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Lecture 6:

Linear Momentum,
Collision and Circular
motion,

 Impulse
 Conservation of Linear
Momentum
 Inelastic Collisions
 Elastic Collisions
 Circular Motion
Momentum and Collisions
• Momentum
• Impulse and Collisions
• Centripetal Force
• Uniform Circular Motion
• Car negotiating a flat turn
• Conical Pendulum
• Vertical Circular Motion
• Loop to loop
• Ferris Wheel
Linear Momentum
• The linear momentum of an object of mass
m moving with a velocity v is defined as the
product of the mass and the velocity.

Momentum is a vector; its direction is the same as the


direction of the velocity.
Example 1:
A 285 g ball falls vertically downward, hitting the floor with a
speed of 2.5 ms-1 and rebounding upward with a speed of
2.0 ms-1. Find the change in the ball’s momentum.

Solution 1:
 
p  mv
v(+ve)  
p  mv

p  m(v  u )
u(-ve) 
p  (0.285)(2.0  (2.5))

p  1.3 kgms1
Momentum and Newton’s
Second Law
Applying Newton’s Second Law for cases with constant
acceleration, we get

v  u mv  mu p
F  ma  m  
t t t
When the force, F acts over a short period of time
Δt, it produces a change in momentum:

J  Ft  mv  mu
Impulse = Change in momentum
IMPULSE
When a force F acts over a brief period of time Δt, it
produces a change in momentum.
F is called the
impulsive
force

t
Impulse ,J is equals to Impulse:
the force, F acting for a
small time interval t. II or
or JJ =
= FF tt
Impulse is a vector, in the same SI unit : N . s = kg . m/s
direction as the average force.
Impulse from a Varying Force
The force acting for a short interval is usually
not constant. So we use the average force.
J  Favg t  mv  mu
The average force can be thought of as
the constant force that would give the
same impulse to the object in the time
interval as the actual time-varying
force gives in the interval.

• Impulse = area under F - Δt diagram.


= average force × time taken.
IMPULSE

Therefore, the
same change in
momentum may
be produced by a
large force acting
for a short time,
or by a smaller
force acting for a
longer time.
Example 2:
A 0.144 kg baseball is thrown towards the club at the speed of
43.0 m/s when it is hit softly with an average force of 6.50×103 N
for 1.30 ms. If we take the direction of the pitcher (who threw the
ball) as the positive x-direction, what is the final return speed of
the ball?

+
m = 0.144 kg

u=- 43.0 m/s


F= 6.50×103 N
+ v=?
t =1.3ms

1. Choose and label a positive direction.


2. A velocity is positive when with this direction and negative
when against it.
+
m = 0.144 kg
F= 6.50×103 N
u=- 43.0 m/s + V=?
t =1.3ms

Solution 1:

Impulse J  average force  time acting  Favg t
Impulse produces a change in momentum
  
J  Favg t  p  m(v f  vi )
(6.50 10 )(1.30 10 )  (0.144) v f  (43.0) 
3 3 

 (6.50  103 )(1.30  10 3 )


vf   43.0  15.7 ms 1
(0.144)
Conservation of Linear
Momentum
The net force acting on an object is the rate of
change of its momentum:

If the net force is zero, the momentum does not


change:
Example 3:
A honeybee with a mass of 0.150 g lands on one end of a
floating 4.75 g popsicle stick. After sitting at rest for a
moment, it runs toward the other end with a velocity v b
relative to the still water. The stick moves in the
opposite direction with a speed of 0.120 cms-1. What is
the velocity of the bee? (Let the direction of the bee’s
motion be the positive x direction.)

pi  p f
Solution3: 0  ms (vs )  mb vb  mb vb  ms vs
(4.75)(0.120)
vb   3.8 cms 1
0.15
A Collision between Two Blocks

When two masses m1 and m2 collide, we will use the symbol


u to and v to describe velocities before and after collision.

