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# ENGN3334/6334 Semiconductors

Fiona Beck

## Lecture 2: Semiconductor Physics - Material Properties

Isolated atom Close packed
atoms in a crystal

## Semiconductor Devices, 2/E by S. M. Sze

Free
Conduction Band electron
Ec
Electron Energy Eg = Energy to break bond Free Carriers
Ev
Valance Band Hole
Law of mass action:
At thermal equilibrium:
• Generation balanced by recombination
• one electron  one hole
• The material is electrically neutral n  p  ni
Intrinsic carrier concentration

ni2  np
Law of mass action

## Semiconductor Devices, 2/E by S. M. Sze

Free electron Density of Probability of an
density at a given = electron states at x electron having that
energy that energy energy

= x

Free electron
density/concentration
in a semiconductor
Intrinsic Carrier Concentration, ni:
ni2  np

 EC  EF   EF  EV 
n  N C exp    p  NV exp   
 kT   kT 

 EC  EF   EF  EV 
n  N C exp 
2
i  NV exp  
 kT   kT 
 E C  EF  EF  EV 
ni  N C NV exp 
2

 kT 
 Eg 
ni  N C NV exp  
 2kT 
Worked example: Intrinsic Si at 300K
Eg 1.1 eV
 Eg 
ni  N C NV exp   Nc 2.9e+19 cm-3
 2kT  Nv 1.8e+19 cm-3
T 300 K
k 1.4e-23 JK-1
8.6e-5 eVK-1
|e| 1.6e-19 C
1.1 eV

## ni = 1.5e+10 ~ 1e+10 cm-3

Intrinsic Fermi Level, Ei:
ni2  np

 EC  EF   EF  EV 
n  N C exp    p  NV exp   
 kT   kT 

 EC  EF   EF  EV 
N C exp     NV exp   
 kT   kT 
 EC  EF EF  EV  NV
exp    
 kT kT  N C
 NV 
 EC  EF  EF  EV  kT ln  
 C
N
kT  NV  EV  EC 
EFIntrinsic
 Ei  ln   
2  NC  2
Worked example: Intrinsic Fermi energy in Si

kT  NV  EV  EC 
Ei  ln  
2  NC  2

1.1 eV Eg 1.1 eV

## EF ~ 1.1/ = 550 meV Nc 2.9e+19 cm-3

2
Nv 2.7e+19 cm-3
0
T 300 K
k 1.4e-23 JK-1
8.6e-5 eVK-1
|e| 1.6e-19 C
 E g (T ) 
ni T   N C (T ) NV (T ) exp  
 2kT 

Si GaAs
Eg 1.1 eV 1.4 eV

## Semiconductor Devices, 2/E by S. M. Sze

Resistivity and Conductivity

  e n n   p p [ S  cm]
1
 [  cm]
e n n   p p 

Mobility
Electric field

## Collision or Scattering event

Scattered by:
Electron
• crystal lattice
• Ionised impurities

e
  c c τc = average time between collisions
m mc= conductivity effective mass of the carrier
Semiconductor Devices, 2/E by S. M. Sze
Material properties @300K

Eg ni μn μp
-3 2 2
Material [eV] [cm ] [cm /V.s] [cm /V.s]
Copper -- 1e22 44 --

## Germanium 0.6 1e13 3900 1900

e e mec  mhc
n  c  c ,  p  c  c
me mh conductivity effective mass of the carrier
Resistivity @300K

Eg ni μn μp ρ
-3 2 2
Material [eV] [cm ] [cm /V.s] [cm /V.s] [Ω.cm]
Copper -- 1e22 44 -- ~1e-10

## How do we increase the conductivity in semiconductors?

How do we increase the conductivity in
semiconductors?

