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ENGN3334/6334 Semiconductors

Fiona Beck

ANU Research School of Engineering

Lecture 2: Semiconductor Physics - Material Properties


Isolated atom Close packed
atoms in a crystal

Semiconductor Devices, 2/E by S. M. Sze


Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. All rights reserved.

Free
Conduction Band electron
Ec
Electron Energy Eg = Energy to break bond Free Carriers
Ev
Valance Band Hole
Law of mass action:
At thermal equilibrium:
• Generation balanced by recombination
• one electron  one hole
• The material is electrically neutral n  p  ni
Intrinsic carrier concentration

ni2  np
Law of mass action

Semiconductor Devices, 2/E by S. M. Sze


Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. All rights reserved.
Free electron Density of Probability of an
density at a given = electron states at x electron having that
energy that energy energy

= x

Free electron
density/concentration
in a semiconductor
Intrinsic Carrier Concentration, ni:
ni2  np

 EC  EF   EF  EV 
n  N C exp    p  NV exp   
 kT   kT 

 EC  EF   EF  EV 
n  N C exp 
2
i  NV exp  
 kT   kT 
 E C  EF  EF  EV 
ni  N C NV exp 
2

 kT 
 Eg 
ni  N C NV exp  
 2kT 
Worked example: Intrinsic Si at 300K
Eg 1.1 eV
 Eg 
ni  N C NV exp   Nc 2.9e+19 cm-3
 2kT  Nv 1.8e+19 cm-3
T 300 K
k 1.4e-23 JK-1
8.6e-5 eVK-1
|e| 1.6e-19 C
1.1 eV

ni = 1.5e+10 ~ 1e+10 cm-3


Intrinsic Fermi Level, Ei:
ni2  np

 EC  EF   EF  EV 
n  N C exp    p  NV exp   
 kT   kT 

 EC  EF   EF  EV 
N C exp     NV exp   
 kT   kT 
 EC  EF EF  EV  NV
exp    
 kT kT  N C
 NV 
 EC  EF  EF  EV  kT ln  
 C
N
kT  NV  EV  EC 
EFIntrinsic
 Ei  ln   
2  NC  2
Worked example: Intrinsic Fermi energy in Si

kT  NV  EV  EC 
Ei  ln  
2  NC  2

1.1 eV Eg 1.1 eV

EF ~ 1.1/ = 550 meV Nc 2.9e+19 cm-3


2
Nv 2.7e+19 cm-3
0
T 300 K
k 1.4e-23 JK-1
8.6e-5 eVK-1
|e| 1.6e-19 C
 E g (T ) 
ni T   N C (T ) NV (T ) exp  
 2kT 

Si GaAs
Eg 1.1 eV 1.4 eV

Semiconductor Devices, 2/E by S. M. Sze


Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. All rights reserved.
Resistivity and Conductivity

  e n n   p p [ S  cm]
1
 [  cm]
e n n   p p 

n ,  p the electron and hole mobility


Mobility
Electric field

Collision or Scattering event

Scattered by:
Electron
• crystal lattice
• Ionised impurities

e
  c c τc = average time between collisions
m mc= conductivity effective mass of the carrier
Semiconductor Devices, 2/E by S. M. Sze
Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. All rights reserved.
Material properties @300K

Eg ni μn μp
-3 2 2
Material [eV] [cm ] [cm /V.s] [cm /V.s]
Copper -- 1e22 44 --

Gallium Arsenide 1.4 1e6 9200 320

Silicon 1.1 1e10 1450 500

Germanium 0.6 1e13 3900 1900

e e mec  mhc
n  c  c ,  p  c  c
me mh conductivity effective mass of the carrier
Resistivity @300K

Eg ni μn μp ρ
-3 2 2
Material [eV] [cm ] [cm /V.s] [cm /V.s] [Ω.cm]
Copper -- 1e22 44 -- ~1e-10

Gallium Arsenide 1.4 1e6 9200 320 ~1e8

Silicon 1.1 1e10 1450 500 ~1e5

Germanium 0.6 1e13 3900 1900 ~1e2

How do we increase the conductivity in semiconductors?


How do we increase the conductivity in
semiconductors?

By ‘doping’ them to increase the number


of free carriers
Impurity doping

Donor Ion Acceptor Ion


Si

Semiconductor Devices, 2/E by S. M. Sze


Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. All rights reserved.
One more electron One less electron

Donor
Ions

Acceptor
Ions

Semiconductor Devices, 2/E by S. M. Sze


Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. All rights reserved.

