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OBJECTIVE – RELATED

PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING
“Goals are our guiding star.”
Guiding Principles in Determining and
Formulating Learning Objectives
1. “Begin with the end in mind,” says Covey, the author of “Seven
Habits of Effective People”. In the context of teaching, this means
that we must begin our lesson with a clearly defined lesson
objective. With a clear and specific lesson objective we will have
a sense of direction. With a definite lesson objective in mind, we
do not lose sight of what we intend to teach.
2. Share lesson objective with the students. Make known to our
students our instructional objective and encourage them to make
the lesson objective their own. This lesson objective when shared
and possessed by our students will become their personal target.
It is against this personal target that they will evaluate themselves
at the end of the lesson. When our students set their own targets,
we are certain that they will become more self – motivated.
3. Lesson objectives must be in the two or three domains –
knowledge (cognitive), skill (psychomotor) and values
(affective). Our lesson maybe dominantly cognitive, psychomotor
or affective. Dominantly cognitive if it is meant primarily for
knowledge acquisition and dominantly psychomotor if it is intended
for the acquisition and honing skills.
 Lesson objectives in the affective domain are mainly focused on
attitude and value formation. A cognitive or a skill lesson must
always include the affective dimension for wholistic learning. A
lesson objective that dwells on trivia is hardly a motivating force.
 What is most important according to this principle is that our lesson
is wholistic and complete because it dwells on knowledge and
values or on skills and values or on knowledge, skills and values.
4. Work on significant and relevant lesson objectives. With our
lesson objective becoming our students’ lesson objective, too, ours
students will be self-propelled as we teach. The level of their self-
motivation all the more increases when our objective is relevant to
their daily life, hence, significant.
5. Lesson objective must be aligned with the aims of education as
embodied in the Philippine Constitution and other laws and on
the vision-mission statements of the educational institution of
which you are a part.
The aims of education as enshrined in our fundamental law of
the land, in the Education Act of 1982, the Ten-Year Medium Term
Development Plan must be reflected in the vision-mission statements
of educational institutions.
In turn, the vision-mission statements of educational institutions must
filter down to the course objectives stated in the course syllabi and
in lesson objectives laid down in lesson plans.
 This means that the aims and goals of education as provided for in
our laws filter down to our lesson objectives. We have something to
do with the attainment of our broad aims of education. We can
contribute very much to the realization of our school’s vision and
mission statements because our lesson objectives are based on our
school’s mission and vision statements.
6. Aim at the development of critical and creative thinking. This is
easier than done. We need not go into a laborious research to be
convinced that the development of critical and creative thinking is
wanting in classrooms.
7. For accountability of learning, lesson objectives must be
SMART, i.e, Specific, Measureable, Attainable, Result-Oriented,
Time-bound and terminal.
When our lesson objective is SMART it is quite easy to find out
at the end of our lesson if we attained our objective or not. It will
also be easier on our part to formulate a test that is valid to
measure the attainment of our lesson objective. Moreover, our
lesson becomes more focused for we have a concrete picture of the
behavior that our students should be able to demonstrate if we
realized our lesson objective.
TAXONOMY OF OBJECTIVES
 With educational taxonomy, learning is classified into three
domains namely: (1) cognitive, (2) affective, (3) psychomotor or
behavioral.

 Bloom’s taxonomy of cognitive domain. Benjamin Bloom (1956)


led his group in coming up with the list of instructional objectives in
the cognitive domain. Arranged from lowest to the highest level.

 Knowledge or recall – includes knowledge of terminology and


conventions, trends and sequences, classifications and categories,
criteria and methodologies, principles, theories, and structures; e.g.
to identify the capital of the Philippines.
 Comprehension – relates to translation, interpretations, and
extrapolation; e.g. to interpret a table showing the population
density of the world
 Application – uses abstractions in particular situations; e.g. to
predict the probable effect of a change in temperature on a
chemical
 Analysis – relates to braking a whole into parts; e.g. to deduce
facts from a hypothesis
 Synthesis – puts a parts together in a new form such as a unique
communication, a plan of operation, and a set of abstract
relations; e.g. to produce an original piece of art
 Evaluation – judges in terms of internal evidence or logical
consistency and external evidence or consistency with facts
developed elsewhere; e.g. to recognize fallacies in an argument
Bloom identified six levels within the cognitive domain, ranging from simple recall or
recognition of facts as the lowest level, though increasingly more or complex and
abstract mental levels, to the highest levels which was identified as evaluation.
ANDERSON’S TAXONOMY OF COGNITIVE
DOMAIN
 In the 1990’s Anderson, Bloom’s former student, together
with a team of cognitive psychologists, revisited Bloom’s
taxonomy in the light of the 21st century skills. This led to
Anderson’s taxonomy in 2001.
Definitions of Anderson’s Revised Taxonomy
Definition Verbs
Remembering: Can the student recall or Define, duplicate, list, memorize, recall,
remember the information? repeat, reproduce, state
Understanding: Can the student explain Classify, describe, discuss, explain, identify,
ideas or concepts? locate, recognize, report, select, translate,
paraphrase
Applying: Can the student use the Choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ,
information in a new way? illustrate, interpret, operate, schedule,
sketch, solve, use, write
Analyzing: Can the student distinguish Appraise, compare, contrast, criticize,
between the different parts? differentiate, discriminate, distinguish,
examine, experiment, question, test
Evaluating: Can the student justify a stand Appraise, argue, defend, judge, select,
or decision? support, value, evaluate

