Anda di halaman 1dari 51

Add Your Slogan

Design of Photobioreactors for Microalgae Production


Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Engr. Jessie Pascual P. Bitog, Ph.D.


Assistant Professor IV
Nueva Vizcaya State University
3700 Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines
Contents

1 Introduction/Background

2 Objectives

3 CFD Review

4 PIV for CFD Validation

5 CFD Hydrodynamics Investigation

6 Cultivation of Algae in PBRs

7 General Conclusions
2
1. Introduction/Background

•The ^ reality
 Increasing fuel cost
 Increasing energy demand
 Depleting energy resources

Source: Gail Tverberg (Published Jun 17


2010 by The Oil Drum in Energy Bulletin)
1. Introduction/Background

 The solution
 Increase efficiency
 Develop other sources of energy

Renewable Energy !!!


1. Introduction/Background

 Microalgae Table 1 - Oil content of some microalgae specie.


Microalgae Oil content
(% dry wt)
 The energy of the future. Botryococcus braunili
Chlorella sp.
25-75
28-32
Crypthecodinium cohnii 20
Cylindrotheca sp. 16-37
Cylindrotheca sp. 23
Dunaliella primolecta 25-33
Isochrysis sp. >20
Monallanthus salina 20-35
Nannochloris sp. 31-68
Neochloris oleoabundans 35-54
Nitzschia sp. 45-47
Phaeodactylum tricornutum 20-30
Schizochytrium sp. 50-77
Tetraselmis sueica 15-23

Table 2 - Comparison of some sources of biodiesel.


Crop Oil yield (L/ha)
Corn 172
Soybean 446
Canola 1190
Jathropa 1892
Coconut 2689
Oil palm 5950
Microalgaea 136,900
Microalgaeb 58,700
a 70% oil (by wt) in biomass; b 30% oil (by wt) in biomass

Source: Chisti (2007)


1. Introduction/Background

 Other equally important use of Microalgae

 Algae as bioremediation agents.  One ton algae require, for their


growth, 1.8 tons of CO2.
 Excellent at removing nutrients
and toxins from waste and  Algae thus are large absorbers
sewage water of CO2.

Wastewater treatment CO2 capture

Algae as feed for fish and animals Medicine/vitamin Biomass as alternative fuel
1. Introduction/Background

 Photobioreactors (PBRs)
 Most effective and efficient growth vessel for microalgae.
a b PBR permits the
control of light,
temperature, CO2, etc.
through the
FLOW HYDRODYNAMICS
inside the PBRs
c d

Efficient and effective


mass production of
microalgae
Fig. 1. PBRs used in growing microalgae.
(a) Raceway pond, (b) Flat-Plate type (c) Inclined tubular type (d) Horizontal/continuous type.
Source: Bitog et al., 2011
1. Introduction/Background

Information Publisher/date
Biomass from Algae, now a better choice than iTech Post, May 27, 2013
ever for green energy

Path-breaking research underway to produce Gulf Today, May 14, 2013


biodiesel from microalgae
Arizona, USA University of Alicante, Spain Mexico
Researchers Design Photobioreactor to Produce Science Daily, May 24, 2013
Biofuel from Algae

Germany trails carbon eating algae CNN, September 23, 2010

Algae: “The ultimate in renewable energy” CNN, April 1, 2008

Texas, USA Macquarie University, Australia Iran; Israel; New Zealand


1. Introduction/Background

Mass production of microalgae in PBRs is still very much limited.

1 •Expensive PBR material


•Biorefinery based
1 production

2 •Very low microalgae cell •Enhance microalgae


growth C 2 biology

O • Photobioreactor
3 Engineering
S
T
1. Introduction/Background

 PBR Engineering Designs

Source: http://images.google.com
1. Introduction/Background

 PBR Engineering Designs

However, bubble column designs are


still preferable because of its simple
and static geometry.
Source: biosarch.wordpress.com
2. Objectives

Design a PBR through the flow


hydrodynamics such as:
1. Dead zones
2. Circulation Time
Air flow rate 3. Turbulence Intensity
Nozzle size diameter
PBR geometry + light via CFD

Operating parameter and PBR design


2. Objectives
Microalgae
growth model 20 L flat plate and
(Seo, 2013)
column type PBR

CFD PIV CFD Laboratory


Review Experiments Simulations Experiments
Application of CFD  Validation test of  Application of  Actual cultivation
in PBR designs the CFD approach Hydrodynamic to confirm CFD
parameters results.
 Hydrodynamic
evaluation  Selection of PBR  Growth of cells in
parameters design &operating typical and
parameters upgraded PBR.
 8 experimental cases

