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Denouncing the client’s behavior or ideas.

“that’s bad” “I’d rather you wouldn’t “
Rationale: this tends this implies that the
nurse has the right to pass judgment on the
client’s thoughts or actions.
Sanctioning the client’s behavior or ideas.
“that’s good.” “I’m glad that…”
Rationale: this tends to limit the client’s
freedom to think, speak or act in a certain
Responding to a figurative comment as
thought it were a statement of fact.
Client : “they’re looking in my head
with television camera.”
Nurse : “Try not to watch television.”
Rational : “often the client is at loss to
describe his/her feelings, so such comments
are the best he or she can do. The nurse
should focus on the feelings of the nurse.
“what makes you say that?”, “what made you do
that?” , “who told you are a prophet?”
Rationale: this implies that the client was
compelled to think in certain way.
45. Interpreting
Asking to make conscious that wich is
unconscious. “what you really mean is…”,
“unconsciously you’re saying that…” rationale
: the client’s thoughts and feelings are his or
her own, not to be interpretended by the
nurse or for hidden meaning
46. Introducing an unrelated topic
Changing subject.
Client : “I’d like to die.”
Nurse : “did you have visitor last
Rationale : this would make the nurse take
away from the client. This may mean that the
nurse does not know how to respond or is
comfortable with the topic.
47. Making streotyped
Offering meaningless cliches or trite
comments. “keep your chin up.” , “just have a
positive outlook.”
Rationale : such comments has no value to the
48. Probing
Presistent questioning of the client. “now tell
me about this problem. I need to know.”
Rationale : this tends to make the client feel
used or invaded.
49. Reassuring
Indicating there is no reason for anxiety.
“everything will be alright.”
Rationale : attemps to dispel the client’s
anxiety by implying that there is not
sufficient reason for concern completely
devalue the client’s feelings.
50. rejecting
Refusing to consider or showing contempt for
the client’s behavior, ideas. “let’s not
Rationale : this close the topic off from
exploration wich may in turn make the client
feel rejected.
51. Requesting an explanation
Asking the client to provide reasons for
thoughts, feelings, behaviors, events. “why do
you think that?” rationale : “why” question is
52. Testing
Appraising the client’s degree of insight. “Do
you know what kind of hospital this is?”
rationale : this can force the client to try to
recognize his/her problems which may in
turn meet the nurse’s needs but not helpful
to the client.
53. Using denial
Refusing to admit that a problem exists.
Client : “I’am nothing.”
Nurse : “Of course, you’re
Rationale : this dismisses the client’s
comments without attempting to discover the
feelings or meaning.