Energy required to ionise dopants is the ionisation or activation energy


• For Donors = ED
• For Acceptors = EA

At 300K: ED , E A  E g

Semiconductor Devices, 2/E by S. M. Sze


Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. All rights reserved.
N-type Si P-Type Si

Donor
Ions

Acceptor
Ions

Donor doping density ND Acceptor doping density NA

1e12 < ND < 1e18 cm-3 NA =1e12 - 1e18 cm-3

ni << ND << density of Si atoms ni << NA << density of Si atoms

n  ND p  NA
Semiconductor Devices, 2/E by S. M. Sze
Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. All rights reserved.
Are we still in thermal equilibrium?
Thermal Equilibrium
Extrinsic/ doped semiconductors thermal equilibrium:
• Generation balanced by recombination
• The material is electrically neutral

20
Thermal equilibrium: law of mass action applies

Intrinsic np  n 2
i

Density Fermi function Carrier


of states concentrations
n(E)
F(E)
EC
Energy (E)

N(E)
EF = Ei

EV
p(E)
1-F(E)
Thermal equilibrium: law of mass action applies

Extrinsic – N-type np  n 2
i

Density Fermi function Carrier


of states concentrations
n
n(E)
F(E)
ED EC
Energy (E)

EF

Ei
N(E)
EV
p
p(E)
1-F(E)
Thermal equilibrium: law of mass action applies

Extrinsic – P-type np  n 2
i

Density Fermi function Carrier


of states concentrations
n
n(E)
F(E)
EC
Energy (E)

N(E)
Ei
EF
EA EV
p
p(E)
1-F(E)
Law of mass action holds!
Extrinsic/ doped semiconductors thermal equilibrium:
• Generation balanced by recombination
• The material is electrically neutral
n  N A  p  N D
Charge neutrality

ni2  np
Law of mass action

24
Law of mass action:
Extrinsic/ doped semiconductors at thermal equilibrium :
• Generation balanced by recombination
• The material is electrically neutral
n  N A  p  N D
Charge neutrality

ni2  np
Law of mass action

25
Law of mass action:
Extrinsic/ doped semiconductors at thermal equilibrium :
• Generation balanced by recombination
• The material is electrically neutral
n  N A  p  N D
ni2 Charge neutrality
n  N D  N A
n
 
n 2  N D  N A n  ni2  0
ni2  np

  N 
2
n  1  N D  N A   ni2   p  i
Law ofnmass action
  2
N
2 D A
 n

26
Doped semiconductors - n-type silicon
Donor Donor doping density ND
Ions Doped n-type
ND = 1e18 cm-3, ni = 1e10 cm-3
ED
ionized donors ni << ND

Electrons are MAJORITY carriers


Holes are MINORITY carriers

N-Type Silicon:
2

n  1  N D  N A   N 
N 
 2
 ni2  ~ N D

D A

ni2 ni2
p 
n ND
Semiconductor Devices, 2/E by S. M. Sze
Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. All rights reserved.
Note on nomenclature:
N-type P-type
Donor Doped Acceptor doped
electrons nn majority np minority
holes pn minority pp majority
equations
nn  N D pp  N A
2 2
n n
pn  i
np  i
ND NA
Temperature dependence carrier concentration

Freeze out:
Not all dopants ionised
E A  Ethermal  E g
n(T) < ND p  NA
Extrinsic region: Key approximation
Full Ionisation of dopants
n = ND
When is this not true??
Intrinsic region:
Full Ionisation of dopants
n(T) = ni

Semiconductor Devices, 2/E by S. M. Sze


Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. All rights reserved.
Semiconductor Devices, 2/E by S. M. Sze
Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. All rights reserved.
Dopants
Silicon Gallium Arsenide

N-Type: Phosphorous, P; Arsenic, As N-Type: Sulphur, S; Selenium, Se


P-Type: Boron, B; Aluminium, Al: P-Type: Beryllium, B; Zinc, Zn
Worked example:
• A silicon ingot is doped phosphorus [P] ND = 1016 cm-3, EC-ED = 46 meV
• Find the electron and hole concentrations at 300K.

