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 Describe characteristics, strengths, weaknesses

and kinds or quantitative research.

 Illustrate the importance of quantitative research
across fields
 Differentiate the kinds of variables and their
 The word research was coined from the French word
“cerhier” which means seek. The prefix “re” means
 Research is widely recognized as an important tool for
solving man’s various problem and in making life
more colourful and convenient.
 Research is a natural day-to-day activity of gathering
 Quantitative Research is an objective, systematic
empirical investigation of observable phenomena
through the use of computational techniques.

 It highlights numerical analysis of data hoping that the

numbers yield unbiased results that can be generalized
to some larger population and explain a particular
 Objective
 Clearly defined research question
 Structured research instruments
 Numerical data
 Large sample sizes
 Replication
 Future outcomes
 Quantitative research seeks accurate
measurement and analysis of target concepts. It
is not based on mere intuitions and guesses. Data
are gathered before proposing a conclusion or
solution to a problem.
 The research questions are well-defined for which
objective answers are sought. All aspect of the
study are carefully designed before data are
 Data are normally gathered using structured
research tools such as questionnaires to collect
measurable characteristics of the population like
age, socio-economic status, number of children,
among others.
 Data are in the form of numbers and statistics, often
organized and presented using tables, charts, graphs,
and figures that consolidate large numbers of data to
show trends, relationships, or differences among
 To arrive at a more reliable data analysis, a normal
population distribution curve is preferred. This
requires a large sample size depending on how the
characteristics of the population vary. Random
sampling is recommended in determining the sample
size to avoid researcher’s bias in interpreting the
 Byusing complex mathematical calculations and
with the aid of computers, if-then scenarios may
be formulated thus predicting future results.
 Reliable quantitative studies can be repeated to
verify or confirm the correctness of the results in
another setting.
Research Aspect Quantitative Research
Purpose To test hypotheses, look at cause and effect, and make predictions

Samples Large samples and randomly selected to produce generalizable

results that apply to other situations
Criteria to identify Representative: chosen informants must represent the target group
respondents or key
Design of method Systematic: survey with closed questions
Data collection Structures response categories provided
Type of data collected Numbers and statistics
Key concepts of Explanation: How, How many, Who does what, causal-explanations
Research Aspect Quantitative Research
Form of data collected Quantitative data based on precise measurements using structured and
validated data-collection instruments
Level of Structuration High: The possibilities of answers are laid out for response, low flexibility

Examples of Surveys by mail, online, or handout

General approach Precision: an exact mapping of quantitative variation
General perspective Width: seek information about as many quantifiable units are possible

Type of data analysis Identify statistical relationships

Role of researcher Researchers and their biases are known to participants in the study, and
participant characteristics are hidden from the researchers

Researcher independence Researcher is an uninvolved observer. Results are objective.

Results Generalizable findings that can be applied to other populations

 It is objective. Since it provides numerical data, it can’t
be easily misinterpreted.
 The use of statistical technique facilitates
sophisticated analyses and allows you to comprehend
a huge amount of vital characteristics of data.
 The numerical data can be analysed in a quick and
easy way.
 Quantitative studies are replicable. Standardized
approaches allow the study to be replicated in different
areas or over time with the formulation of comparable
 Quantitative research requires a large number of
respondents. It is assumed that the larger the sample
is, the more statistically accurate the findings are.
 It is costly.
 The information contextual factors to help interpret the
results or to explain variations are usually ignored.
 Many information are difficult to gather using
structured research instruments, specifically on
sensitive issues like pre-marital sex, domestic violence,
among others.
 If not done seriously and correctly, data from
questionnaires may be incomplete and inaccurate.
Researchers must be on the look-out on respondents
who are just guessing in answering the instrument.
 Descriptive Research
 Correlational Research
 Evaluation Research
 Survey Research
 Causal-Comparative Research
 Experimental Research
 This design is concerned with describing the nature,
characteristics and components of the population or
phenomenon. There is no manipulation of variables or
search for cause and effect related to the
You want to know how many hours SHS students spend in social media
Number of malnourished students who failed in the achievement test
How healthy is the food being served in the canteen during recess
 It is the systematic investigation of the nature of
relationships, or associations between and among
variables without necessarily investigating into causal
reason underlying them. It is also concerned with the
extent of relationships that exists between or among
If the pre-board examination results can be used to predict performance in the
licensure exam.
Sex with mathematical ability
Occupation and life span
 This kind of research aims to assess the effects,
impacts or outcomes of practices, policies or

Assessing the impact of 5S to the TIPians in character building in school
Effects of OBE to the academic learning of Architecture students.
 A survey research is used to gather information from
groups of people by selecting and studying samples
chosen from a population. It may be done in various
ways like face-to-face, phone, mail and online.

Determine the growth of rice yield in the country
Rate of promotion of doctorate degree holders 5 years after earning
the degree.
 It is also known as ex post facto (after the fact)
research. This kind of research derives conclusion from
observations and manifestations that already occurred
in the past and now compared to some dependent
variables. It discusses why and how a phenomenon
How weight influences stress-coping level of adults.
 This research utilizes specific method to test cause-
and-effect relationships under conditions controlled
by the researcher.

the use of video simulation as instructional tool in learning Biology
rainwater as alternative source of electricity
Oregano leaf as a cure for severe cough
 At least one variable is manipulated to determine
the effect of the manipulation. Intact, naturally
formed groups are used.
 Question asked: What is the effect of the
experimental variable?
 It is something that can take on different values for different
subjects in a given research study.
 Different from a constant (carries the exact-same value for
all subjects in a study)
Qualitative Variables Quantitative Variable
Data values are non-numeric and Data values are numerical
whose observations vary in kind but measurements and whose
not in degree observations vary in magnitude

Examples: 1. Age
1. Sex (male or female) 2. Number of children
2. Religion (Roman Catholic, Muslim, 3. Income
3. Marital status (single, married,
legally separated, divorced,
4. Nationality
Discrete Variables Continuous Variables
Quantitative variables whose Quantitative variables whose
observations can assume only a observations can assume any one of
countable number of values the countless number of values in a
line interval
1. Number of children in the family 1. Height (5 feet 4 inches, 6 feet,
2. Number of absences in the etc.)
workplace 2. Weight (120 lbs, 68 kilograms)
3. Number of tardiness in class 3. Time (hours, minutes, etc.)
 Answer the following questions by watching the
 What is nominal data/variable?
 Differentiate ordinal from interval variables.
 Compare and contrast interval and ratio variables.
Level of Examples
Nominal Variables whose data values are non-numeric group labels
that do not reflect quantitative information
- sex, marital status, nationality, religion
Ordinal Variables where there is a meaningful order of categories
but there is no measurable distance between the categories
-attitude scores representing degree of agreement or
disagreement, degree of satisfaction, and preference rating
scores, order of values (high, medium, and low) but the
“distance” between the values cannot be calculated
Level of Examples
Interval Variables whose data values are ranged in a real interval and can be as large as
from negative infinity to positive infinity
-Difference between two values is meaningful but the ratio of two interval data
is not meaningful
-Have arbitrary zero points
-temperature, IQ
Ratio -The highest level of measurement that has all the characteristics of the
interval plus a true zero point
-Both the difference and the ratio of two variables are meaningful
-Age in years and income in thousands of pesos
-Age of 44 is higher than 38 and the distance between the two values is 6.
 Watch the video and answer the following:
 What is the difference between dependent and
independent variable?
Independent Variable Dependent Variable
Cause/determine/ Presumed outcome of
influence the dependent the influence
variable -Outcome variable
-Predictor variable

Cause Effect