Before u1 u2
m1 m2
+ve

m1 m2B
“u”= Before Collision “v” = After
After v1 v2
m1 m2
A Collision of Two
Masses
During collision, impulsive forces act on both
masses, resulting in a change in their velocities

v1 v2
m1 m1 m2 m2
u1 -F F u2
 Ft  m1v1  m1u1 Ft  m2 v2  m2u2

 (m1v1  m1u1 )  m2 v2  m2u2


 m1u1  m2u 2  m1v1  m2 v2

Momentum is conserved!
Types of Collisions
• Momentum is conserved in any collision.
• Inelastic collisions.
– Kinetic energy is not conserved
• Some of the kinetic energy is converted into other types of
energy such as heat, sound, work to permanently deform
an object
– Perfectly inelastic collisions occur when the objects
stick together
• Not all of the KE is necessarily lost
• Elastic collision.
– Both momentum and kinetic energy are conserved
• Actual collisions.
– Most collisions fall between elastic and perfectly
inelastic collisions
Inelastic Collisions
Inelastic collision:
- momentum is conserved
- kinetic energy is not
conserved

Completely inelastic collision:


objects stick together afterwards: objects have a common
velocity after impact
Perfectly Inelastic Collisions
Collisions where two objects stick together
and have a common velocity vC after impact.
Conservation of Momentum:

m Au A  mB u B  (m A  mB )vC

Conservation of Energy:
1
2 m u  m u  (mA  mB )v  Loss
2
A A
1
2
2
B B
1
2
2
c
Example 4:
On a touchdown attempt, a 95.0 kg running back runs toward the
end zone at 3.75 ms-1. A 111 kg linebacker moving at 4.10 ms-1
meets the runner in a head-on collision. If the two players grabs
hold onto one another,
(a) what is their velocity immediately after the collision?
(b) what are the initial and final kinetic energies of the system?
Solution 4:

(a) pi  p f (b)
mAuA  mBuB  mAvA  mBvB KEi  KE A  KEB
1 1
 (95)(3.75)  (111)(4.10) 2
2
mAuA  mBuB  (mA  mB )v 2 2
 1600 J
mAu A  mB u B
v 1
(mA  mB ) KE f  (95  111)(0.48) 2
2
(95)(3.75)  (111 )( 4.10)
  23.7 J
(95  111 )
Note:
 0.480 ms 1 loss  1600  23.7  1570 J
Example 5:
The ballistic pendulum (as shown in figure below) is a
device used to measure the speed of a fast-moving
projectile such as a bullet. The bullet is fired into a large
block of wood suspended from some light wires. The bullet
is stopped by the block, and the entire system swings up to
a height h. It is possible to obtain the initial speed of the
bullet by measuring h and the two masses. As an example
of the technique, assume that the mass of the bullet m1 =
5.00 g, the mass of the pendulum m2 = 1.000 kg, and h is
5.00 cm.
(a) Find the velocity of the
system after the bullet
embeds in the block.
(b) Calculate the initial speed of
the bullet.
(a )  KE  PE  after collision   KE  PE  top
1
2  m1  m2  vsys 2  0  0   m1  m2  gh
2
vsys  2 gh
vsys  2 gh  2 9.80   5.00 10  2 
vsys  0.990 m/s

(b) pi  p f
m1u1  m2u2   m1  m2  vsys
 m1  m2  vsys 1.005 0.990
u1    199 m/s
m1 5.00  10 3
Exercise 1:
A 0.430 kg block is attached to a horizontal spring of force constant 20.0 Nm-1
which is in equilibrium, resting on a frictionless surface. A 0.05 kg wad of putty
is thrown horizontally at the block, hitting it with a speed of 2.30 ms-1 and
sticking to it. How far does the putty-block system compress the spring?

before up =2.30ms-2 after Δx=?

Solution
mb=0.43kg 2:mp=0.05kg mb=0.43kg mp=0.05kg

Solution 1: 1 1
(mb  m p )v f  k  x 
2 2

Taking the left direction as +ve 2 2


0 ( mb  m p )v 2
mbub  mpu p  (mb  mp )v f x 
k
m pu p (0.05)(2.3) (0.43  0.05)(0.24) 2
vf    0.24 m/s 
20.0
mb  m p (0.43  0.05)
x  3.7110 2 m
Elastic Collisions
In elastic collisions, both kinetic energy and momentum
are conserved.

1. Zero energy lost. uA A B uB


2. Masses do not change. A B
3. Momentum conserved. vA vB

(Relative v After) = - (Relative u Before)


For elastic collisions: vvAA -- vvBB == -- (u
(uAA -- uuBB))
For a one-dimensional elastic collision (along each
direction)
1 1 1 1
Energy : m Au A  mB u B  m A v A  mB v B
2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2
 m A (u A2  v A2 )  mB (vB2  u B2 )
Momentum : m Au A  mB u B  m Av A  mB vB
 m A (u A  v A )  mB (vB  u B )
u v
2 2
v u
2 2
Divide, A A
 B B
u A  v A vB  u B
Factoring & divide : u A  v A  vB  u B

v A  vB  u B  u A
v A  vB  (u A  u B )
Example 7:

