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DWDM Fundamentals

Ashish Verma

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 1


Overview of DWDM

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 2


Traffic - The Future!

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Traditional Method to increase
Transmission Capacity

With dramatic increase of Voice services and emergence of various


New services, especially quick change of IP technology , network capacity
Inevitably be faced with critical challenge. Traditional methods for
transmission Network capacity expansion adopts SDM and TDM.

SDM-Space division Multiplexing expands the Transmission capacity


By adding fibers and transmission equipments added linearly.

TDM-Time division Multiplexing is commonly used methods for Capacity


expansion.

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 4


Increasing Network Capacity Options

Same bit rate, more Fibres


More Fibres Slow Time to Market
Expensive Engineering
Limited Rights of Way
Duct Exhaust

Same Fibre & bit rate, more ls


W Fibre Compatibility
D
Fibre Capacity Release
M
Fast Time to Market
Lower Cost of Ownership
Utilizes existing TDM Equipment

Faster Electronics Higher bit rate, same Fibre

(TDM) Electronics more expensive


Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 5
A new layer is born: the Optical Layer

WDM multiplexing technology:


The basis for Optical Networking

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The Optical Layer New MUX Fabric

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Why DWDM

Firstly, WDM provided the ability to significantly scale Fibre capacity


by multiplexing many optical channels along a single Fibre.

Second, WDM enabled a significant reduction in the number, and cost,


of OEO’s used in repeaters by replacing these with optical amplifiers
to increase optical reach and amortize costs across many channels.

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 8


Why DWDM—The Business Case

Conventional TDM Transmission—10 Gbps

40km
1310
40km40km
1310 1310
40km40km
1310
40km131040km
1310
40km
1310 1310
40km
TERM 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 TERM
TERM RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR TERM
1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310
TERM RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR TERM
1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310
TERM RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR TERM
RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR

OC-48
DWDM Transmission—10 Gbps OC-48
OC-48 OC-48
OC-48 OC-48
OC-48 120 km 120 km 120 km OC-48
OA OA OA OA

4 Fibres Pairs 1 Fibre Pair


32 Regenerators 4 Optical Amplifiers
Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 9
Fibre Networks

› Time division multiplexing


– Single wavelength per Fibre Channel 1 Single
– Multiple channels per Fibre Fibre (One
– 4 STM-1 channels in STM-4 Wavelength)
Channel n
– 4 STM-4 channels in STM-16
– 4 STM-16 channels in STM-64
› Wave division multiplexing
– Multiple wavelengths per Fibre
– 4, 16, 32, 64 channels
per system l1
– Multiple channels per Fibre l2 Single Fibre
(Multiple
Wavelengths)
ln

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 10


TDM and DWDM Comparison

STM-1
STM-4 SDH
Fibre
STM-16 ADM
STM-64

STM-1
STM-4 DWDM
Fibre
STM-16
OADM
STM-64

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 11


Characteristics of a WDM Network
Wavelength Characteristics

› Transparency
– Can carry multiple protocols on same Fibre
– Monitoring can be aware of multiple protocols

› Wavelength spacing 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400


– 50GHz, 100GHz, 200GHz
– Defines how many and which wavelengths can be used

› Wavelength capacity
– Example: 1.25Gb/s, 2.5Gb/s, 10Gb/s

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 12


Transmission Window and Optical Spectrum

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 13


C Band- DWDM

WDM systems today primarily use the 1.55 μm wavelength region for
two reasons:

The inherent loss in optical fiber is the lowest in that region.

Optical Amplifiers are available in that region. The wavelengths and


frequencies used in WDM systems have been standardized on a
frequency grid by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU).

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 14


ITU Wavelength Grid

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 15


ITU Wavelength Grid

l
1530.33 nm 1553.86 nm
0.80 nm
195.9 THz 193.0 THz 
100 GHz
› ITU-T l grid is based on 191.7 THz + 100 GHz

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 16


Transmission media in WDM Systems

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Optical Fiber Cable
Optical fiber is a remarkable communication medium compared to other
media such as copper or free space. The low-loss property allows signals to be transmitted
over long distances at high speeds before they need to be amplified or regenerated.
Still, the fiber itself does impose physical limitations that must be taken into account in
network design. The two phenomena that determine fiber transmission limits:

Linear and Nonlinear effects.

 Linear Impairments: Impairments increases linearly as signal propagates in fibre with


distance known as linear impairments like attenuation and dispersion.

 Nonlinear Impairments: Impairments depends on high channel power which causes


impairments in signal. Nonlinear impairments also depend on span length. The longer the
Fibre span, the more the Signal can interact with the fibre, causing greater nonlinear effects.
However, the longer the span the more the propagating signal is attenuated by the Fiber,
thereby diminishing the nonlinear effect because it is dependent on signal strength.

