0,0203 x (584 + 0,45 x (149-33)) x 100/4200
= 2,77%
• L3 = M x (584 + Cpsteam x (Tf-Ta) x 100/GCVfuel
• L3 = 0,36 x (584 + 0,45 x (149-33) x 100/4200 = 5,45%
ASME Standard PTC 4.1 – Losses Method

• L4 = AAS x humidity x Cpsteam x (Tf-Ta) x 100/GCVfuel


L4 = 7,287 x 0,0204 x 0,45 x (149-33) x 100/4200 =
0.18%
• L5 = ((%CO x C)/(%CO + %CO2)) x (5744/GCVfuel) x 100
L5 = (0,55 x 0,4932)/(0,55 + 17) x (5744/4200) x 100 =
2,18%
• L6 = 0,548 x [(Ts/55,55)4 – (Ta/55,55)4] + 1,975 x (Ts-
Ta)1,25 x [(196,85 x Vm + 68,9)/68,9]0,5
L6 = 0,12% (atau menggunakan diagram
ASME Standard PTC 4.1 – Losses Method

• L7 = ma x GCVfly ash x 100/GCVfuel


L7 = 0,05 x 37,45x 100/4200 = 0,04%
• L8 = ma x GCVbottom ash x 100/GCVfuel
L8 = 0,05 x 101,756x 100/4200 = 0,12%

• Efisiensi boiler
= 100 – (4,88+2,77+5,45+0,18+2,18+0,12+0,04+0,12)
= 84,24%
88

87

86
Boiler Efficiency ($)

85

84

83

82

81
15 20 25 30 35 40 45
TM (%)
85.2

85.0

84.8

84.6
Boiler Efficincy

84.4

84.2

84.0

83.8

83.6

83.4
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Excess Air (%)
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