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# Introduction to

Flowcharting

1
START

“How many
hours did you
work?”

## diagram that depicts Display message

“How much do
the “flow” of a you get paid per
hour?”

program.
• The figure shown here
is a flowchart for the Multiply Hours
by PayRate.
Store result in
pay-calculating GrossPay.

## Program 1-1. GrossPay

END
2
Basic Flowchart START Terminal

“How many
hours did you
work?”

## – represented by rounded Display message

“How much do
rectangles you get paid per
hour?”
– indicate a starting or

Multiply Hours
by PayRate.
START Store result in
GrossPay.

Display
GrossPay

END Terminal
END
3
Basic Flowchart START

“How many
hours did you
work?”

## – represented by Display message

“How much do Input/Output
parallelograms you get paid per
Operation
hour?”
– indicate an input or output

Multiply Hours
by PayRate.
Display message Store result in
GrossPay.
“How many
hours did you Display
GrossPay
work?”
END
4
Basic Flowchart START

“How many
hours did you
work?”

## – represented by rectangles Display message

“How much do
– indicates a process such as you get paid per
hour?”
a mathematical

assignment
Multiply Hours
by PayRate.
Process Store result in
Multiply Hours GrossPay.
by PayRate.
Store result in Display
GrossPay
GrossPay.
END
5
Four Flowchart Structures
• Sequence
• Decision
• Repetition
• Case

6
Sequence Structure
• A series of actions are performed in sequence
• The pay-calculating example was a sequence
flowchart.

7
Decision Structure
• The flowchart segment below shows how a decision
structure is expressed in C++ as an if/else statement.

## Flowchart C++ Code

NO YES if (x < y)
x < y? a = x * 2;
else
Calculate a Calculate a a = x + y;
as x plus y. as x times 2.

8
Decision Structure
• The flowchart segment below shows a decision structure
with only one action to perform. It is expressed as an if
statement in C++ code.
Flowchart C++ Code

NO YES if (x < y)
x < y? a = x * 2;

Calculate a
as x times 2.

9
Repetition Structure
• The flowchart segment below shows a repetition structure
expressed in C++ as a while loop.

## Flowchart C++ Code

while (x < y)

YES x++;
x < y? Add 1 to x

10
Controlling a Repetition
Structure
• The action performed by a repetition structure must
eventually cause the loop to terminate. Otherwise, an
infinite loop is created.
• In this flowchart segment, x is never changed. Once the
loop starts, it will never end.
• QUESTION: How can this
YES
flowchart be modified so x < y? Display x
it is no longer an infinite
loop?

11
Controlling a Repetition
Structure
changes the value of x.

YES
x < y? Display x Add 1 to x

12
Case Structure

If years_employed = 2, If years_employed = 3,
bonus is set to 200 bonus is set to 400
If years_employed = 1, If years_employed is
CASE
bonus is set to 100 years_employed any other value, bonus
is set to 800

1 2 3 Other

13
Connectors

## •The “A” connector

A
indicates that the second START

## flowchart segment begins

where the first segment
ends.

END
A

14
Modules
START
•The position of the module
symbol indicates the point the Read Input.
module is executed.
•A separate flowchart can be Call calc_pay
function.
constructed for the module.

Display results.

END

15
Combining Structures
• This flowchart segment
shows two decision NO YES
structures combined. x > min?

Display “x is NO YES
outside the limits.”
x < max?

Display “x is Display “x is
outside the limits.” within limits.”

16
Review
• What do each of the following symbols
represent?

17
• What do each of the following symbols
represent?
Decision
Terminal

Input/Output
Operation Connector

Process Module

18
Review
• Name the four flowchart structures.

19
• Sequence
• Decision
• Repetition
• Case

20
Review
• What type of structure is this?

21
• Repetition

22
Review
• What type of structure is this?

23
• Sequence

24
Review
• What type of structure is this?

25
• Case

26
Review
• What type of structure is this?