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 18


Fibre Attenuation Characteristics

S-Band:1460–1530nm

2.0 dB/Km Fibre Attenuation Curve

0.5 dB/Km

0.2 dB/Km

800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600

Wavelength in Nanometers (nm) C-Band:1530–1565nm

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 19


Types of Fibre
Multimode Fibre (MMF)
Single Mode Fibre (SMF)

Specifications of Multimode Fibre G.651

The characteristics of a multimode graded index optical Fibre cable were specified in
Recommendation ITU-T G.651, originally published in 1984 and deleted in 2008.
Recommendation ITU-T G.651 covered the geometrical and transmissive properties of
multimode Fibres having a 50 μm nominal core diameter and a 125 μm nominal cladding
diameter.
At that time (pre-1984), these multimode Fibres were considered as the only practical
solution for transmission distances in the tens of kilometres and bit rates of up to 40 Mbit/s.
Single-mode Fibres, which became available shortly after the publication of ITU-T G.651,
have almost completely replaced multimode Fibres in the publicly switched networks.
Today, multimode Fibres continue to be widely used in premises cabling applications such
as Ethernet in lengths from 300 to 2 000 m, depending on bit rate. With a change in the
applications, the multimode Fibre definitions, requirements, and measurements evolved
away from the original ITU-T G.651 and were moved to the modern ITU equivalent,
Recommendation ITU-T G.651.1.
Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 20
Types of Single-Mode Fibre

G.652 (NDSF-Non Dispersion Shifted Fibre): Recommendation ITU-T G.652 describes


the geometrical, mechanical, and transmission attributes of a single-mode optical Fibre
and cable which has zero-dispersion wavelength around 1 310 nm. This Fibre was
originally optimized for use in the 1 310 nm wavelength region, but can also be used in the
1550 nm region. Recommendation ITU-T G.652 was first created in 1984; several
revisions have been intended to maintain the continuing commercial success of this Fibre
in the evolving world of high-performance optical transmission systems DSF (Dispersion
Shifted, G.653).

G.653(ZDSF: Zero Dispersion Shifted Fibre): The characteristics of a dispersion-


shifted single-mode optical Fibre and cable are described in Recommendation ITU-T
G.653. This Fibre has a nominal zero-dispersion wavelength close to 1550 nm and a
dispersion coefficient that is monotonically increasing with wavelength. This Fibre was
initially developed for use in single-channel high bit rate and long distance transmission in
the 1550 nm region (where the attenuation coefficient is smallest) by shifting the zero-
dispersion wavelength of the ITU-T G.652 Fibre to around 1 550 nm. This Fibre is
optimized for use in the 1 550 nm region, but may also be used at around 1 310 nm
subject to the constraints outlined in the Recommendation. Some provisions are made to
support Transmission at higher wavelengths up to 1 625 nm and lower wavelengths down
to1 460 nm

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 21


Types of Single-Mode Fibre

 G.654 (Cut-off shifted single-mode optical Fibre ):The characteristics of a cut-off shifted single-mode
optical Fibre and cable are specified in Recommendation ITU-T G.654, which describes the geometrical,
mechanical and transmission attributes of a single mode optical Fibre and cable which has its zero-
dispersion wavelength around 1 300 nm and which is loss minimized and cut-off wavelength shifted to the
1 550 nm wavelength region .

G.655 (NZDSF:Non-zero dispersion-shifted Fibre): The characteristics of a non-zero dispersion-shifted


single-mode optical Fibre and cable are described in Recommendation ITU-T G.655. This
Recommendation specifies the geometrical, mechanical, and transmission attributes of a single-mode
optical Fibre which has the absolute value of the chromatic dispersion coefficient greater than some non-
zero value throughout the wavelength range from 1 530 nm to 1 565 nm. This dispersion reduces the
growth of non-linear effects which are particularly deleterious in dense wavelength division multiplexing
systems

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 22


Different Solutions for Different Fibre Types

•Good for TDM at 1310 nm


SMF
•OK for TDM at 1550
(G.652)
•OK for DWDM (With Dispersion Mgmt)
•OK for TDM at 1310 nm
DSF
•Good for TDM at 1550 nm
(G.653)
•Bad for DWDM (C-Band)
•OK for TDM at 1310 nm
NZDSF
•Good for TDM at 1550 nm
(G.655)
•Good for DWDM (C + L Bands)
Extended Band •Good for TDM at 1310 nm
(G.652.C) •OK for TDM at 1550 nm
(suppressed attenuation •OK for DWDM (With Dispersion Mgmt
in the traditional water
peak region) •Good for CWDM (>8 wavelengths)

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 23


WDM, CWDM and DWDM

› WDM technology uses multiple wavelengths to


transmit information over a single Fibre.