of free carriers
Impurity doping

Si

## Semiconductor Devices, 2/E by S. M. Sze

One more electron One less electron

Donor
Ions

Acceptor
Ions

## Energy required to ionise dopants is the ionisation or activation energy

• For Donors = ED
• For Acceptors = EA

At 300K: ED , E A  E g

## Semiconductor Devices, 2/E by S. M. Sze

N-type Si P-Type Si

Donor
Ions

Acceptor
Ions

## ni << ND << density of Si atoms ni << NA << density of Si atoms

n  ND p  NA
Semiconductor Devices, 2/E by S. M. Sze
Are we still in thermal equilibrium?
Thermal Equilibrium
Extrinsic/ doped semiconductors thermal equilibrium:
• Generation balanced by recombination
• The material is electrically neutral

20
Thermal equilibrium: law of mass action applies

Intrinsic np  n 2
i

## Density Fermi function Carrier

of states concentrations
n(E)
F(E)
EC
Energy (E)

N(E)
EF = Ei

EV
p(E)
1-F(E)
Thermal equilibrium: law of mass action applies

Extrinsic – N-type np  n 2
i

## Density Fermi function Carrier

of states concentrations
n
n(E)
F(E)
ED EC
Energy (E)

EF

Ei
N(E)
EV
p
p(E)
1-F(E)
Thermal equilibrium: law of mass action applies

Extrinsic – P-type np  n 2
i

## Density Fermi function Carrier

of states concentrations
n
n(E)
F(E)
EC
Energy (E)

N(E)
Ei
EF
EA EV
p
p(E)
1-F(E)
Law of mass action holds!
Extrinsic/ doped semiconductors thermal equilibrium:
• Generation balanced by recombination
• The material is electrically neutral
n  N A  p  N D
Charge neutrality

ni2  np
Law of mass action

24
Law of mass action:
Extrinsic/ doped semiconductors at thermal equilibrium :
• Generation balanced by recombination
• The material is electrically neutral
n  N A  p  N D
Charge neutrality

ni2  np
Law of mass action

25
Law of mass action:
Extrinsic/ doped semiconductors at thermal equilibrium :
• Generation balanced by recombination
• The material is electrically neutral
n  N A  p  N D
ni2 Charge neutrality
n  N D  N A
n
 
n 2  N D  N A n  ni2  0
ni2  np

  N 
2
n  1  N D  N A   ni2   p  i
Law ofnmass action
  2
N
2 D A
 n

26
Doped semiconductors - n-type silicon
Donor Donor doping density ND
Ions Doped n-type
ND = 1e18 cm-3, ni = 1e10 cm-3
ED
ionized donors ni << ND

## Electrons are MAJORITY carriers

Holes are MINORITY carriers

N-Type Silicon:
2

n  1  N D  N A   N 
N 
 2
 ni2  ~ N D

D A

ni2 ni2
p 
n ND
Semiconductor Devices, 2/E by S. M. Sze
Note on nomenclature:
N-type P-type
Donor Doped Acceptor doped
electrons nn majority np minority
holes pn minority pp majority
equations
nn  N D pp  N A
2 2
n n
pn  i
np  i
ND NA
Temperature dependence carrier concentration

Freeze out:
Not all dopants ionised
E A  Ethermal  E g
n(T) < ND p  NA
Extrinsic region: Key approximation
Full Ionisation of dopants
n = ND
When is this not true??
Intrinsic region:
Full Ionisation of dopants
n(T) = ni

## Semiconductor Devices, 2/E by S. M. Sze

Semiconductor Devices, 2/E by S. M. Sze
Dopants
Silicon Gallium Arsenide

## N-Type: Phosphorous, P; Arsenic, As N-Type: Sulphur, S; Selenium, Se

P-Type: Boron, B; Aluminium, Al: P-Type: Beryllium, B; Zinc, Zn
Worked example:
• A silicon ingot is doped phosphorus [P] ND = 1016 cm-3, EC-ED = 46 meV
• Find the electron and hole concentrations at 300K.