Dead Zones
 32 simulated cases
Circulation Time (4 x 4 x 2)  Experiment on temperature
 Experiment on CO2
Turbulence Intensity  4 Air flow rates  Two successive experiments
 4 Nozzle diameters in the 30 L PBRs
 2 PBR geometry
Light Intensity

Flow chart of the study


3. CFD Review

Production
Systems

Production:
Oil and
Engineering
Biomass
Perspective
Potential
+ Science
REVIEWS

High added Challenges


value in
compounds production
3. CFD Review
Results and Discussion

Microalgae Microalgae as an alternative energy source

Main Growth Factors Light Intensity, CO2, Temperature

Raceway ponds and PBRs Comparison, Advantages and Disadvantages

Bubble column type PBRs Simple in design, no moving parts

Important Design Aspects Mixing, Light Penetration, Gas Injection

CFD Design of PBRs Multiphase Models, Turbulence Models

Opportunities for CFD Approach Recommendation on CFD Application


3. CFD Review
Results and Discussion
Type of PBR CFD Code Focus of the study Turbulence Author
model
Cylindrical
Plate type bubble PBR type
FLUENT Volume
MixingStrains
Hydrodynamics
Investigation
as affected
of PBR
of by
flow
for
gasand Productivity
microalgae
velocity,
improvement
Effect
for biodiesel
of of Reference
Turbulence
the PBR RNG k-ε k-ε Rampure
Perner
Seo et al.,
et al.
et
2012
al.,
2003
column (L) models
production (g L d )
-1 -1
2007
Rectangular and FLUENT Comparison among modeling approaches, 2D v/s 3D, Standard Bertola, 2003
Torus
Flat plate
shape reactor FLUENT StudyPhaeodactylum
Hydrodynamics
on the destabilization
of flow, Mixingmixing the PBRAcien Fernandez
withinimpeller k-ω
k-ε et al.
Pruvost
Su et al.,et2010
al., 2006
Cylindrical bubbleAirlift 200 order of discretization, turbulence 1.20 closure k-ε, Prandtl
Cylindrical
columns
Pipe type bubble FLUENT Designtricornutum
of a gasofdistributor:
Development virtual PBR3D forCFD simulation
microalgae
(2001)
of a
culture k-ε
- Dhotre and2010
Sato et al., Joshi,
column
Cylindrical bubbleAirliftCFX 4.2,200 Phaeodactylum
4.4 Scaling
coupled up
system
with consisting
highly flow
viscous
ofand
a liquid
gas chamber
phase and a
considering turbulent 1.90 flashing light effect
Molina etStandard
al. (2001) Krishna
2006 and
column tricornutum
bubble column k-ε Baten, 2002
Cylindrical bubble FLUENT Assessment of turbulence models k-ε Gimbun, 2009
Cylindrical bubble InclinedCFX 4.36 Chlorella
Prediction
Influence of
ofsuperficial
flow pattern gasusing
velocity,
1D, solid
2D and
loading
3D k-ε
and Standard Ekambara
Michele andet al.,
column 1.47 Ugwu et al. (2002)
column Tubular modelssorokiniana
geometry on liquid flow velocities and hold-up k-ε 2005 2002
Hempel
Cylindrical bubble FLUENT Large-sized PBR for microalgae production k-ε Bitog et al., 2009
Axial dispersion coefficient
distributions
column Row Arthrospira
Cylindrical bubble FLUENT11 Simulate
Gas-liquid-solid
transient
flowfluid
modeling 2.70 and mixing Carlozzi
dynamics in a (2003)
k-ε
Standard Glover and
Ranade and
Torus reactor Tubular FLUENT platensis in a square-sectioned torus reactor,
Hydrodynamics k-ω Pramparo et al.,
column shallow PBR k-ε Generalis,
Tayalia 2001 2004
Mixing time 2008
Draft tube airlift
Cylindrical bubble
Cylindrical bubble
Outdoor
reactor FLUENT
CVD-2
FLUENT
Pressure drop to of
Hydrodynamics
Comparison
measure
bubblegasrising
of species modeling
hold-up,
in a liquid
Verticalmedium
velocityat -
-
Blazey
Li et al.et2000
al., 2004
Yoo et al. 2008
Phaeodactrylum
column
Rectangular
column HelicalFLUENT75 high
flat walled
pressures
Hydrodynamics of flow, Mixing1.40characteristicsHall et al.- (2003) Kommareddy and
tricornutum
Cylindrical bubbleTubular CFX 4.2, 4.4 Three-phase Eulerian simulation in churn turbulent Standard Krishna et al. 2000
column
Rectangular bubble FLUENT Drag force formulation to describe regime transitions k-ε Anderson,
Simonnet et2004 al.,
column Parallel regimeHaematococcus k-ε
Cylindrical
column bubble FLUENT25,000 Bubble size distribution, Axial liquid velocity, Gas
0.05 -
Olaizola (2000) Mouza
2008 et al., 2004
Cylindrical bubbleTubular FLUENT Simulation of a two-phase flow
pluvialis ASMM Glover et al., 2000
column
Cylindrical bubble FLUENT holdup
Continuous phase viscosity, bubble diameter and drag - Santos et al., 2000
column
Jet-loop
column reactor FLUENT Hydrodynamics
modelHaematococcus of flow, Three phase system (gas-liquid- Standard Szafran and
Rectangular bubbleBubble- STABilized Effect of aspect ratio of bubble column on flow pattern - Delnoij et al., 1999
Cylindrical bubblecolumn FLUENT55 solid)
Use ofpluvialis 0.06
VOF: Effect of air distributor Lopez et al. k-ε(2006) Kmiec, Akhtar 2004et al., 2007
column
Airlift
columnreactor CFX 4.2 Hydrodynamics of flow Standard Baten et al., 2003
Rectangular bubble CFX 4.2 The influence of turbulence modeling (Turbulent
Nannochloropsis and Standard
Cheng-Wu et al. Pfeger et al. 1999
Rectangular bubbleFlat PlateFLUENT440 Radiation distribution in an 0.27 externally illuminated PBR k-ε RNG Trujilio et al., 2007
column Laminar)
sp. (2001) k-ε
Fluidized
column bed Modified K- Hydrodynamics of flow with binary mixtures -k-ε Huilin et al., 2003
Cylindrical bubble FLUENT Validation of a transient, 2D simulations RNG k-ε Sanyal et al., 1999
Cylindrical bubble FIX
FLUENT Applicability of VOF model, Hydrodynamics of flow Standard Akhtar et al., 2007
column
column k-ε
3. CFD Review
Results and Discussion