You flip a 20 cent coin at the speed of 2.0 m/s


such that it hits a stationary 10 cent coin of
half its mass. The collision lasted for 0.1 s.
(i) If the collision was elastic, what is the final
velocity of the each coin?
(ii) Determine the impulsive force during the
collision, given that the 10 cent coin has a
mass of 20 grams.
Solution 7
(i) 2m  0  mv1  12 mv2  2  v1  12 v2
2  0  v2  v1

 32 v2  4  v2  2.67 m/s and v1  0.67 m/s

mv  mu 0.02(2.67  0)
(ii) F   0.53 N
t 0 .1
Circular Motion
An object moving in a circle must
experience a force acting on it; otherwise it
would move in a straight line.
Constant speed
v tangential to the
Fc
path.
Constant force
towards the center.

Question: Is there an outward force on the ball?


Circular Motion
What happens when the string breaks?

The ball moves tangentially


v
to the path, NOT outwards
as might be expected.
When the force towards the
centre is removed, the ball
continues in a straight line.

What is the magnitude of this force and the resultant


acceleration that keeps it moving in a circle?
Centripetal Acceleration
• The magnitude of the centripetal
acceleration is given by
2
v
ac   r 2

r
Newton’s 2nd Law says that the centripetal
acceleration is produced by a force
v2
Fc  mac  m s v vs
r   v 
r v r
where v v s v 2
ac   � 
t r t r
Section 7.4
Circular Motion
This force may be provided by the tension in a string, the
normal force, gravitational force or friction, and others.
The frictional force
pushes towards the
centre of the circle: so it
is the centripetal force

The tension pulls towards


the centre of the circle: so it

F
is the centripetal force
x  f s  mac
Finding the maximum speed for

F x  mac negotiating a turn without slipping.

2 f s   s N   s (mg ) v 2   s gr
v
T m
r v2
 s mg  m v   s gr
r
Centripetal Acceleration

Consider a ball moving at a constant speed v in a horizontal circle of radius R at the


end of a string tied to a peg on the center of a table. (Assume zero friction.)

Fc FN

v From side W
R Force Fc and
acceleration ac is
towards the center.
W = FN
From top
Car Negotiating a Flat Turn
The centripetal force Fc is
that of static friction fs:
Fc n Fc = fs
R fs
m
v R

mg

The
The central
central force
force FFCC andand the
the friction
friction force
force ffss are
are
not
not two
two different
different forces
forces that
that are
are equal.
equal. There
There isis
just
just one
one force
force on on the
the car.
car. The
The nature
nature ofof this
this
central
central force
force isis static
static friction.
friction.
The Conical Pendulum
A conical pendulum consists of a mass m revolving in a
horizontal circle of radius R at the end of a cord of length L.
T cos q
T
L
q q
T h
q T sin q
R
mg
Note: The component of the tension acting towards the centre of
the circular motion T sin q gives the needed central force.
mv2 v2
T sin q 
R tan q =
T cos q = mg gR
Example 8: A 3.00 kg rock swings in a circle of radius 5.00 m
at a constant speed of 8.00 m/s. What is the centripetal
acceleration and centripetal force?
v = 8 m/s
Solution 8:
m = 3 kg

r=5m

v 2 (8.00m/s)2
ac    12.8m/s 2

r 5.00 m
F  mac
 (3.00)(12.8)
 38.4 N
Example 9:
A 1200 kg car rounds a corner of radius r = 45 m. If the
coefficient of static friction between the tires and the road is
µs = 0.82, what is the greatest speed the car can turn the
corner without skidding?

Solution 2: x-axis :- v 2   s gr
y-axis :-
 Fy  0 F x  f s  mac v   s gr
 s FN  mac 2 v  0.82(9.8)(45)
FN  mg  0 v
FN  mg  s mg  m v  19.0 ms 1
r
Example 10: Banked Curve
If a roadway is banked at the proper angle, a car can round a
corner without any assistance from friction between the tires
and the road. Find the appropriate banking angle for a 900 kg
car travelling at 20.5 ms-1 in a turn of radius 85.0 m.
FN cos Ɵ

W
sin q  mac
cosq
FN sin Ɵ
sin q m  v2 
  
Solution 3: cosq mg  r 
y-axis :- x-axis :- v2 W=mg
tan q 
 Fx  mac
So, the mass

F y 0 rg can be
cancelled
FN cos q  W FN sinq  mac .....(2) q  26.8
W
FN  .....(1) Substitute eqn (1) into (2)
cos q
Example 11: Conical Pendulum
A 0.0075 kg toy airplane is tied to a ceiling with a string. When
the airplane’s motor is started, it moves with a constant speed of
1.21 ms-1 in a horizontal circle of radius 0.44 m, as shown. Find
(a) the angle the string makes with the vertical and
(b) the tension in the string.

