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# Correlation and Regression

Correlation

Independent Dependent
Variable Variable
(Interval/Ratio) (Interval/Ratio)
Correlation
 Test of relationship between two variables which are
quantitative in nature.
 Relationship between Independent variable (X) and
Dependent variable (Y).
 Where: X- interval/ratio scale
Y- interval/ ratio scale
Vital Information (correlation)
 r --- Strength of Relationship

##  r – squared --- coefficient of determination

Correlation Coefficient “r”
Values of r Interpretation
0.0 No relationship
+ 0.01 to + 0.20 Indifferent/ negligible relationship
+ 0 .21 to + 0.40 Low correlation
+ 0. 41 to + 0.60 Substantial/ marked correlation
+ 0. 61 to + 0.80 High correlation
+ 0 .81 to + 0.99 Very high correlation
+ 1.0 Perfect Correlation
To determine if there is a significant relationship between
Variable X and Variable Y.

α – value = 0.05

## If p- value is less than α , then reject Ho

If p-value is greater than or equal to α, do not reject Ho

## 0.00 0.05 1.00

Coefficient of Determination
 r = 0.5
 r-squared = 0.25 or 25%
 The coefficient of determination is 25%
 Interpretation: 25% of the variations in the
dependent variable is brought about by
the variations in the independent variable.
Regression
 To predict the value of Dependent Variable (Y) given
the value of Independent Variable (X).

## bo -- the value of Y if X is zero

b1 – the value of the increase/decrease in (Y) for
every unit increase/decrease in (X).
Example 1
Respondents Variable X Variable Y
1 2 10
2 3 15
3 4 20
4 5 25
5 6 30
6 7 35

Variable X Variable Y
Objective
 To determine if there is a significant relationship
between variable X and variable Y.
 To determine if there is a significant association
between variable X and variable Y.
Null Hypothesis
 Ho: There is no significant relationship
between variable X and variable Y.
Alternative Hypothesis
 Ha: There is a significant relationship
between variable X and variable Y.
Scatter plot
Y-Values
35

30

25

20

15 Y-Values

10

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
SPSS Output on the relationship
between variable X and variable Y
Variable X Variable Y
Variable X Pearson Correlation 1 1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000
N 6 6
Variable Y Pearson Correlation 1.000 1
Sig (2-tailed) 0.000
N 6 6
Results and Interpretation
 r = 1.00 --- There is a positive perfect correlation
between variable X and variable Y .
 p = 0.000 --- There is a significant relationship
between variable X and variable Y
 r- squared = 1.0 or 100% --- 100% of the variations in
by the variations in variable X
Conclusion
 There is a significant relationship between variable
X and variable Y.
Regression
 bo = 0 and b1 = 5
 Equation of regression line: Y = bo + b1X
Y = 0 + 5X

Y = 0 + 5 (10)
Y = 50

## *** Predict the value of Y if X = 50

Y = 0 + 5 ( 50)
Y = 250
Example 2
Students Age Numbers of sticks of
Cigarettes smoked
daily
1 16 6
2 17 8
3 19 8
4 19 10
5 20 12
6 21 13
7 18 7

## Age Smoking practices

Objective
 To determine if there is a significant relationship between
the age of students and the number of sticks of cigarettes
they smoked.
Null Hypothesis
 Ho: There is no significant relationship between
the age of students and the number of sticks of
cigarettes they smoked.
Alternative Hypothesis
 Ha: There is a significant relationship between the age of
students and the number of sticks of cigarettes they
smoked.
Scatter Plot
Y-Values
14

12

10

6 Y-Values

0
0 5 10 15 20 25
SPSS Output on the relationship
between variable X and variable Y
Age Number of sticks of
cigarettes
Variable X Pearson Correlation 1 0.908
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.005
N 7 7
Variable Y Pearson Correlation 0.908 1
Sig (2-tailed) 0.005
N 7 7
Results and Interpretation
 r = +0.908 --- There is a (positive, very high
correlation )between the two variables
 p = 0.005 --- There is a significant relationship
between the two variables.
 r- squared = 0.8244 or 82.44% --- 82.44% of the
variations in the dependent variable
is brought about by the variations
in the independent variable.
Conclusion
 There is a significant relationship between the age
of students and the number of sticks of cigarettes
they smoked.
Research Conclusion
 Age of the respondents affects their smoking practices.

##  Older respondents tends to smoke more compare to

younger respondents.

##  Number of sticks of cigarette smoke increases with

age.
Example 3
Respondents Mean hours of TV Reading Test scores
watch daily

1 2 75

2 2 78

3 4 72

4 6 60

5 3 76

6 1 85
7 5 55

Number of Hours
spent watching TV Reading Test scores
Objective
 To determine if there is a significant relationship between
the reading test scores and the number of hours spent
watching TV.
Null Hypothesis
 Ho: There is no significant relationship between
the reading test scores and the number of hours
spent watching TV.
Alternative Hypothesis
 Ha: There is a significant relationship between the
reading test scores and the number of hours spent
watching TV.
Scatter Plot
Y-Values
90
80
70
60
50
40 Y-Values
30
20
10
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
SPSS Output on the relationship
between variable X and variable Y
Watching TV
(X) (Y)
Variable X Pearson Correlation 1 -0.918
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.003
N 7 7
Variable Y Pearson Correlation -0.918 1
Sig (2-tailed) 0.003
N 7 7
Results and Interpretation
 r = -0.918 --- There is a (negative, very high
correlation )between the two
variables .
 p = 0.003 --- There is a significant relationship
between the two variables.
 r- squared = 0.8427 or 84.27% --- 84.27% of the
variations in the dependent variable
is brought about by the variations
in the independent variable.
Conclusion
 There is a significant relationship between the
reading test scores of students and the number of
hours spent watching TV.
Research Conclusion
 The time spent in watching TV affects the reading
performance of the students.