› Coarse WDM (CWDM) has wider channel spacing


(20 nm) – low cost

› Dense WDM (DWDM) has dense channel spacing


(0.8 nm) which allows simultaneous transmission of
16+ wavelengths – high capacity

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 24


Difference between CWDM and DWDM

CWDM DWDM
Defined by wavelengths Defined by frequencies

Short-range communications Long-haul transmissions

Uses wide-range frequencies Narrow frequencies

Wavelengths spread far apart Tightly packed wavelengths

Wavelength drift is possible Precision lasers required to keep channels on target

Breaks the spectrum into big chunks Dices the spectrum into small pieces

Light signal isn't amplified Signal amplification maybe used

Typical spacing is 20 nm. Typical spacing is 50 GHz and 100GHz.

Systems:4CH,8CH,16CH,18CH Systems:40CH,80CH.

Band: O,E,S,C,L Band: C,L

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 25


Key Technologies of DWDM

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 26


DWDM Components
l1
850/1310 15xx l1...n
l2

l3

Transponder
Optical Multiplexer

l1

l2 l1...n

l3

Optical De-multiplexer Optical Supervisory

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 27


More DWDM Components

Optical Amplifier
(EDFA)

Dispersion Compensator (DCM / DCU)

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 28


Transponders

The purpose of a TRANSPONDER card is to convert the “gray” optical client interface
signals into Line signals that operate in the “colored” dense wavelength division multiplexing
(DWDM) wavelength range.

Client-facing gray optical signals generally operate at shorter wavelengths, whereas


DWDM colored optical signals are in the longer wavelength range.

Transponders offer G.709 compliant Digital Wrapper, Enhanced Forward Error Correction
(FEC) and Electrical Dispersion Compensation (EDC) for advanced optical performance
and management functions superior to those found in DWDM Transponder systems

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 29


Position of Transponder in DWDM System

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Signal Flow of Transponder

Faceplate of Transponder

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 31


Optical Multiplexer & De-Multiplexer

The device which couples all these wavelengths in a Fibre is called


Wavelength division Multiplexer. This is heart of DWDM network.

In the Fibre, the individual signals propagate with little interaction assuming
low signal power.

Once the signals reach the Fibre link end, the WDM demultiplexer separates
the signals by their wavelengths, back to individual Fibres that are connected to
their respective equipment receivers.

Both Multiplexer and De-Multipexer are passive devices.

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 32


Working Principle of MUX &DEMUX

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Position of MUX & DEMUX in DWDM Network

Faceplate of Multiplexer

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 34


Optical Supervisory Channel
The EMS is usually connected to one or more of the network elements and communicates
with the other network elements in the network using a data communication network (DCN).
In addition to the DCN, a fast signaling channel is also required between network elements
to exchange real-time control information to manage protection switching and other
functions. The DCN and signaling channel can be realized in many different ways.
One example is the optical supervisory channel (OSC), wavelength dedicated to performing
control and management functions, particularly for line systems with optical amplifiers. In
systems with line amplifiers, a separate OSC is used to convey information associated.
In systems with line amplifiers, a separate OSC is used to convey information associated
with monitoring the state of the amplifiers along the link, particularly if these amplifiers are in
remote locations where other direct access is not possible.
The OSC is also used to control the line amplifiers, for example, turning them on or turning
them off for test purposes.
For WDM systems operating in the C-band, the popular choices for the OSC wavelength
include 1310 nm, 1480 nm, 1510 nm, or 1620 nm

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 35


Position of the OSC board in the WDM system

Faceplate of OSC Card

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 36


Optical Amplifier
Signal Reshaping and Amplification
In long distance communications, whether going through wire, Fibre or wave, the signal carrying the information experience: Power
loss and Pulse broadening which requires amplification and signal reshaping, In Fibre optics communications, these can be done in
two ways:
Opto-electronic conversion
All optical
Depending on its nature, a signal can also be regenerated.
A digital signal is made of 1's and 0's: it is possible to reconstruct the signal and amplify it at the same time.
An analog signal however, cannot be reconstructed because nobody knows what the original signal looked like.
Why the Need for Optical Amplification?
Semiconductor devices can convert an optical signal into an electrical signal, amplify it and reconvert the signal back to an optical
signal. However, this procedure has several disadvantages:
Costly
Require a large number over long distances
Noise is introduced after each conversion in analog signals (which cannot be reconstructed)
Restriction on bandwidth, wavelengths and type of optical signals being used, due to the electronics
By amplifying signal in the optical domain many of these disadvantages would disappear!

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 37


Optical Amplification - Spectral Characteristics

Optical Amplification
•Amplification gain: Up to a factor of 10,000 (+40 dB)
•In WDM: Several signals within the amplifier’s gain (G) bandwidth are amplified, but not to the same extent.
•It generates its own noise source known as Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) noise.

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 38


Optical Amplifiers – Types
There are mainly two types:
Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifier (EDFA)
Fibre Raman Amplifier (FRA)

Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifier (EDFA)

Fibre Raman Amplifier (FRA)

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 39


Position of Optical Amplifier in DWDM Network

Faceplate of Optical Amplifier

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Network Design Architecture &
Engineering

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Building Blocks of DWDM
Network

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DWDM NE Types & Building Blocks

A high-level view of the various building


blocks used to perform the distinct functions
at the different site types is described.