TcosƟ
θ
T

TsinƟ

W
Solution 11:
(a) y-axis F y  T cos q  (mg )  0

T cos q  mg
x-axis mv 2 mv 2
 Fx  r  T sin q  r
mv 2
T sin q v 2
(1 . 21) 2
 r  tan q    q  19.0
T cos q mg rg (0.44)(9.8)

0.075(9.80)
(b) T   0.78 N θ
cos19
Exercise 2:
A popular ride at amusement parks is illustrated. In this ride,
people sit in a swing that is suspended from a rotating arm.
Riders are at a distance of 12 m from the axis of rotation and
move with a speed of 11.0 ms-1.
(a) Find the centripetal acceleration of the riders.
(b) Find the angle θ the supporting wires make with the vertical.
(c) If you observe a ride like that
in the figure, you will notice that
all the swings are at the same
angle θ to the vertical, regardless
of the weight of rider. Explain.
Solution 2:
v 2
11
2
2
(a) ac    10 ms
r 12

v2 v 2

(b) tan q   q  tan 1


 46
rg rg

(c) Because the weight and centripetal acceleration both


depend linearly on the mass, the mass cancels out of
the expression for the angle θ. All swings are at the
same angle, whether a child or an adult is present or
even if the seat is empty!
Circular Motion Motion in a
An object may be changing Vertical Circle
its speed as it moves in a Consider the forces on a
circle; in that case, there is a ball attached to a string
tangential acceleration as as it moves in a vertical
well: loop.

Source: www.ic.sunysb.edu

Note also that the positive direction is always along the


acceleration, i.e. toward the center of the circle.
Motion in a Vertical Circle
Consider the forces on a ball Note also that the positive
attached to a string as it moves in direction is always towards
a vertical loop. the center of the circle.
Tension is minimum as
Weight causes
weight helps Fc force
small decrease in
Top of Path Top Right
v tension T
v
+ + v
T Right
mg T mg
Left Side T
T Weight has no
Weight has no v + effect on T
effect on T mg T +
mg
v
Bottom
mg
+
For Motion in Circle
mg
At the top
T
v v2 mv 2
+ T  mg  m  T   mg
mg R R
T R
At the bottom
T +
v v2 mv 2
mg T  mg  m  T   mg
T R R
mg
Example 12:
Jill of the Jungle swings on a vine 6.9 m long. What is the tension
in the vine if Jill, whose mass is 63 kg, is moving at 2.4 ms-1 when
the vine is vertical?

Solution 12:
mv 2 mv 2
F btm 
r
T  mg 
r
mv 2
r = 6.9m T  mg
r
v
63kg (2.4ms1)2
  (63kg9.80ms2 )
6.9m
mg
 670 N
Example 13:
What is the critical speed vc at the top, if a 2.00 kg mass
attached to a string is to continue in a verticle circle of radius
8.00 m?
Solution 13: 0
mv2
vc At the top mg + T =
mg R
T R vc occurs when T = 0
v2
v mg  m  v  gr
r
v  (9.80)(8.00)  8.85 m/s

Critical speed is the minimum speed below which the


object would ‘fall’ and not continue in a circle
Summary of Formulas:

Impulse
Impulse Momentum
Momentum
JJ =
= FFavg t
avg t
pp =
= mv
mv
Impulsive
Force, F
vu
J  Ft  m t  mv  mu  p
t
Impulse = Change
Impulse = Change in
in momentum
momentum
A Collision between Two Blocks

Before u1 u2
m1 m2 +ve

Collision
“u”= Before “v” = After
m1 m2B

After v1 v2
m1 m2
Impulse and Momentum
uA uB
A B Impulse =  p
Ft = mvf – mvo
-FA t B FB t
Opposite but Equal F  t
vA vB
A B FB  t = -FA  t
mBvB - mBuB = -(mAvA - mAuA)
Simplifying: m
mAAvvAA ++ m
mBBvvBB == m
mAAuuAA ++ m
mBBuuBB
The total momentum AFTER a collision is equal to
the total momentum BEFORE.
Conservation of Energy

u1 u2
m1 m2

The kinetic energy before colliding is


equal to the kinetic energy after colliding
plus the energy lost in the collision.