Creating: Can the student create new Assemble, construct, create, design, develop,
product or point of view? formulate, write
KRATHWOHL’S TAXONOMY
Krathwohl’s Taxonomy of Affective Domain

 David Krathwohl’s affective learning is demonstrated by behaviors


indicating attitudes of awareness, interest, attention, and values of
concern and responsibility, ability to listen and respond in
interactions with others, and ability to demonstrate those attitudinal
characteristics or values which are appropriate to the test situation
and the field of study.
 The taxonomy of objectives is ordered according to principle of
internalization. The levels of affective behavior are arranged
according to level of internalization. Internalization of a value
begins with awareness of the value. This value awareness leads to a
point where the value becomes internalized and it becomes part
and parcel of a person’s character, guiding or controlling his/her
behavior. (Seels & Glasgow, p.28).
Krathwohl’s Taxonomy of Objectives in
Affective Domain
Level What it is Learning Verbs Sample
Outcome/s Objectives

Receiving Refers to the Learning Differentiates, Listens


learner’s sensitivity outcomes in this accepts, listens attentively, shows
to the existence of area range from (for), responds sensitivity to
certain ideas, the simple to. social problems.
material, or awareness that a
phenomena and the thing exists to Asks, chooses,
willingness to selective identifies,
respond to attention on the locates, points to,
particular part of the sits erect, etc.
phenomena of learner.
stimuli such as
classroom activities,
textbook, music,
etc..
Level What it is Learning Verbs Sample Objectives
Outcome/s

Responding Is not only being Answers, assists, To contribute to


aware of the complies, discusses, group discussions
stimulus but helps, performs, by asking
reacting and practices, presents, questions, to listen
responding to reads, reports, attentively during
the stimulus writes, etc. group presentation,
to complete
homework, to read
beyond assignment,
to obey rules, to
participate in class
discussion, to show
interest in subject,
to enjoy helping
others, to read for
enjoyment
Level What it is Learning Verbs Sample Objectives
Outcome/s

Valuing Is concerned with This ranges in To improve group


the worth or value a degree from the skills
student attaches to simpler To assume
a particular object, acceptance of a responsibility for
phenomenon, or value to the the effective
behavior. more complex functioning of the
Willingness to be level of group
perceived by others commitment. To appreciate the
as valuing certain role of science in
ideas, materials, or daily life, shows
phenomena. concern for other’s
Examples include: to welfare,
increase measured demonstrate a
proficiency in, to problem-solving
relinquish, to approach, etc
subsidize, to
support, to debate.
E.g. to argue over
an issue involving
health care
Level What it is Learning Verbs Sample Objectives
Outcome/s

Organizing Relating the values Discusses, To organize a


to those already theorizes, meeting concerning
held and bringing it formulates, neighborhood’s
into harmonious and balances, housing integration
internally consistent examines, plan.
value system or To recognize the
philosophy. need for balance
Bringing together between freedom
different values, and responsibility
resolving conflicts in a democracy
among them, and understands the
starting to build and role of systematic
internally consistent planning in solving
value system– problems, accepts
comparing, relating, responsibility for
and synthesizing own behavior.
values and
developing a
philosophy of life.
Level What it is Learning Verbs Sample Objectives
Outcome/s