Growth model
 CFD Multiphase models can possible simulate the flow hydrodynamics
inside the PBRs even for complex structures.

 k-ε is the popularly used turbulence model.


Appropriate
 Initial validation is very critical especially in simulation studies.
Hydrodynamic design of
evaluation PBRs
 Large scale sized PBRs are still limited.

 CFD is a viable technique for performing research and solving


engineering problems, and when used correctly, can give accurate results
for many fairly complex
Practical
problems.
cultivation
3. CFD Review
Conclusions

1. The CFD review have provided adequate understanding in


applying numerical simulation approach in PBR designs.

2. It was found out that there is a great potential of applying


CFD in the design of PBRs especially in scaled-up design.

3. It was proposed that a microalgae growth model shall be


developed and be integrated in the simulation model during
the CFD design of PBRs.

4. The hydrodynamics such as such as dead zones, circulation


time and turbulence intensity are the main factors in
investigating the PBRs primary for microalgae production.
4. PIV for CFD Validation
Introduction

 Particle image velocimetry


An optical method to flow visualization in a system under investigation. It is
used to obtain velocity measurements and other properties of fluids in a system.

Schematic diagram of a PIV system (http://images.google.com)


4. PIV for CFD Validation
Materials and Methods

 PBR used in the test Area considered


Inlet velocity
PIV test Air flow rate, implemented in
in the PIV
case vvm the simulation,
Analysis
m s-1
1 Region 1 0.05 1.27
2 Region 1 0.10 2.55
3 Region 1 0.15 3.82
4 Region 1 0.20 5.09
Region 2

5 Region 2 0.05 1.27


6 Region 2 0.10 2.55
7 Region 2 0.15 3.82
8 Region 2 0.20 5.09
Region 1
4. PIV for CFD Validation
Materials and Methods

 CFD Simulation
Characteristics Values

Total mesh number 500, 428

Solver Pressure based (implicit)

Multiphase model Lagrangian - Eulerian

Phases Water (primary), Air (secondary)

Specified operating density 1.225 kg m-3

Turbulence RNG k-ε turbulence model (dispersed)

