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SOLUTION TO FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL

EQUATIONS

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
MATH 132

Engr. CHRISTOPHER S. PALADIO


SOLUTION TO FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

• SEPARABLE EQUATIONS
𝑑𝑦
• = 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦)
𝑑𝑥

• If the differential equation can be written in the form


𝑑𝑦
• 𝑀 𝑥 +𝑁 𝑦 =0
𝑑𝑥

• then the differential equation is SEPARABLE.

Engr. CHRISTOPHER S. PALADIO ASCOT


SOLUTION TO FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

• SEPARABLE EQUATIONS
• Example 1: Find the general solution:
𝑑𝑦 𝑥2
• A) =
𝑑𝑥 1−𝑦 2

• Example 2: Find the particular solution:


𝑑𝑦 3𝑥 2 +4𝑥+2
• A) = , 𝑦 0 = −1
𝑑𝑥 2(𝑦−1)
𝑑𝑦 𝑦𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝑥)
• B) = , 𝑦 0 =1
𝑑𝑥 1+2𝑦 2

Engr. CHRISTOPHER S. PALADIO ASCOT


SOLUTION TO FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

• SEPARABLE EQUATIONS
• Exercises: For problems 1 through 8 solve the given differential equations. For
problems 9 through 16 find the solution of the given initial value problem in explicit
form.

Engr. CHRISTOPHER S. PALADIO ASCOT


SOLUTION TO FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

• EXACT EQUATIONS
𝑑𝑦
• = 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑦)
𝑑𝑥

• 𝑀 𝑥, 𝑦 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑁 𝑥, 𝑦 𝑑𝑦 = 0

𝜕𝑀 𝑥,𝑦 𝜕𝑁 𝑥,𝑦
• if =
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥

• then the differential equation is EXACT.

Engr. CHRISTOPHER S. PALADIO ASCOT


SOLUTION TO FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

• EXACT EQUATIONS
• Theorem 1: If 𝐹 = 𝐹 𝑥, 𝑦 has a continuous partial derivatives 𝐹𝑥 and 𝐹𝑦 , then
𝐹 𝑥, 𝑦 = 𝑐 is an implicit solution of the differential equation
𝐹𝑥 𝑥, 𝑦 𝑑𝑥 + 𝐹𝑦 𝑥, 𝑦 𝑑𝑦 = 0
• Theorem 2: Suppose M and N are continuous and have continuous partial
derivatives 𝑀𝑦 and 𝑁𝑥 on an open rectangular R. then
𝑀 𝑥, 𝑦 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑁 𝑥, 𝑦 𝑑𝑦 = 0
• is exact on R if and only if
𝜕𝑀 𝑥,𝑦 𝜕𝑁 𝑥,𝑦
= for all (x, y) in R
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥

Engr. CHRISTOPHER S. PALADIO ASCOT


SOLUTION TO FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
• EXACT EQUATIONS
• Procedure for Solving Exact Equation
• Step 1: Check that the equation
𝑴 𝒙, 𝒚 𝒅𝒙 + 𝑵 𝒙, 𝒚 𝒅𝒚 = 𝟎 1

• satisfies the exactness condition


𝝏𝑴 𝒙,𝒚 𝝏𝑵 𝒙,𝒚
= . If not, don’t use this procedure.
𝝏𝒚 𝝏𝒙
𝜕𝐹 𝑥,𝑦
• Step 2: Integrate = 𝑀 𝑥, 𝑦 with respect to x to obtain
𝜕𝑥
𝑭 𝒙, 𝒚 = 𝑮 𝒙, 𝒚 + ∅(𝒚) 2

• Step 3: Differentiate equation 2 with respect to y to obtain


𝝏𝑭 𝒙,𝒚 𝝏𝑮 𝒙,𝒚
Engr. CHRISTOPHER S. PALADIO = + ∅′(𝒚) ASCOT
𝝏𝒚 𝝏𝒚
SOLUTION TO FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

• EXACT EQUATIONS
• Procedure for Solving Exact Equation
• Step 4: Equate the right side of the equation to N and solve for ∅′, thus,
𝝏𝑮 𝒙,𝒚 𝝏𝑮 𝒙,𝒚
+ ∅′ 𝒚 = 𝑵 𝒙, 𝒚 so ∅′ 𝒚 = 𝑵 𝒙, 𝒚 −
𝝏𝒚 𝝏𝒚

• Step 5: Integrate ∅′ with respect to y, taking the constant of integration to be


zero, and substitute the result in equation 2
• Step 6: Set 𝑭 𝒙, 𝒚 = 𝒄 to obtain an implicit solution to equation 1. if possible,
solve for y explicitly as a function of x.