Terminal site
 Line Amplifier site
 OADM site

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 43


Terminal site
A terminal site is a site where all channels that form the photonic layer are terminated at the service layer.
They are used at either end of a point-to-point link to multiplex and demultiplex wavelengths.
Figure shows the three functional elements inside a terminal: transponders, wavelength multiplexers, and
optionally, optical amplifiers.
A transponder adapts the signal coming in from a client of the optical network into a signal suitable for use
inside the optical network. Similarly, in the reverse direction, it adapts the signal from the optical network
into a signal suitable for the client.
The interface between the client and the transponder may vary depending on the client, bit rate, and
distance and/or loss between the client and the transponder.

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 44


Amplifier Site (OLA or ILA)
Optical line amplifiers are deployed in the middle of the optical Fibre link at periodic intervals,
typically 80–120 km. The basic element is an erbium-doped Fibre gain block which we studied.
Typical amplifiers use two or more gain blocks in cascade, with so-called midstage access. This
feature allows some lossy elements to be placed between the two amplifier stages without
significantly impacting the overall noise figure of the amplifier .These elements include dispersion
compensators to compensate for the chromatic dispersion accumulated along the link, and also
the OADMs, which we will discuss next. The amplifiers also include automatic gain control and
built-in performance monitoring of the signal.

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 45


Optical Add-Drop MUX (OADM) Site

Optical add/drop multiplexers (OADMs) provide a cost-effective means for handling passthrough
traffic in both metro and long-haul networks. OADMs may be used at amplifier sites in long-haul
networks but can also be used as stand-alone network elements, particularly in metro networks.

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 46


Network Architecture of DWDM

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 47


Point-to-Point Transmission of multiple
channels using DWDM

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 48


Classic WDM point-to-point connection with
opto-electrical Regenerators

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 49


A Typical OADM Link

Channel 1 l1 l1
OADM
l2 Fibre l2
OA OA

Channel l1, l2,….., lN l1, l2,….., lN


N lN lN

Opt. Opt.
MUX De-MUX

= Laser Diode
= Receiver

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 50


Signal Layer in DWDM Network

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Limitations of WDM systems.

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Fibre Linear & Nonlinear Impairments

Each data channel in a DWDM link is a train of pulses. Being finite in time, each optical pulse is composed of a range
of wavelengths distributed around a central optical wavelength, which corresponds to the central wavelength of a specific DWDM
channel. The total signal in the optical Fibre is then the combination of all the DWDM optical channels multiplexed in the optical
Fibre. During propagation in the optical Fibre, the shape and amplitude of each pulse is modified by various effects arising from
the physical properties of the optical Fibre material.

Two effects which are causing limitations in DWDM Network

 Linear Impairments: Impairments increases linearly as signal propagates in Fibre with distance known as linear impairments like
attenuation and dispersion.

 Nonlinear Impairments: Impairments depends on high channel power which causes impairments in signal. Nonlinear impairments
also depend on span length. The longer the Fibre span, the more the Signal can interact with the Fibre, causing greater nonlinear
effects. However, the longer the span the more the propagating signal is attenuated by the Fibre, thereby diminishing the nonlinear
effect because it is dependent on signal strength.

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 53


Fibre Linear Impairments

Optical Fibre specifications

Wavelength

1310 1550nm+C band L band

Attenuation 0.35 0.25 0.25


Coefficient
(db/km)
Dispersion 6.00 17.00 20.00
Coefficient
(ps/nm/km)

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 54


Optical Power and Loss

Signal loss is the reduction of signal power along a transmission path.

For fiber optic communications the transmission path is optical and consists of
fibers, connectors, splices, and other optical components. The total link loss,
which is the optical transmission path loss measured from the transceiver laser
output to the receiver input, is the most important planning parameter to consider
for all fiber systems.
.

Optical power loss is wavelength dependent and cumulative in an optical fiber.


The main mechanism causing about 96% of signal loss in a silica fiber is
Rayleigh scattering. Material absorption and bend loss accounts for the rest of
the loss

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 55


dB versus dBm

› dBm used for output power and receive sensitivity


(Absolute Value)
› dB used for power gain or loss (Relative Value)

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 56


Chromatic Dispersion

Chromatic dispersion (CD) is a property of optical fiber (or optical component) that
causes different wavelengths of light to propagate at different velocities. Since all
light sources consist of a narrow spectrum of light (comprising of many
wavelengths), all fiber transmissions are affected by chromatic dispersion to some
degree. In addition, any signal modulating a light source results in its spectral
broadening and hence exacerbating the chromatic dispersion effect. Since each
wavelength of a signal pulse propagates in a fiber at a slightly different velocity,
each wavelength arrives at the fiber end at a different time.
This results in signal pulse spreading, which leads two inter symbol Interference
between pulses and increases bit errors.