Near-wall treatment Standard wall functions


Mesh size Total # of Discretization Second order upwind
interval, m mesh nodes
0.001 3,465,247 Conditions Unsteady state
0.003 1,825,403
0.005 622,500 Bubble size 0.005 m
0.007 226,077
0.009 111,061 Time interval 0.01s
0.011 64,071
Solver Pressure based (implicit)
4. PIV for CFD Validation
Results and Discussion

0.5 120
Average velocity magnitude, ms-1

Percentage comparison of CFD


computed average velocity
magnitude to PIV data, %
0.4
90

0.3
60
0.2

30
0.1

0.0 0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.001 0.003 0.005 0.007 0.009 0.011

Air volume flow rate, vvm Mesh grid size, m


Sim., 0.001 mesh interval size Sim., 0.007 mesh interval size
◊ - 0.05 vvm, □ - 0.10 vvm,
Sim., 0.003 mesh interval size Sim., 0.009 mesh interval size
∆ - 0.15 vvm, ○ - 0.20 vvm
Sim., 0.005 mesh interval size Sim., 0.011 mesh interval size
PIV Experiment

Considering simulation time without sacrificing the quality of the results, a


0.005 mesh interval size was wisely chosen.
4. PIV for CFD Validation
Results and Discussion

 Flow visualization

Flow Computed average velocity, m s-1


rate, Simulation, Mesh interval size
PIV
vvm 0.001 0.003 0.005
0.05 0.154 0.157 0.159 0.159
0.10 0.185 0.188 0.189 0.190
0.15 0.257 0.268 0.275 0.278
0.20 0.325 0.331 0.334 0.348

0.00 m s-1 0.50 m s-1

Fluid flow visualization in one of the PIV test cases Visual comparison of average velocity
which showed chaotic behavior with regards to the magnitude compared to PIV data at 0.005
flow of bubbles. mesh grid size interval.
4. PIV for CFD Validation
Conclusion

1. The percentage error obtained in CFD simulations compared


to PIV computed data was within 10 % especially when mesh
0.001, 0.003 and 0.005 were considered. This is generally
acceptable in simulation studies.

2. Considering simulation time and without sacrificing the


quality of the results, a 0.005 mesh interval size was wisely
chosen.

3. The CFD code applied in the simulation of the PBRs can be


relied upon in terms of its accuracy in simulating the flow
hydrodynamics inside the reactors.
5. CFD Hydrodynamics Simulation
Introduction

 Cylindrical bubble column PBRs


Are efficient in growing photosynthetic microalgae cells and have been receiving
enormous attention in the past decade.

 Simple in design.
 No moving parts.
 Suitable heat and
mass transfer.
 Less operational cost.
 Low energy input
requirements.
5. CFD hydrodynamics Simulation
Introduction

Type Culture Focus of the study Reference/Year


volume
Cylindrical column 20L Comparison of Multi-phase models, Validation of CFD code from PIV Seo et al., 2012
Rectangular column data
Cylindrical column 21 L Mass transfer and shear, Mathematical model to improve reactor design Bannari et al., 2011
and performance
Cylindrical column 4L Laboratory study on flow patterning high-density cultures of microalgae Chui et al., 2009
with centric tube and carbon dioxide removal
Square type column 10 L Eulerian-Eulerian modeling of flow, mass transfer and chemical reaction Zhang et al., 2009
Rectangular column 15 L Optimization of inner structure parameters Yu et al., 2009
Cylindrical column 20 L Local characteristics of hydrodynamics in the reactor Lou and Al-Dahhan,
with centric tube 2008
Rectangular column 8L Simulation on drag force formulation Simonet et al., 2008
Rectangular column 12 L Modeling of two-phase flow using class method of population balance Bannari et al., 2008
Cylindrical column 13 L Simulation of algal growth Wu and Merchuk, 2002
Cylindrical column 24 L Validation of a transient, two-dimensional simulation Sanyal et al., 1999
Rectangular column 4.5 L Simulation using Eulerian-Eulerian modeling Pfleger et al., 1999
Square type column 26 L Effect of the aspect ratio on of the bubble column on flow pattern Delnoij et al., 1999
5. CFD hydrodynamics Simulation
Introduction

PBR designs still need to resolve many flow hydrodynamics


during the scaling-up.

The growth obtained from laboratory experiments cannot be


directly translated to the same growth in scaled-up PBRs.