1
2 m u  m u  m v  m v  Loss
2
1 1
1
2
2
2 2
1
2
2
1 1
1
2
2
2 2
Elastic or Inelastic?

An elastic collision loses In an inelastic collision,


no kinetic energy. The kinetic energy is lost and
deform-ation on collision the deformation may be
is fully restored. permanent.
Summary: Collisions
For all collisions,
momentum is conserved
mAv A  mB vB  mAu A  mB uB
For inelastic collisions, KE
is not conserved For
For elastic
elastic
1
mAuA2  12 mBuB2  12 mAvA2  12 mBvB2  Loss collisions,
collisions, KE
KE isis
2
conserved:
conserved:
Perfectly inelastic
collision, objects stick v A  vB  u B  u A
m Au A  mB utogether:
B  ( m A  mB )vcommon
Additional Examples
Additional Example 1: (Dec 2013)
To make a bounce pass, a player throws a 0.60 kg basketball
toward the floor. The ball hits the floor with a speed of 5.4 ms-1 at
an angle of 65° to the vertical. If the ball rebounds with the same
speed and angle, what was the impulse delivered to it by the
floor?
y
Solution 9:
vx,i x-axis
x  
vi I x  p x  m(v f  vi )
θ Vy,f v x ,i  v sin 65  4.89 ms 1
vy,i
1
θ θ
vf v x , f  v sin 65  4.89 ms
Vx,f  
I x  p x  0.60(4.89  4.89)

Ix  0
Solution 1(Cont):
y-axis
y-axis
 
I y  p y  m(v f  vi )
1
y v y ,i  v cos 65  2.28 ms

vx,i v y , f  v cos 65  2.28 ms 1


x 
vi I y  0.60(2.28  (2.28))
θ Vy,f
vy,i  1
θ θ
I y  2.7 kgms
vf
Vx,f
Additional Example 2:
A cart of mass m moves with a speed u on a frictionless
air track and collides with an identical cart that is
stationary and gets stuck to it. What is the final kinetic
energy (in term of m and u) of the system.
u1 u2=0m/s v
=

Solution 2:
1
mu  0  (m  m)v KE f  (m1  m2 )v 2
2
mu u
v  1 u 2 1
2m 2  (2m)( )  mu 2
2 2 4
Additional Example 3:
A 5240 kg bull elephant charges directly at you with the speed of 4.55
ms-1. You toss a 0.150 kg rubber ball at the elephant with a speed of
7.81 ms-1.
(a) At what speed would the ball bounce back towards you?
(b) How do account for the fact that the ball’s kinetic energy has
increased?
5240(4.55)  (0.15)(7.81)  5240ve  0.15vb  ve  4.55
Solution 3:
ub= -7.81ms-1 ve  vb  ub  ue
(a) ve  vb  (7.81)  4.55  12.36

vb= ?  vb  (7.81)  4.55  4.55


ue= 4.55ms-1
vb  16.9 ms1

(b) The ball’s kinetic energy has increased because


kinetic energy has been transferred from the
elephant to the ball as a result of the collision.
Additional Example 4
A roller-coaster car moving
around a circular loop of radius R.
(a) What speed must the car
have so that it will just make
it over the top without any
assistance from the track?
(b) What speed will the car
subsequently have at the
bottom of the loop?
(c) What will be the normal
force on a passenger at the
bottom of the loop with
radius of 10 m.
Solution
(a ) ma c  n  mg
at the top of the loop , n  0; hence,
2
vtop
m  mg
R
vtop  gR

1 2 1
(b) Etop  mvtop  mgh  mgR  mg (2 R)  2.5mgR
2 2
1 2
Ebot  mvbot
2
1 2
mvbot  2.5mgR
2
vbot  5 gR
Solution
2
vbot
(c ) m  n  mg
R
2
vbot 5 gR
n  mg  m  mg  m  6mg
R R
Additional Example 5
A highway is designed with a
turning of radius 500 m that
is banked at an angle of
20.0°.
Find the speed (called the
design speed) at which the
car could smoothly turn the
curve without the aid of
frictional force to keep it from
slipping or sliding up or down
the incline.
Solution

For y  component,
Fy  n cos q  mg  0
mg
n
cos q
For the x  component,
mg
Fc  n sin q   sin q  mg tan q
cos q
v2
Fc  m  mg tan q
r
v  rg tan q  (500)(9.80) tan 20.0  42.2 m/s

This is the design speed, that is the speed at which the car can turn
the bend almost as if it is driving on a flat straight road.