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 57


Polarization Mode Dispersion

Polarization mode dispersion (PMD) is a property of a single-mode fiber or an


optical component where pulse spreading is caused by different propagation
velocities of the signal’s two orthogonal polarizations.
Optical fibers or optical components can be modeled with two orthogonal
polarization axes called principal states of polarization (PSP). An optical signal
propagating in a fiber is resolved into these two PSP axes. Each polarization axis
(fast and slow axis) has a different propagation velocity. The amount of pulse
spreading in time between the two polarization pulses is referred to as differential
group delay (DGD) and is measured in units of picoseconds.

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 58


Nonlinear Impairments

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 59


Fibre Nonlinear Impairments

The various effects can be grouped according to their action on the optical pulses. It
is useful to categorize them in two main categories:
Pulse energy variations.
Pulse shape variations.

Pulse energy variations are related to the intensity change of the various
wavelengths that form the pulse as it propagates in the link. It is comprised of:

•Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS)


•Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS)
•Four-Wave Mixing (FWM)
•Modulation Instability (MI)

Pulse shape variations are related to the pulse distortion, which is a modification of
the pulse shape that can affect its duration. It includes:

•Self-Phase Modulation (SPM)


•Cross-Phase Modulation (XPM)
Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 60
Fibre Nonlinear Impairments
SRS
SRS is due to the molecular vibrations caused by very high power intensities in the core of the optical fiber.
These molecular vibrations are referred to as optical phonons that scatter light in both the forward and
backward directions. The scattered light is emitted at lower frequencies (longer wavelengths) than the
original incident signal. Typically, the shift is ~100 nm from the main signal and it extends over a very broad
bandwidth. In DWDM systems, SRS will produce a power transfer from lower wavelength channels to higher
wavelength channels thus creating a tilted spectrum. The resulting power depletion in channels with smaller
wavelength could seriously reduce their transmission performance.

SBS
SBS is the interaction of the propagating light with acoustic phonons (sound waves). SBS scatters incident
light primarily back to the source in the form of a wavelength-shifted propagating wave known as a Stokes
wave. The high power incident light creates periodic regions of high refractive index traveling as a sound
wave (acoustic phonons) away from the light source. This virtual grating reflects a part of the incident light.
As it propagates towards the source, the light that was reflected at a certain point is amplified by stimulating
additional reflections. Since the virtual grating is actually moving away from the incident light, the reflected
light is Doppler-shifted to a longer wavelength by roughly 0.09nm (11GHz) at 1500nm with a bandwidth of 30
to 60MHz. The adverse effects of SBS on optical network performance are significant. SBS depletes the
incident signal power, which reduces allowable optical fiber span distances and creates a ghost signal
roughly 11GHz from the main signal. The Brillouin gain coefficient is quite high (~5 x 10-11m/W) compared to
other non-linear effects. Consequently, in favorable conditions SBS can appear at low powers (low
threshold).

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 61


Fibre Nonlinear Impairments

FWM
FWM is another nonlinear effect where the optical power in some wavelengths is transferred to other
wavelengths. FWM is one of the most disruptive non-linear effects in DWDM optical networks. When the
intensity of the laser signal reaches a critical level, ghost channels start to appear, some of which may fall
on true data channels resulting in a multi-channel cross talk that increases the bit-error rates (BER).
Intensity Modulation (MI)
This Nonlinear Effects NLE is essentially the overall instability affecting both the pulse shape and intensity
and is a result of the interplay between the NLE and dispersion effects that occur mainly under positive (or
anomalous) chromatic dispersion. The noise present in the optical fiber will be amplified to a certain extent.
Ultimately, the DWDM channel acts as a pump that effectively amplifies noise in frequency range close to
the pump frequency.
Self phase modulation (SPM)
Optical fiber refractive index depends on the per-channel power. This change in refractive index will result
in phase shifts which are proportional to the intensity of the pulse. Because the pulse does not have
constant intensity throughout its duration, different parts of the pulse have a different phase shift, causing
induced chirp. SPM alone does not modify the pulse shape. The pulse distortion occurs when SPM arises
in a dispersive medium.
Cross phase Modulation (CPM or XPM)
Two pulses overlapping in the optical fiber cause a local increase in power, which changes the refractive
index. As a result, the two pulses see additional chirp increasing the effect generated by SPM. In a
dispersive medium, pulse distortion also increases. However, high local dispersion can also decrease the
effect of XPM because the probability of two pulses overlapping with each other over a long distance is
reduced.