Bandgap of Si Eg = 1.1 eV
Density of states in the NC = 2.9x1019cm-3
energy bands in Si NV = 1.8x1019cm-3
Mass of free electron m0 = 9.11 x 10-31 kg
Boltzmann’s constant k = 1.38 x 10-23 JK-1
Planck’s constant h = 6.63 x 10-34 Js
Velocity of light in a vacuum c = 3.00 x108 ms-1
Electron charge |e| = 1.60 x 10-19 C
Worked example:
• A silicon ingot is doped phosphorus [P] ND = 1016 cm-3, EC-ED = 46 meV
• Find the electron and hole concentrations at 300K.
nn  N D  1016 cm 3

 Eg 
n  N C NV exp 
2
i 
 ~ 1010 cm 3 
2

 kT 
ni2
pn   10 4 cm 3
ND
Bandgap of Si Eg = 1.1 eV
Density of states in the NC = 2.9x1019cm-3
energy bands in Si NV = 1.8x1019cm-3
Mass of free electron m0 = 9.11 x 10-31 kg
Boltzmann’s constant k = 1.38 x 10-23 JK-1
Planck’s constant h = 6.63 x 10-34 Js
Velocity of light in a vacuum c = 3.00 x108 ms-1
Electron charge |e| = 1.60 x 10-19 C
Worked example:
• A silicon ingot is doped phosphorus [P] ND = 1016 cm-3, ED = 46 meV
• Find the electron and hole concentrations at 300K.
• Find the Fermi level at room temperature (300K).
• Draw the band diagram with EV, Ei, EC, ED and EF.
nn  1016 cm 3 , pn  10 4 cm 3

Bandgap of Si Eg = 1.1 eV
Density of states in the NC = 2.9x1019cm-3
energy bands in Si NV = 1.8x1019cm-3
Mass of free electron m0 = 9.11 x 10-31 kg
Boltzmann’s constant k = 1.38 x 10-23 JK-1
Planck’s constant h = 6.63 x 10-34 Js
Velocity of light in a vacuum c = 3.00 x108 ms-1
Electron charge |e| = 1.60 x 10-19 C
Worked example:
• A silicon ingot is doped phosphorus [P] ND = 1016 cm-3, ED = 46 meV
• Find the electron and hole concentrations at 300K.
• Find the Fermi level at room temperature (300K).
• Draw the band diagram with EV, Ei, EC, ED and EF.
nn  1016 cm 3 , pn  10 4 cm 3

kT  NV  EV  EC 
Ei  ln    544meV
2  NC  2

Bandgap of Si Eg = 1.1 eV
Density of states in the NC = 2.9x1019cm-3
energy bands in Si NV = 1.8x1019cm-3
Mass of free electron m0 = 9.11 x 10-31 kg
Boltzmann’s constant k = 1.38 x 10-23 JK-1
Planck’s constant h = 6.63 x 10-34 Js
Velocity of light in a vacuum c = 3.00 x108 ms-1
Electron charge |e| = 1.60 x 10-19 C
What happens to the Fermi level?
 EC  Ei   EC  EF 
ni  N C exp   n  N C exp  
 kT   kT 
Intrinsic Extrinsic
What happens to the Fermi level?

 EC  Ei   NC 
ni  N C exp    EC  Ei  kT ln  Intrinsic
 kT   ni 
 EC  EF   NC 
n  NC exp     N D  EC  EF  kT ln  
Extrinsic
 kT   ND 
Fermi level in an extrinsic semiconductor
 EC  EF   NC 
n  N C exp    N D  EC  EF  kT ln 
 kT   ND 

EC-EF
Extrinsic Fermi energy

## Intrinsic Fermi energy

Worked example:
• A silicon ingot is doped phosphorus [P] ND = 1016 cm-3, ED = 46 meV
• Find the electron and hole concentrations at 300K.
• Find the Fermi level at room temperature (300K).
• Draw the band diagram with EV, Ei, EC, ED and EF.

Ei 
EC  EV   kT ln NV   544meV 46 meV
N  n  N D  4.6 x1016 cm 3
2 2  C
2
n
 5 x103 cm 3
p  167i meV
ND
 NC  384 meV
EC  EF  kT ln   167 meV
 ND 