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Programmable Logic Controller

(PLC)
Contents
 Control Process
 What is PLC?
 General Architecture of PLC
 PLC Operating Cycle
 PLC Hardware Type
 PLC Architecture Evolution
 Programming of PLC
 Basic PLC Advantages
 Applications
Control Process
 Physical Quantity is sensed in the form of small
current/voltage e.g. Temperature, Pressure, Flow,
Level etc (Sensor)
 This Electrical Signal is amplified to a certain level
(Amplifier)
 Then amplified analogue output is converted into
digital form. (Analogue to Digital Converter i.e.
A/D)
 This digital output is fed to the controller of the
system to control the various physical quantities
with the help of different devices. (PLC,
Microcontroller, DSP etc…)
Block Diagram Amplified
Analogue output

Physical Quantity Amplifier A/D


(Temperature, Pressure etc..)

Digital

Controller
Analogue output (PLC, Microcontroller etc…)
in mA/mV

Control signals
Digital /Analogue

Devices
(Motors etc…)
What is PLC?
A digitally operating electronic apparatus
which uses a programmable memory for
internal storage of instructions
 Implement specific functions, such as logic,
sequencing, timing, counting and arithmetic
 Control various types of machines or
process through digital or analogue
input/output.
Traditional concept of PLC

 PLC performs relay equivalent functions

 PLC performs ON/OFF control

 Designed for industrial environment


 A typical PLC can be divided into four
components:
 Processor unit
 Power supply
 Input/output section
 Programming device
General Architecture of PLC
Input of PLC
Types of Voltages:
 DC: 12V, 24V, 48V
 AC: 120V/220V

Input Devices:
 Pushbuttons
 Sensors
 Relay Contacts etc…

*Input of a PLC can be Digital as well as Analogue


Contd…

 PLC input is the load in the circuit, sensing if


voltage is present.
Output of PLC
Types of Voltages:
DC: 12V, 24V, 48V
AC: 120V/220V
Output Devices:
 Relays (24V DC/AC, 120V/220V AC)
 Transistors MOSFET (24V DC)
 Valves
 Solenoids
 Light
 Fan etc….
*Output of a PLC can be Digital as well as Analogue
Contd…

PLC output is a switch, controlling the current


flow to the load.
PLC Operating Cycle
PLC Signal Flow

Output
PLC Hardware Type
 A most basic PLC system is a self contained PLC which has
two terminal blocks, one for the Input and other for the
Output, called “Micros”.
 Typically they provide front panel LED status indication of
I/O and processor status.
2. Modular Chassis Based PLC
 The vast majority of PLC’s installed today are
modular chassis based PLC consisting of:
3. Modular Chassis-less PLC Systems
 The advanced PLC’s are chassis-less
 These are modular PLC systems.
 These systems also have:
-Processor - Power supply
-I/O modules -Communication card
 These components mount directly on a
panel to allow easy insertion and removal.
General PLC Blocks
Personal Computer
220V, 50/60Hz
RS 232

Power CP Communicat Analogue Analogue Digital Digital


Supply U -ion Module Input Output Input Output

AC to DC conversion (12V or 48V)


Contd…
Contd…

48V DC
Contd…

48V DC
Contd…
Contd…

Bus system is
PLC Architecture Evolution
PLC Architecture Evolution
PLC Architecture Evolution
PLC Architecture Evolution
PLC Architecture Evolution
PLC Architecture Evolution
PLC Application Considerations
 Number of I/O: 10, 16, 20, 32, 156 etc…
 Memory:
-Types: Flash or Battery Backed
- Size: 1k, 6k, 12k, 16k, 64k etc…
 Functions Required:
- Instruction Set: Messaging, PWM etc..
- Arithmetic
- Communications: Ethernet, Profibus etc…

 Report Generation
Programming of PLC
 The purpose of a PLC program is to
control the state of outputs based on the
current condition of the inputs.
Types of programming :
 Ladder Logic (Analogous to Relay Technology)
 Function Block (FB’s based on AND-OR logic)
 Visual Basic (VB based on C language)

*DOS based programming (Old Technology)


1. Ladder Logic
 Most popular and most commonly used
PLC language is known as “Ladder Logic” .
 Ladder Logic purposely resembles relay
logic.
 In order to control a process we try to
design the logical continuity from input to
output of program.
PLC’s Use Ladder Logic
 Ladder Logic Diagrams Provide a Method
to Symbolically Show How Relay Control
Schemes are Implemented
 Relay Contacts and Coils, Inputs and
Outputs lie on “Rungs” Between the
Positive and Ground Rails
Example of Ladder Diagram
Relays
 In General, Relays Transform a Control
Signal into a Control Action
 Relays Provide:
◦ Isolation Between Input and Output
◦ Leverage (Small Signal Can Control Large
Action)
◦ Automation (Minimize Human Interaction
with a Control Process)
Relay Components
Basic Relay Symbols
Relay Applications
 Relays can be Designed to Perform Many
Functions
◦ Detect Out of Limit Conditions on Voltages
and Currents
◦ Start Motors
◦ Prevent Motors from Over Heating
◦ Control Assembly Lines
◦ Adjust Lighting
Ladder Logic Concepts

Line Neutral
Ladder Logic Concepts
Ladder Logic Concepts
Read and Write Instruction

Read Instruction

Write Instruction
Some Important Instructions
 Latching/Unlatching Instruction:

Latch

Retain the output energized until reset


Unlatch
Timer Instructions

 Timer ON Delay(TON)

 Timer OFF Delay(TOF)

 Retentive timer-on delay(RTO)


Counter Instructions

 Counter Up (CTU)

 Counter Down (CTD)


Comparison Instructions

 Equal (EQU)
 Not Equal (NEQ)
 Less Than (LES)
 Less Than or Equal (LEQ)
 Greater Than (GRT)
 Greater Than or Equal (GEQ)

Some other instructions are Sequencer Instruction, Shift Register Instruction


etc…
Function Block
 Based on pre-defined blocks of various
functions

A AND
B
Basic PLC Advantages
 Ease of Programming
 Ease of Maintenance
 Designed for Industrial Environment
 Suitable for Extreme Environmental
Conditions
 Quick Installation
 Adaptable to Change
Applications