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 62


Optical Signal to Noise Ratio
(OSNR)

Optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) is an important figure of merit used in fiber
link planning. It is the ratio of signal power to noise power, over a specific
spectral bandwidth, at any point in an optical link. Noise power can be defined
as any undesirable signal interference.
All fiber transmission signals consist of modulated light with some level of
background noise. As the noise level increases, the receiver has greater
difficulty decoding signal information and consequently errors are introduced into
the received transmission. A well designed system will have sufficiently high
receiver signal power over noise power (the OSNR) to maintain communications
within acceptable error limits.

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 63


Effects of NLE on High Speed
Transmission

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 64


Current and Future Technologies for High Speed Transmission in
DWDM Network

Coherent Transponders.
CDC and CDCG ROADM.
Flex-grid operation optical networks.

Optical rates and their spectral


efficiency.

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 65


HIGHER-ORDER MODULATION

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 66


Coherent Detection

Coherent Transceivers comprise of:


A. Coherent detection
B. ADC sampling
C. DSP processing

Coherent detection
A coherent system employs coherent detection technology at the receive end. Specifically,
the receiver uses a local oscillator to generate a laser light that has the same frequency as
the received signal for interference. Then the receiver processes the two light waves with a
synchronous circuit to ensure that the phase of the local laser light is the same as the phase
of the received signal. In this manner, the receiver recovers the amplitude, phase, and
polarization of the received signal. A coherent system offers better OSNR performance than
a non-coherent system. This remarkably extends the 40G/100G transmission distance.

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 67


High-Speed ADC and DSP Technologies

Coherent communication itself cannot improve the CD and PMD


tolerance, but coherent solutions can significantly improve the CD and
PMD tolerance because they use high speed ADC and DSP schemes.
After the ADC samples signals, the DSP algorithm performs
compensation for CD and PMD, which substantially improves the CD
and PMD tolerance. The high-speed ADC and DSP algorithms are
essential technologies for coherent communication. Compared with
direct demodulation and differential demodulation, coherent detection
uses a laser that has optical power much higher than the incoming
optical signal. Therefore, coherent detection can greatly improve the
OSNR performance. In addition to the local laser, coherent detection
uses DSP to process polarization-multiplexed signals, restructure the
signals, and recover the properties (polarization mode, amplitude, and
phase) of the propagated signals. Therefore, coherent detection
significantly eliminates the transmission impairments caused by fibers
and allows for CD as high as several tens of thousands of ps/nm
without using DCMs on fiber lines.

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 68


DWDM Systems in Reliance Network
1. Ciena (Nortel) –NLD Network
A. LH 1600
B. CPL
2. Huawei- Metro Network
A. OSN 6800
B. OSN 8800
C. OSN 6100
D. OSN 1800
3. ZTE – Collector Network & Metro Network
A. ZXMP M720
B. ZXMP M8000

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 69


OPTera Long Haul 1600 applications
Line applications (Amplifier)
Unidirectional topology: 80 wavelengths on each Fibre

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 70


Optera 1600G Amplifier applications

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 71


Three-shelf
OPTera Long
Haul 1600 bay
layout

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 72


Control Shelf
Typical control shelf layout for the OPTera LH bay configured as an
Amplifier

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 73


Shelf Controller (SC)
 Bay requires one shelf processor, the shelf controller (SC), in slot 6 of the control shelf.
 Interfaces with all software-based circuit packs and serves as a message gateway for DCC, external RS-232, and Ethernet.
 SC functions include alarm reporting, system fault detection, isolation and protection, software download and upgrade, and restart
capability from the local non-volatile flash on the MI circuit pack. OPTera LH requires a 32-Mbytes SC.

Maintenance Interface(MI)
 Each OPTera LH bay requires the maintenance interface (MI) circuit pack in slot 9 of the control shelf.
 It operates in conjunction with the SC and contains 128 Mbytes of flash memory, which is used for configuration and code storage.
 MI main functions include alarm reporting, processor sanity, circuit pack inventory and status and Ethernet/RS-232 port drivers.

Message Exchange (MX)

 The OPTera 1600G bay requires the Message Exchange (MX) circuit pack, in slot 10 or 11 of the control shelf.
 It handles internal communications between the control circuit packs and the optical circuit packs, as well as DCC routing.
 The MX connects the shelf controller to all software-based circuit packs in the OPTera LH bay through the internal star-based LAN.

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 74


Main shelf and extension shelf 1 equipping rules

Optical Service Channel (OSC)


 All amplifier configurations require the OSC circuit pack. For
unidirectional applications, install the unidirectional OSC.
 The main shelf houses the OSC module in slots 1 (G0) and 6 (G5).
Dual Amplifier
 All amplifier configurations require the Dual Amplifier.
 Extension shelf 1 houses the C-Band Dual Amplifier in slots 1 and 6.
Booster Amplifiers
Booster Amplifiers are required to support scalability up to 40
wavelengths. OPTera 1600G supports two versions of the Booster
Amplifier: Booster18 and Booster21.