Engr. CHRISTOPHER S. PALADIO ASCOT


SOLUTION TO FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

• EXACT EQUATIONS

• Example 1: Solve
• 4𝑥 3 𝑦 3 + 3𝑥 2 𝑑𝑥 + 3𝑥 4 𝑦 2 + 6𝑦 2 𝑑𝑦 = 0

• Example 2: Solve the equation


• 𝑦𝑒 𝑥𝑦 tan(𝑥) + 𝑒 𝑥𝑦 𝑠𝑒𝑐 2 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥𝑒 𝑥𝑦 tan 𝑥 𝑑𝑦 = 0

Engr. CHRISTOPHER S. PALADIO ASCOT


SOLUTION TO FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
• EXACT EQUATIONS
• Exercises:
Determine which
equations are exact and
solve them

Engr. CHRISTOPHER S. PALADIO ASCOT


SOLUTION TO FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

• LINEAR FIRST ORDER EQUATIONS


• 𝑦 ′ + 𝑝 𝑥 𝑦 = 𝑓(𝑥) 1
• a first order differential equation that can’t be written in this form is said to be
nonlinear
• if 𝑓 𝑥 = 0, equation 1 is homogeneous, otherwise it is nonhomogeneous
• one of the solution is 𝑦 = 0 which is the trivial solution
• any other solution is nontrivial

Engr. CHRISTOPHER S. PALADIO ASCOT


SOLUTION TO FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

• LINEAR FIRST ORDER EQUATIONS


• INTEGRATING FACTORS
• Factor used to convert nonexact differential equation to exact equation
• Let 𝜇 as the integrating factor that is a function of x only
𝑴𝒚 (𝒙, 𝒚)−𝑵𝒙 (𝒙, 𝒚)
‫׬‬ 𝒅𝒙
• 𝝁=𝒆 𝑵(𝒙, 𝒚)

Engr. CHRISTOPHER S. PALADIO ASCOT


SOLUTION TO FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

• LINEAR FIRST ORDER EQUATIONS


• INTEGRATING FACTORS
• Example 1: Solve the differential equation
3𝑥𝑦 + 𝑦 2 + 𝑥 2 + 𝑥𝑦 𝑦′ = 0
• Example 2: Solve the differential equation
4𝑥 2
2𝑦 − 6𝑥 𝑑𝑥 + 3𝑥 − 𝑑𝑦 = 0
𝑦

Engr. CHRISTOPHER S. PALADIO ASCOT


SOLUTION TO FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

• LINEAR FIRST ORDER EQUATIONS


• INTEGRATING FACTORS
• Exercise: Solve the differential equation
A) 2𝑦 2 − 6𝑥𝑦 𝑑𝑥 + 3𝑥𝑦 − 4𝑥 2 𝑑𝑦 = 0
6𝑥
B) 12 + 5𝑥𝑦 𝑑𝑥 + + 3𝑥 2 𝑑𝑦 = 0
𝑦

Engr. CHRISTOPHER S. PALADIO ASCOT


SOLUTION TO FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

• SUBSTITUTION METHODS
• HOMOGENEOUS COEFFICIENTS
• Take note on the coefficients of dx and dy. All these coefficients should be of
the same degree.
• Use 𝑦 = 𝑣𝑥 and 𝑑𝑦 = 𝑣𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥𝑑𝑣 or 𝑥 = 𝑣𝑦 and 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑣𝑑𝑦 + 𝑦𝑑𝑣

• Example: Solve the equation


• A) 𝑥 2 − 𝑥𝑦 + 𝑦 2 𝑑𝑥 − 𝑥𝑦 𝑑𝑦 = 0
• B) 𝑥𝑦𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 𝑑𝑦 = 0

Engr. CHRISTOPHER S. PALADIO ASCOT


SOLUTION TO FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

• SUBSTITUTION METHODS
• HOMOGENEOUS COEFFICIENTS
• Exercises: Find the particular solution indicated
𝑦 𝜋
• A) 𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 − 𝑦 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑥𝑑𝑦 = 0 when 𝑥 = 1, 𝑦 =
𝑥 4
1
• B) 𝑦 2𝑥 2 − 𝑥𝑦 + 𝑦 2 𝑑𝑥 − 𝑥 2 2𝑥 − 𝑦 𝑑𝑦 = 0 when 𝑥 = 1, 𝑦 =
2

• C) 𝑦 + 𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 𝑑𝑥 − 𝑥𝑑𝑦 = 0 when 𝑥 = 3, 𝑦 = 1

Engr. CHRISTOPHER S. PALADIO ASCOT


SOLUTION TO FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

• SUBSTITUTION METHODS
• SUGGESTED BY THE EQUATION
• Sum or difference of terms in M(x, y) and N(x, y)
• Example: 𝑥 + 2𝑦 − 1 𝑑𝑥 + 3 𝑥 + 2𝑦 𝑑𝑦 = 0

• The derivative of the function in M(x, y) can be found in N(x, y) or vice versa
• Example: 1 + 3𝑥𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑦 𝑑𝑥 − 𝑥 2 cos 𝑦 𝑑𝑦 = 0