Bandgap of Si Eg = 1.1 eV
Density of states in the NC = 2.9x1019cm-3
energy bands in Si NV = 1.8x1019cm-3
Mass of free electron m0 = 9.11 x 10-31 kg
Boltzmann’s constant k = 1.38 x 10-23 JK-1
Planck’s constant h = 6.63 x 10-34 Js
Velocity of light in a vacuum c = 3.00 x108 ms-1
Electron charge |e| = 1.60 x 10-19 C
Worked example:
• A silicon ingot is doped phosphorus [P] ND = 1016 cm-3, EC-ED = 46 meV
• Find the electron and hole concentrations at 300K.
nn  N D  1016 cm 3

 Eg 
n  N C NV exp 
2
i 
 ~ 1010 cm 3 
2

 kT 
ni2
pn   10 4 cm 3
ND
Bandgap of Si Eg = 1.1 eV
Density of states in the NC = 2.9x1019cm-3
energy bands in Si NV = 1.8x1019cm-3
Mass of free electron m0 = 9.11 x 10-31 kg
Boltzmann’s constant k = 1.38 x 10-23 JK-1
Planck’s constant h = 6.63 x 10-34 Js
Velocity of light in a vacuum c = 3.00 x108 ms-1
Electron charge |e| = 1.60 x 10-19 C
Worked example:
• A silicon ingot is doped phosphorus [P] ND = 1016 cm-3, ED = 46 meV
• Find the electron and hole concentrations at 300K.
• Find the Fermi level at room temperature (300K).
• Draw the band diagram with EV, Ei, EC, ED and EF.
nn  1016 cm 3 , pn  10 4 cm 3

Bandgap of Si Eg = 1.1 eV
Density of states in the NC = 2.9x1019cm-3
energy bands in Si NV = 1.8x1019cm-3
Mass of free electron m0 = 9.11 x 10-31 kg
Boltzmann’s constant k = 1.38 x 10-23 JK-1
Planck’s constant h = 6.63 x 10-34 Js
Velocity of light in a vacuum c = 3.00 x108 ms-1
Electron charge |e| = 1.60 x 10-19 C
Worked example:
• A silicon ingot is doped phosphorus [P] ND = 1016 cm-3, ED = 46 meV
• Find the electron and hole concentrations at 300K.
• Find the Fermi level at room temperature (300K).
• Draw the band diagram with EV, Ei, EC, ED and EF.
nn  1016 cm 3 , pn  10 4 cm 3

kT  NV  EV  EC 
Ei  ln    544meV
2  NC  2

Bandgap of Si Eg = 1.1 eV
Density of states in the NC = 2.9x1019cm-3
energy bands in Si NV = 1.8x1019cm-3
Mass of free electron m0 = 9.11 x 10-31 kg
Boltzmann’s constant k = 1.38 x 10-23 JK-1
Planck’s constant h = 6.63 x 10-34 Js
Velocity of light in a vacuum c = 3.00 x108 ms-1
Electron charge |e| = 1.60 x 10-19 C
What happens to the Fermi level?
 EC  Ei   EC  EF 
ni  N C exp   n  N C exp  
 kT   kT 
Intrinsic Extrinsic
What happens to the Fermi level?

 EC  Ei   NC 
ni  N C exp    EC  Ei  kT ln  Intrinsic
 kT   ni 
 EC  EF   NC 
n  NC exp     N D  EC  EF  kT ln  
Extrinsic
 kT   ND 
Fermi level in an extrinsic semiconductor
 EC  EF   NC 
n  N C exp    N D  EC  EF  kT ln 
 kT   ND 

EC-EF
Extrinsic Fermi energy

Intrinsic Fermi energy


Worked example:
• A silicon ingot is doped phosphorus [P] ND = 1016 cm-3, ED = 46 meV
• Find the electron and hole concentrations at 300K.
• Find the Fermi level at room temperature (300K).
• Draw the band diagram with EV, Ei, EC, ED and EF.

Ei 
EC  EV   kT ln NV   544meV 46 meV
N  n  N D  4.6 x1016 cm 3
2 2  C
2
n
 5 x103 cm 3
p  167i meV
ND
 NC  384 meV
EC  EF  kT ln   167 meV
 ND 
What about the resistivity?
3 ni2
n  N D  10 cm  p 
16
 10 4 cm 3
ND

1 1
 
e n n   p p  e n N D
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