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 75


C-Band Booster18
This amplifier can be provisioned up to 18 dBm.
 In conjunction with the Dual Amplifier C-Band, the Booster18 C-Band
can support up to 30 wavelengths, depending on the Fibre type.
 Extension shelf 1 houses Booster18 in slots 2, 3, 7, and 8. Slots 2 and 3
are assigned to opposite directions as are slots 7 and 8.

C-Band Booster21
This amplifier can be provisioned up to 21 dBm.
 In conjunction with the C-Band Dual Amplifier, C-Band Booster21 can
support up to 40 wavelengths.
 Extension shelf 1 houses Booster21 in slots 4, 5, 9, and 10. Slots 4 and
5 are assigned to opposite directions as are slots 9 and 10.

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 76


LH 1600 Link Example

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 77


CPL - Common Photonic Layer

The Common Photonic Layer product is based on a backplane-less


architecture, therefore, required modules are simply interconnected to
provide optimized low-cost solutions.

Since there is no backplane to provide power to the various modules


or to provide inter-module communications, these connections are
handled through a power cable harness from a breaker interface panel
(BIP) and Ethernet cable connections, respectively.

The backplane-less architecture allows for deployments with


impressive reductions in space and footprint, and power consumption.

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 78


CPL - Common Photonic Layer
The Common Photonic Layer’s modular architecture provides optimized network configurations based on the following types of optical
modules:
• Channel Mux/Demux (CMD) modules
— 4 Channel Mux/Demux (CMD4)
— 44 Channel Mux/Demux 100 GHz C-Band (CMD44)
— Enhanced 44 Channel Mux/Demux 100 GHz C-Band (eCMD44)
— 44 Channel Mux/Demux 50 GHz C-Band (CMD44)
— Enhanced 44 Channel Mux/Demux 50 GHz C-Band (CMD44)
— Serial 4 Channel Mux/Demux (SCMD4)
— Serial 8 Channel Mux/Demux (SCMD8)
— Channel Mux/Demux Amplifier (CMDA)
• Broadband Mux/Demux 1x2 (BMD2)
• Group Mux/Demux (GMD) module
• Amplifier modules
— Single Line Amplifier (SLA): single (pre-amplifier) EDFA
— Mid-stage Line Amplifier (MLA): dual (pre-amplifier/booster) EDFA
— Mid-stage Line Amplifier 2 (MLA2): dual (pre-amplifier/booster) EDFA
— Mid-stage Line Amplifier 3 (MLA3): dual (pre-amplifier/booster) EDFA
— Line Interface Module (LIM)
— Line Interface Module 3 (LIM3)
— Distributed Raman Amplifier (DRA)
• Dual Optical Service Channel (DOSC) module
• Uni Optical Service Channel (UOSC) module
• Wavelength Selective Switch 5 x 1 - 50 GHz (WSS)
• Wavelength Selective Switch 5 x 1 - 100 GHz (WSS)
• Optical Power Monitor (OPM)
Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 79
Common Hardware View
GMD module front view

4 Channel Mux/Demux (CMD4) module

44 Channel Mux/Demux C-Band (CMD44) module

Common Photonic Layer Amplifier

Dual Optical Service Channel (DOSC) module

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 80


Common Photonic Layer site descriptions and building blocks
Terminal site A terminal site is a site where all channels that form the photonic layer are terminated at the service layer.

Line Amplifier site

OADM site The optical add-drop multiplexer (OADM) GMD based site provides the ability to add/drop any channel available in the photonic
system.

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 81


ROADM The remotely reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM) site provides the
ability to remotely and automatically reconfigure optical networks

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 82


Hi-Cap CPL Link Design

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 83


OPTera Connect DX
The OPTera Connect DX network element transports a
bandwidth of up to the equivalent of STM-64 signals.
These signals originate from:
• up to four protected Quad STM-1 tributaries (equivalent
to sixteen protected STM-1 tributaries)
• up to four protected STM-16 or STM-16 tributaries
• up to four protected Quad STM-4 tributaries (equivalent
to sixteen protected STM-4 tributaries)
• a combination of Quad STM-1, Quad STM-4, STM-16
tributaries,filling the STM-64 bandwidth.

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 84


Network applications

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 85


Network applications

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 86


Interworking of DX and LH

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 87


OPTera Connect DX 1 Hardware

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 88


Tributary Circuit Pack

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 89


Extension Shelf

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 90


2-Fr Ring Network

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 91


2-Fr Multi-Ring

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 92


Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 93
Optical Cross-Connect: HDX
Highly Modular / Scalable OXC Infrastructure
–Fully Non-blocking STS-1 / VC-4 Switch Matrix
•HDX: 640G-1.28T, Single Shelf
•3.84Tb/s Multi-Shelf Architecture
Integrated DWDM Optics - SFP Modules
Flexible service restoration and topologies
–Mesh, Ring, Linear Protection
–Restoration based on service attributes
Intelligent OXC enabling Next Generation Networking
–Distributed, redundant & Integrated Control Plane
–ITU-T ASON G.807/G.8080 ASON, GMPLS (Generalized Multi
Protocol Label Switching) signaling
–Network topology discovery and awareness
Multi-Services Management
–STS-1/VC-4 to STS-192c/VC-4-64c
–Ports at 2.5/10/40Gb/s, 155/622Mb/s
Managed by Preside Optical Manager
Dimension : L X W X H : 1500 X 600 X 2200 cm
Power Consumption : 5400 Watts (Max)