The FLOW HYDRODYNAMICS can have the complete control in providing


the optimum environmental requirements for the cells.
5. CFD hydrodynamics Simulation
Materials and Methods

 CFD Simulation
Data and variables implemented in the simulations.
Inner diameter 185 mm

PBR without
Height of water zone 1150 mm

baffle
Height of air zone 250 mm

(Gambit software)
Total number of mesh 500428

Pre-processing
Inner diameter 185 mm
Height of water zone 1032 mm

PBR with baffle


Height of air zone 218 mm
Height of injection zone 250 mm
(cone-shaped)
Total number of mesh 622500
Solver Pressure based (implicit)
Multiphase model Lagrangian – Eulerian with
DPM
Phases Water (primary),
Air (secondary)
(Fluent program)
Main Module

Specified operating density 1.225 kg m-3


Turbulence RNG k-ε turbulence model
(dispersed)
Near-wall treatment Standard wall functions
Discretization Second order upwind
Conditions Unsteady state
Bubble size 0.005 m
Time interval 0.01s
5. CFD hydrodynamics Simulation
Materials and Methods

The time for the particles to


travel from the bottom of the
PBR to the water-air interface
and back.
Circulation The ratio of the root-mean-square
time of the velocity fluctuations to the
mean free stream velocity.
Turbulence
Dead zones
intensity
Water-air interface
The zones in which liquid
velocity is below 1.0 x 10-3 32 CFD
m s-1 (Yu et al., 2009) simulation

Bubble rising zone


cases
(4x4x2)

4 air flow rates


4 nozzle size diameters
2 PBR geometries
Injection zone
5. CFD hydrodynamics Simulation
Results and Discussion

 Pre-processing (Gambit)

A good mesh quality of 0.25 ~


0.50 based on equiangle skewness
mesh evaluation parameter
(Fluent manual, 2006; Baker, 2002)
was also realized for the PBRs
with internal baffle and
protruded cone-shaped bottom
design.

Total mesh number:

PBR without baffle : 500,428


PBR with baffle : 622,500
5. CFD hydrodynamics Simulation
Results and Discussion

 Percentage of dead zones


Volume Volume A: Air flow rates of 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 vvm which
Case percentage of Case percentage of corresponds to A1, A2, A3 and A4, respectively.
dead zones, % dead zones, %
A1B1C1 8.21 A3B1C1 6.61 B: Nozzle size diameter of 5, 10, 15 and 20 mm which
corresponds to B1, B2, B3 and B4, respectively.
A1B1C2 3.66 A3B1C2 3.12
A1B2C1 18.86 A3B2C1 6.31 C: PBR geometry of without baffle and with baffle
A1B2C2 A3B2C2 which corresponds to C1 and C2, respectively.
11.41 4.18
A1B3C1 34.58 A3B3C1 14.88
40

Volume percentage of dead


A1B3C2 26.61 A3B3C2 9.51
A1B4C1 42.51 A3B4C1 26.66 30
A1B4C2 A3B4C2

zones, %
33.67 18.85
A2B1C1 7.08 A4B1C1 5.24 20
A2B1C2 3.12 A4B1C2 2.87
A2B2C1 11.01 A4B2C1 9.51 10

A2B2C2 4.87 A4B2C2 4.65


0
A2B3C1 22.21 A4B3C1 13.67 0 1 2 3 4 5
A2B3C2 14.61 A4B3C2 8.11
Velocity, m s-1
A2B4C1 29.81 A4B4C1 20.08
Effect of inlet velocity used as boundary condition in the
A2B4C2 20.67 A4B4C2 11.66 simulation in terms of the volume percentage of dead zones.
5. CFD hydrodynamics Simulation
Results and Discussion

 Average circulation time 40

Volume percentage of
dead zones, %
30
Average
Average
Case circulation Case 20
circulation, s
time, s
10
A1B1C1 14.88 A3B1C1 14.05
A1B1C2 9.21 A3B1C2 8.41 0
0 1 2 3 4 5
A1B2C1 19.57 A3B2C1 15.55
A1B2C2 13.81 A3B2C2 9.51 Velocity, m s-1
A1B3C1 25.66 A3B3C1 18.51 Effect of inlet velocity used as boundary condition in the
simulation in terms of the average circulation time.
A1B3C2 20.01 A3B3C2 13.67
A1B4C1 26.89 A3B4C1 21.41 50

Volume percentages of
A1B4C2 22.81 A3B4C2 15.66 y = 1.9818x - 16.962

dead zones, %
40 R² = 0.8754
A2B1C1 15.65 A4B1C1 13.84 30
A2B1C2 9.08 A4B1C2 8.05
20
A2B2C1 16.21 A4B2C1 15.01
10
A2B2C2 10.08 A4B2C2 9.29
0
A2B3C1 20.51 A4B3C1 17.22 0 10 20 30
A2B3C2 14.48 A4B3C2 12.41 Average circulation time, s
A2B4C1 22.31 A4B4C1 19.88
Volume percentage of dead zones based on the average
A2B4C2 17.71 A4B4C2 13.91 circulation time.
5. CFD hydrodynamics Simulation
Results and Discussion