Engr. CHRISTOPHER S. PALADIO ASCOT


SOLUTION TO FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

• SUBSTITUTION METHODS
• BERNOULLI’S EQUATION
• 𝑦 ′ + 𝑃 𝑥 𝑦 = 𝑄(𝑥)𝑦 𝑛 1

• if 𝑛 = 1 then the differential equation is separable


• if 𝑛 ≠ 1
• divide equation 1 by 𝑦 𝑛 𝑑𝑥
• 𝑦 −𝑛 𝑑𝑦 + 𝑃 𝑥 𝑦 −𝑛+1 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑄 𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑧
• let 𝑧 = 𝑦 −𝑛+1 , 𝑑𝑧 = −𝑛 + 1 𝑦 −𝑛 𝑑𝑦 or 𝑦 −𝑛 𝑑𝑦 =
1−𝑛

Engr. CHRISTOPHER S. PALADIO ASCOT


SOLUTION TO FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

• SUBSTITUTION METHODS
• BERNOULLI’S EQUATION
𝑑𝑧
• + 𝑃 𝑥 𝑧 = 𝑄 𝑥 𝑑𝑥
1−𝑛
1−𝑛
• Multiply both sides of the equation by
𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑧
• + 1 − 𝑛 𝑃 𝑥 𝑧 = 1 − 𝑛 𝑄 𝑥 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑥

Engr. CHRISTOPHER S. PALADIO ASCOT


SOLUTION TO FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

• SUBSTITUTION METHODS
• BERNOULLI’S EQUATION
• Example: Solve the differential equation
• A) 𝑦 6𝑦 2 − 𝑥 − 1 𝑑𝑥 + 2𝑥𝑑𝑦 = 0
• B) 6𝑦 2 𝑑𝑥 − 𝑥 2𝑥 3 + 𝑦 𝑑𝑦 = 0

Engr. CHRISTOPHER S. PALADIO ASCOT


SOLUTION TO FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

• SUBSTITUTION METHODS
• BERNOULLI’S EQUATION
• Exercises: Solve the differential equation
• A) 2𝑥 3 𝑦 ′ = 𝑦 𝑦 2 + 3𝑥 2
• B) cos 𝑦 sin 2𝑥 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝑦 − 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝑥 𝑑𝑦 = 0
• C) 2𝑦 3 − 𝑥 3 𝑑𝑥 + 3𝑥𝑦 2 𝑑𝑦 = 0

Engr. CHRISTOPHER S. PALADIO ASCOT


SOLUTION TO FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

• SUBSTITUTION METHODS
• COEFFICIENTS LINEAR IN THE TWO VARIABLES
• Consider the equation
• 𝑎1 𝑥 + 𝑏1 𝑦 + 𝑐1 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑎2 𝑥 + 𝑏2 𝑦 + 𝑐2 𝑑𝑦 = 0 1

• in connection to equation 1
• 𝑎1 𝑥 + 𝑏1 𝑦 + 𝑐1 = 0
2
• 𝑎2 𝑥 + 𝑏2 𝑦 + 𝑐2 = 0
• find the point of intersection (h, k) and then translate the variables x and y using
• 𝑥 = 𝑢 + ℎ and 𝑦 =𝑣+𝑘 3

Engr. CHRISTOPHER S. PALADIO ASCOT


SOLUTION TO FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

• SUBSTITUTION METHODS
• COEFFICIENTS LINEAR IN THE TWO VARIABLES
• substitute equation 3 in equation 2
• the differential equation is now transformed into homogeneous linear DE

Engr. CHRISTOPHER S. PALADIO ASCOT


SOLUTION TO FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

• SUBSTITUTION METHODS
• COEFFICIENTS LINEAR IN THE TWO VARIABLES
• Example: Solve the equation
• A) 𝑥 + 2𝑦 − 4 𝑑𝑥 − 2𝑥 + 𝑦 − 5 𝑑𝑦 = 0
• B) 2𝑥 + 3𝑦 − 1 𝑑𝑥 + 2𝑥 + 3𝑦 + 2 𝑑𝑦 = 0
• C) 9𝑥 − 4𝑦 + 4 𝑑𝑥 − 2𝑥 − 𝑦 + 1 𝑑𝑦 = 0

Engr. CHRISTOPHER S. PALADIO ASCOT


SOLUTION TO FIRST ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

• SUBSTITUTION METHODS
• COEFFICIENTS LINEAR IN THE TWO VARIABLES
• Exercises: Solve the equation
• A) 𝑥 − 1 𝑑𝑥 − 3𝑥 − 2𝑦 − 5 𝑑𝑦 = 0
• B) 2𝑥 + 3𝑦 − 5 𝑑𝑥 + 3𝑥 − 𝑦 − 2 𝑑𝑦 = 0
• C) 2𝑥 − 3𝑦 + 4 𝑑𝑥 + 3 𝑥 − 1 𝑑𝑦 = 0

Engr. CHRISTOPHER S. PALADIO ASCOT