Characterization At this level, the To display self


person has held a reliance in working
value system that has independently,
controlled his cooperates in
behavior for a group activities,
sufficiently long time maintains good
that a characteristic health habits,
“life style” has been To use an objective
developed. Behavior approach in
is pervasive, problem solving.
consistent and To display a
predictable. professional
Objectives are commitment to
concerned with ethical practice on
personal, social and a daily basis
emotional To revise judgments
adjustment. and changes
HARLOW’S TAXONOMY
Harlow’s Taxonomy of Objectives in the
Psychomotor Domain
 It is organized according to the degree of coordination
including involuntary responses as well as learned
capabilities. Simple reflexes begin at the lowest level
of taxonomy, while complex neuromuscular co-
ordinations make up the highest levels. (Seels &
Glaslow, 1990).
 Anita Harlow (1972) did something parallel to what
Bloom and Krathwohl did for learning objectives in the
psychomotor domain. Following her list of movements in
the psychomotor domain:
Level Description Examples
Reflex Movement Actions elicited without learning in Flexion, extension, stretch, postural
response to some stimuli. adjustments
Basic Fundamental Movement Inherent movement patterns which are Pushing, pulling, manipulating, e.g. to
formed by combining reflexes run a 100-yard dash
Perceptual Abilities Interpretation of various stimuli that Coordinated movements such as
enable one to make adjustments to the jumping rope, punting or catching.
environment. Visual, auditory,
kinesthetic, or tactile discrimination.
Suggests cognitive as well as
psychomotor behavior.
Physical Activities Requiring endurance, strength, vigor, Examples: all activities which require a)
and agility which produces a sound, strenuous effort for long periods of
efficiently functioning body. time; b) muscular exertion; c) a quick,
wide range of motion at the hip joints;
and d) quick, precise movements.
Skilled movements The result of the acquisition of a Skilled examples: all skilled activities
degree of efficiency when performing obvious in sports, recreation, and
a complex task. dance.
Non – discursive Communication Communicating through bodily Examples: body postures, gestures, and
movements ranging from posture to facial expressions efficiently executed
gestures, creative movements, facial in skilled dance movement and
expressions, act a part in play through choreographies.
sophisticated choreographies. (Harlow,
1972).
 At the entry level, imitation, a student can carry out the rudiments of
the skills with instructional support from the teacher. This level follows
modeling by the teacher and involves the student’s first attempts to
perform the skill. The skill is not performed smoothly, nor are the
coordination and the timing refined. Examples of students
performing at the imitation level include a student performing the
skill independently, without the aid of instructor.
 During this phase, of psychomotor learning, the student is able to
perform the skill without the prompts from the teacher or without
consciously thinking about it. However, complete fluency has not been
achieved.
 At the level of precision – highest level of the psychomotor
taxonomy – students can perform a skill accurately, efficiently and
effortlessly.
 Automaticity, the ability to perform a skill with unconscious effort, has
developed, which then frees the student to concentrate on other
elements of the activity or game. Examples of the precision – level
skills include: different notes with different levels of volume and
pitch, without consciously looking at her fingers.

Level Performance

Imitation Model skills

Manipulation Perform skills independently

Precision Exhibits skills effortlessly and automatically


Key Words for the Taxonomy of
Educational Objectives
Key Words for the Taxonomy of
Educational Objectives
Key Words for the Taxonomy of
Educational Objectives
Key Words for the Taxonomy of
Educational Objectives
Key Words for the Taxonomy of Educational
Objectives: Psychomotor Domain
Key Words for the Taxonomy of Educational
Objectives: Psychomotor Domain
How To Write Lesson Objectives
 Mager (1998) cites the following characteristics of objectives:

1. It describes student performance. It doesn’t say anything about


what the instructor will do or try to accomplish. It doesn’t describe
course content or the textbook.

2. An objective is about ends rather than means. It describes a


product of instruction rather than the process of instruction.

3. An objective describes the conditions under which the


performance occurs on the job; i.e., the tools the equipment,
environment and circumstances that will influence the performance.
4. An objective describes the standard of
acceptable performance; it tells how well
someone must perform before being considered
competent on the objective.

 In short, an objective describes a) what the student


should be able to do (performance), b) the conditions
under which the doing will occur (condition), and c) the
criteria by which the performance will be judged
(acceptable performance).
Standards and Competencies in the
K to 12 Curriculum
 The curriculum guide of the K to 12 Curriculum contains
content and performance standards and competencies,
not objectives. It makes use of standard-based
instruction.

 Content standards – define what students should know


and be able to do. These are benchmarks which
identify the expected understandings and skills for a
content standard at different grade levels.
Standards and Competencies in the
K to 12 Curriculum
 Performance standards (indicators) – describe how well students
need to achieve in order to meet content standards. They are the
levels of proficiency with which the students are expected to
demonstrate what they know and what they are able to do.
 Competencies – are more specific versions of the standards. They
are specific tasks performed with mastery. They also refer to the
ability to perform activities within an occupation or function to the
standards expected by drawing from one’s knowledge, skills, and
attitudes.
 How do standards and competencies relate to objectives? Your
lesson objectives are drawn from the content and performance
standards and competences contained in Curriculum Guide.
 Here’s a sample of content and performance standards and competencies for
Health subject lifted from the draft of the Curriculum Guide for K to 12 of the
DepEd:
Content Standard: The learner demonstrates understanding of the importance of
good eating habits.
Performance Standard: The learner observes healthy eating habits daily.
Competencies: The learner…
• distinguishes healthful from unhealthful foods.
• relates the consequences of eating unhealthful foods.
• practices good eating habits that can help one grow healthy
• eats regular meals without skipping breakfast
• chooses healthful foods.
The content and performance standards are broader statements than the
competencies. The competencies look like objectives. But objectives are even more
specific than competencies.
FIN.
Prepared by: Quinie T. Asperin