 Turbulence intensity (≤ 1 % - Low; ≥ 1 % ≤ 10 % - Moderate; ≥10 % - High)


Average turbulence intensity (%) Average turbulence intensity (%)
Case Bubble Injection Water-air Case Bubble Injection Water-air
rising zone zone interface rising zone zone interface Water-air
A1B1C1 0.43 4.45 2.68 A3B1C1 7.81 9.91 11.66 interface
A1B1C2 0.88 2.67 3.82 A3B1C2 7.97 10.51 12.96
A1B2C1 0.24 0.57 0.97 A3B2C1 1.44 1.77 3.33 1
A1B2C2 The2.24results2.55disputes
3.86 the research
A3B2C2 conducted
1.55 1.79 by 3.78
A1B3C1 6.64 et al
Zuzuki 8.57 A3B3C1 et al
. (1995)10.81and Barbosa . (2003)13.58
12.01 while 16.67 Injection
A1B3C2
it further
7.71
proved
10.02
the
11.00
study byA3BCamacho
3C2
A3B4C1
12.18
8.12
et al . 13.66
(2000)
9.51
16.51
12.61
zone
A1B4C1 5.04 6.31 10.21
A1B4C2
and5.57Zhong7.81and Yuan
11.20
(2009)A3Bthat
4C2
more9.16 cell 10.12
deaths 13.81 2
A2B1C1 happen
8.50 at 10.05
the water-air
10.88 interface
A4B1C1 zones
4.89 where 5.95 the 7.56
A2B1C2 bubbles
9.55 rupture.
11.68 10.89 A4B1C2 5.92 7.98 8.88
Bubble
A2B2C1 1.22 1.55 4.25 A4B2C1 1.54 2.12 3.58
A2B2C2 1.26 1.61 4.45 A4B2C2 1.78 2.22 4.99 rising zone
A2B3C1 9.06 11.67 13.61 A4B3C1 12.11 14.52 18.21
3
A2B3C2 9.80 12.01 14.05 A4B3C2 11.88 12.31 17.74
A2B4C1 7.81 9.02 11.50 A4B4C1 10.55 13.04 14.41
A2B4C2 8.21 9.88 12.01 A4B4C2 11.02 13.88 15.01
5. CFD hydrodynamics Simulation
Results and Discussion

 Selection of PBRs Case


Criteria 1,
Criteria 2,
within 10 s
Criteria 3,
low to medium turbulence intensity
10 % dead zone Bubble rising Water-air
circulation time Injection zone
zone interface
A1B1C1 O X O O O
A1B1C2 O O O O O
A1B2C1 X X O O O
A1B2C2 X X O O O
Nozzle size
A1B3C1 X
Air flow X O O X
A1B3C2
Case X X
diameter,
X O
PBR design X
A1B4C1 X rate, vvm X O O X
A1B4C2 X X mm O O X

≤ 10 s of A2B1C1
A2B1C2
O
O
X
O
X
X
O
O
X
X
≤ 10 % of average A2B2C1 A1B1C2 X 0.05 X O 5 O With baffle O
A2B2C2 O O O O O
dead zones circulation A2B3C1 X X X O X
time A2B3C2
A2B4C1
A2B2C2 X
X
0.10 X
X
X
X
10 O
O
With baffle X
X
A2B4C2 X X X O X
Low to A3B1C1 O X X O X

moderate
A3B1C2 A3B2C2 O 0.15 O X 10 O With baffle X
A3B2C1 O X O O O
turbulence A3B2C2 O O O O O

intensity
A3B3C1
A3B3C2
A4B1C2 X
O
0.20 X
X
X
X
5 X
X
With baffle X
X
A3B4C1 X X O O X
A3B4C2 X X X O X
A4B1C1 O X O O O
A4B1C2 O O O O O
A4B2C1 O X O O O
A4B2C2 O O O O O
A4B3C1 X X X X X
A4B3C2 O X X X X
A4B4C1 X X X X X
A4B4C2 X X X X X
5. CFD hydrodynamics Simulation
Conclusions

1. Combining the hydrodynamic parameters to evaluate the


PBRs were successfully conducted.

