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Introduction to

Flowcharting

1
START

What is a Flowchart? Display message


“How many
hours did you
work?”

• A flowchart is a Read Hours

diagram that depicts Display message


“How much do
the “flow” of a you get paid per
hour?”

program.
Read PayRate
• The figure shown here
is a flowchart for the Multiply Hours
by PayRate.
Store result in
pay-calculating GrossPay.

program shown in Display

Program 1-1. GrossPay

END
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Basic Flowchart START Terminal

Symbols Display message


“How many
hours did you
work?”

• Terminals Read Hours

– represented by rounded Display message


“How much do
rectangles you get paid per
hour?”
– indicate a starting or
ending point Read PayRate

Multiply Hours
by PayRate.
START Store result in
GrossPay.

Display
GrossPay

END Terminal
END
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Basic Flowchart START

Symbols Display message


“How many
hours did you
work?”

• Input/Output Operations Read Hours

– represented by Display message


“How much do Input/Output
parallelograms you get paid per
Operation
hour?”
– indicate an input or output
operation Read PayRate

Multiply Hours
by PayRate.
Display message Store result in
GrossPay.
“How many
Read Hours
hours did you Display
GrossPay
work?”
END
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Basic Flowchart START

Symbols Display message


“How many
hours did you
work?”

• Processes Read Hours

– represented by rectangles Display message


“How much do
– indicates a process such as you get paid per
hour?”
a mathematical
computation or variable Read PayRate

assignment
Multiply Hours
by PayRate.
Process Store result in
Multiply Hours GrossPay.
by PayRate.
Store result in Display
GrossPay
GrossPay.
END
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Four Flowchart Structures
• Sequence
• Decision
• Repetition
• Case

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Sequence Structure
• A series of actions are performed in sequence
• The pay-calculating example was a sequence
flowchart.

7
Decision Structure
• The flowchart segment below shows how a decision
structure is expressed in C++ as an if/else statement.

Flowchart C++ Code

NO YES if (x < y)
x < y? a = x * 2;
else
Calculate a Calculate a a = x + y;
as x plus y. as x times 2.

8
Decision Structure
• The flowchart segment below shows a decision structure
with only one action to perform. It is expressed as an if
statement in C++ code.
Flowchart C++ Code

NO YES if (x < y)
x < y? a = x * 2;

Calculate a
as x times 2.

9
Repetition Structure
• The flowchart segment below shows a repetition structure
expressed in C++ as a while loop.

Flowchart C++ Code

while (x < y)

YES x++;
x < y? Add 1 to x

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Controlling a Repetition
Structure
• The action performed by a repetition structure must
eventually cause the loop to terminate. Otherwise, an
infinite loop is created.
• In this flowchart segment, x is never changed. Once the
loop starts, it will never end.
• QUESTION: How can this
YES
flowchart be modified so x < y? Display x
it is no longer an infinite
loop?

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Controlling a Repetition
Structure
• ANSWER: By adding an action within the repetition that
changes the value of x.

YES
x < y? Display x Add 1 to x

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Case Structure

If years_employed = 2, If years_employed = 3,
bonus is set to 200 bonus is set to 400
If years_employed = 1, If years_employed is
CASE
bonus is set to 100 years_employed any other value, bonus
is set to 800

1 2 3 Other

bonus = 100 bonus = 200 bonus = 400 bonus = 800

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Connectors

•The “A” connector


A
indicates that the second START

flowchart segment begins


where the first segment
ends.

END
A

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Modules
START
•The position of the module
symbol indicates the point the Read Input.
module is executed.
•A separate flowchart can be Call calc_pay
function.
constructed for the module.

Display results.

END

15
Combining Structures
• This flowchart segment
shows two decision NO YES
structures combined. x > min?

Display “x is NO YES
outside the limits.”
x < max?

Display “x is Display “x is
outside the limits.” within limits.”

16
Review
• What do each of the following symbols
represent?

(Answer on next slide)


17
Answer
• What do each of the following symbols
represent?
Decision
Terminal

Input/Output
Operation Connector

Process Module

18
Review
• Name the four flowchart structures.

(Answer on next slide)


19
Answer
• Sequence
• Decision
• Repetition
• Case

20
Review
• What type of structure is this?

(Answer on next slide)


21
Answer
• Repetition

22
Review
• What type of structure is this?

(Answer on next slide)


23
Answer
• Sequence

24
Review
• What type of structure is this?

(Answer on next slide)


25
Answer
• Case

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Review
• What type of structure is this?

(Answer on next slide)


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Answer
• Decision

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Examples ???

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