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 94


Main Circuit Packs of HDX

1. Switch circuit pack


2. Shelf Controller
3. MXT card
4. Traffic Cards ( 16 Nos of traffic slots)
1. 10G SR or DWDM cards – 4 ports per card
2. 2.5G (STM16) card – 16 ports per card (IR, SR, LR)
3. STM4 / STM1 card - 16 ports per card (IR, SR, LR )
5. Power Supply Module (PSM)
6. Fan Module

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 95


Call and connection concept

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 96


Automatic Mesh Restoration

AMR is a call attribute used to enable to disable the


automatic Mesh restoration on a per call basis.
AMR option can be used with any type of CoS and can be
edited after call creation.
Automatic mesh restoration is initiated upon failure detection
and the first level of protection is failed or there is no first
level of protection .
AMR uses the same SDH failure indicators for rapid failure
detection ( LOS, LOF, AIS etc.)

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 97


10G Ring & Shared Mesh

501-P6 1+1 503-P6


502-P15 502-P6 504-P6
502-P4
503-P16
502-P12 501-P1 504-P1
502-P14 503-P13
503-P15
502-P3
2FR 10G

504-P13
502-P9

503-P1
Unprotected
501-P12

501-P13
502-P1
501-P6

501-P1 501-P4

501-P5
502-12 501-P8

NODE2 NODE4

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 98


OTN Fundamentals

· Optical Transport Hierarchy.


· Multiplexing/mapping principles

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 99


Why OTN
Evolution of Technology
SDH DWDM OTN
Transport Tech Carrier Tech Carrier’s Carrier Tech

FIBER
SDH has its own limitations related to High Bandwidth.
Limitations of DWDM Systems in Transmission Network either Linear or
Non-Linear effects.
When WDM was first discussed, it held the promise of sending each signal
in its native format s.
One reason for developing a new signal format for WDM signals was the
possibility to add new overhead channel for OAM&P on the WDM network.
Another reason more powerful forward error correction (FEC) capability.
New standards for transport was to provide a less granular payload
envelope for the transport of higher bandwidth individual clients aggregated
Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 100
from access networks.
Features of OTN Technology

WDM transport networks based on the ITU-T OTN standards are becoming increasingly
important. The reasons carriers are moving toward OTN include:
· OTN is a much less complex technology for transport applications than SONET/SDH.
· The OTN signal incorporates overhead optimized for transporting signals over carrier WDM
networks.
· The combination of the reduced technology complexity and optimized overhead allows
substantial reductions in carrier transport network operations expenses.
· The OTN multiplexing bandwidth granularity is one or two orders of magnitude higher than for
SONET/SDH, thus making it more scalable to higher rates.
· OTN now provides a cost effective method for carrying high-speed wide area network (WAN)
data clients including Ethernet and storage area network (SAN) protocols.
· OTN provides an integrated mechanism for forward error correction (FEC) that allows greater
reach between optical nodes and/or higher bit rates on the same fiber.
· Client signals can be carried over OTN in a transparent manner. This transparency includes
native SONET/SDH signals for the “carrier’s carrier” application where the entire client
SONET/SDH signal’s overhead must be preserved through the OTN.

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 101


Converged Transport Over OTN

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 102


OTN as “Digital Wrapper”

Ideally, any type of native signal could be carried on any of the


wavelengths with extensive operations, administration, and maintenance
(OAM) capabilities for each signal.

But How
•The first is to send the client signal essentially in its native format (with the
exception of its normal wavelength) and add OAM capability in some type of
separate channel.
•The second approach is to treat the client signal as a digital payload signal and
encapsulate it into a frame structure that includes channel-associated OAM
overhead channels.

The approach of carrying the client signals as the payload of a digital frame
was referred to as a “digital wrapper” approach.1 The digital wrapper, which
contained the various OAM overhead channels, is conceptually similar to
SONET/SDH.
Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 103
Frame Structure of OTN
The OTN consists of
Optical layers (OTSn, OMSn and OCh)
Electrical layers (OTUk, ODUk and OPUk) according to network
layer definition

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 104


OTN Types and Bit Rates

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 105


Overhead of OTN

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 106


Overhead of OTN

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 107


Overhead of OTN

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 108


Overhead of OTN

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 109


Multiplexing

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 110


Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 111
OME 6500

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 112


Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 113
Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 114
Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 115
Thanks !

Ericsson Internal | 2015-04-10 | Page 116