2. The water-air interface have shown higher turbulence


intensity from the 32 simulated cases and support previous
studies where cell deaths happen at the water-air interface
zones where the bubble raptures.

3. In terms of the set criteria of the hydrodynamic parameters,


PBRs with inner baffle and protruded design is preferable
where the air flow rate is found to be within 0.10 ˜ 0.15 vvm
and nozzle size diameter of 10 mm.
6. Cultivation of microalgae in PBRs
Introduction

Cultivation of microalgae in
the actual PBRs is an ideal
approach to finally confirm Growth phases of microalgae cells (Source:
the results obtained from www.fao.org)
the CFD simulation.
6. Cultivation of microalgae in PBRs
Materials and Methods

 Microalgae specie
Microalgae Oil content (% dry wt)
Botryococcus braunili 25-75
Chlorella sp. 28-32
Crypthecodinium cohnii 20
Cylindrotheca sp. 16-37
Cylindrotheca sp. 23
Dunaliella primolecta 25-33
Isochrysis sp. >20
Monallanthus salina 20-35
Nannochloris sp. 31-68
Although the specie has lower oil content of Neochloris oleoabundans 35-54
approximately 28 ~ 32 % of dry weight (Chisti, Nitzschia sp. 45-47
2007) as compared to other species, Chlorella Phaeodactylum tricornutum 20-30
vulgaris is believed to have faster growth and easy Schizochytrium sp. 50-77
in cultivation. Tetraselmis sueica 15-23
Chisti, 2007
6. Cultivation of microalgae in PBRs
Materials and Methods

 Experiment of Temperature and CO2

Light Cultivation
Temperature, PBR
Experiment 0C CO2 intensity time,
type
µE m-2 s-1 day
250 mL
Exp. A 10, 15, 20, 25 - 70±1 5
Flask

250 mL
Exp. B 30, 35, 40, 45 - 70±1 5
Flask
0.035 % (air)
Under 3 % 70±1
Exp. C 25 8 0.4 L PBR
Under 7 %
Under 10 %
6. Cultivation of microalgae in PBRs
Materials and Methods

Photo taken while preparing the


growing medium Experiment on CO2

cell coulter counter (Beckman Coulter,


Z™ Series COULTER COUNTER®
Cell and Particle Counter, USA) .
Shaking growth chamber incubator used for the temperature experiment
(Model VS 8480 SF, South Korea).

Experiments were conducted in the Department of Biological Engineering, Inha University


August, 2012
6. Cultivation of microalgae in PBRs
Materials and Methods

 Cultivation in 30 L PBRs
Characteristics Typical PBR Upgraded PBR
With Baffle and the bottom
Without Baffle and the
Design geometry part is protruded (cone-
bottom part is flat
shaped)
Nozzle size 10 mm 10 mm
Air flow rate 0.10 vvm 0.10 vvm
Culture medium
1050 mm 1110 mm
height
PBR diameter 185 mm 185 mm
Baffle diameter - 85 mm
Baffle height - 700 mm
Light intensity Equally supplied with 20pcs of 28kW Fluorescent light
Temperature 15 ~ 25 0C 15 ~ 25 0C
CO2 Under 10% level Under 10% level
Initial cell Approximately 0.5 g L -1 and 2.0 g L -1 for Experiments 1
concentration and 2, respectively
6. Cultivation of microalgae in PBRs
Results and Discussion

 The effect of temperature on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris

Temperature, Specific cell growth rate, day-1


0C Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Average
10 0.03 -0.09 0.21 -0.27 0.57 0.09
15 -0.13 0.19 0.99 0.64 0.78 0.49
20 0.76 0.90 0.64 0.36 0.05 0.54
25 0.85 0.92 0.74 0.51 0.19 0.64
30 0.98 0.75 1.07 0.22 0.27 0.66
35 0.96 0.71 1.04 0.49 0.15 0.67
40 -0.33 0.11 0.68 0.79 0.45 0.42
45 -0.81 -0.94 -1.35 -2.55 0.00 -1.13

The daily cell concentration of Chlorella vulgaris The daily cell concentration of Chlorella vulgaris
obtained at varied temperatures from 10 – 25 0C obtained at varied temperatures from 25 – 45 0C
(♦ – 10, ■ – 15, ▲ – 20, ● – 25). (♦ – 30, ■ – 35, ▲ – 40, ● – 45).
6. Cultivation of microalgae in PBRs
Results and Discussion

Day 1 Day 4 Day 8 Day 1 Day 4 Day 8

Under 7 % CO2
0.035 % (Air)

Under 10 % CO2
Under 3 % CO2

Visual comparison of the growth of Chlorella vulgaris from the start, middle and the
last day of the experiment at varied level of CO2 supply.

Experiments were conducted in the Department of Biological Engineering, Inha University


September,2011
6. Cultivation of microalgae in PBRs
Results and Discussion

 The effect of CO2 on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris

The daily cell


concentration of Chlorella
vulgaris obtained at varied
levels of CO2.
(♦– air, ■– under 3 %, ▲–
under 7 %, ●– under 10 %).

Specific cell growth rate, day-1


CO2 level
Day1 Day2 Day3 Day4 Day5 Day6 Day7 Day8 Ave.
0.035 % 0.71 0.88 0.64 0.54 0.24 0.44 0.10 0.01 0.44
Under 3 % 1.26 0.57 0.72 0.39 0.19 0.66 0.23 0.09 0.51
Under 7 % 1.38 0.87 0.85 0.80 0.84 0.26 -0.08 -0.06 0.61
Under 10% 1.62 1.82 1.99 1.45 1.36 -0.09 -0.15 -0.25 0.97
6. Cultivation of microalgae in PBRs
Results and Discussion

Day 0 Day 2 Day 4

Visual comparison
of biomass
concentration
from the typical
and upgraded
PBR in Exp.1 Day 6 Day 8 Day 10

(left side:
Upgraded PBR,
right ride:
Typical PBR)

Experiments were conducted in the Rural System Engineering, CALS, SNU


September to October, 2012
6. Cultivation of microalgae in PBRs
Results and Discussion

 The growth of Chlorella vulgaris in 30 L PBRs

Typical PBR Upgraded PBR

Biomass concentration measured from the top, middle and bottom part of the PBRs in Experiment 1.
(Blue, red and green bars represents the top, middle and bottom part of the PBR, respectively).
5. Cultivation of microalgae in PBRs
Results and Discussion

Experiment 1 Experiment 2

200 % 172 %
Upgraded : 1.60 g L -1 (7 Days) Upgraded : 1.93 g L -1 (6 Days)
Typical : 0.53 g L -1 (10Days) Typical : 0.71 g L -1 (8 Days)

Biomass concentration of Chlorella vulgaris Biomass concentration of Chlorella vulgaris


measure in the PBRs. measure in the PBRs.
(♦: Typical PBR; ■: Upgraded PBR). (♦: Typical PBR; ■: Upgraded PBR).
6. Cultivation of microalgae in PBRs
Results and Discussion

PBR type Specific cell growth rate, day-1

(Exp. 1) Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7 Day 8 Day 9 Day 10 Ave.

Upgraded PBR 1.08 1.37 1.67 2.58 2.13 1.32 1.23 1.03 1.04 0.96 1.44
Typical PBR 1.10 1.31 1.09 2.21 1.37 1.17 1.08 1.13 1.40 1.16 1.30

PBR type Specific cell growth rate, day-1

(Exp. 2) Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7 Day 8 Ave.

Upgraded PBR 1.20 1.36 1.56 1.35 1.42 1.17 1.02 0.94 1.25

Typical PBR 1.02 1.08 1.08 1.09 1.28 1.18 1.04 1.40 1.15
6. Cultivation of microalgae in PBRs
Conclusions

1. Based on the laboratory experiment on temperature, in a large


production area, a temperature range of 20 ~ 35 0C is
recommended for Chlorella vulgaris.

2. In terms of CO2 requirement, comparing the 4 levels of CO2


investigated, under 10 % level is also recommended.

3. The upgraded PBR displayed higher biomass concentration


when compared to the typical PBR.
 Cultivation in batch would allow us to grow algae 4 times in a month
using the upgraded PBR while 3 times in a month for the typical PBR.
7. General Conclusions

 The CFD
investigation of PBRs
based from the flow
hydrodynamics was
found to be an effective
approach.
 The PIV validates  The CFD numerical
the reliability of the method have been
CFD code that was proven to be a powerful
implemented in the tool used in PBR
simulation. designs.

CFD Review
 The review have PIV-CFD  The upgraded PBR
provided sufficient Simulations & was found to be very
understanding on the Cultivation efficient in the
application of CFD in cultivation of
the design of PBRs. microalgae.
50
Add Your Slogan

Thank you very much!

Engr. Jessie Pascual P. Bitog, PhD


Associate Professor V and Dean
College of Engineering
Nueva Vizcaya State University
3700 Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines 51