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Steps of the Scientific

Method
What is the scientific method?

The Scientific Method


involves a series of
steps that are used to
investigate a natural
occurrence.
We will study the steps of
the scientific method
and eventually design
our own experiments.
Steps of the Scientific Method
Problem/Question
Observation/Research
Formulate a Hypothesis
Experiment
Collect and Analyze Results
Conclusion
Communicate the Results
Steps of the Scientific Method
1. Problem/Question: Develop a question or
problem that can be solved through
experimentation.
Steps of the Scientific Method
John watches his Grandma bake bread. Grandma
explains that yeast eats sugar in the bread
dough and releases gas which makes the bread
rise.

John wonders – Will the amount of sugar in the


recipe affect the size of a bread loaf?
Steps of the Scientific Method
2. Observation/Research:
Observation/Research Make observations
and research your topic of interest.
• John researches how baking and fermentation
works. He keeps all of his research information
in a journal.
Steps of the Scientific Method
3. Formulate a Hypothesis:
Hypothesis Predict a possible
answer to the problem or question.
Hypothesis
The hypothesis is an educated guess about the
relationship between the independent and
dependent variables.
If IV then DV.
What are IV and DV?
• Independent Variable – the factor that is
intentionally manipulated or changed in an
experiment. Valid experiments have only one
independent variable.

• Dependent Variable – the factor that may


change as a result of changes made in the
independent variable. The dependent variable
must be measureable.
After talking with his teacher and conducting
further research, he comes up with a
hypothesis.
“If more sugar is added, then the bread will rise
higher.”
Steps to the Scientific Method
4. Experiment:
Experiment Develop and follow a procedure.
Include a detailed materials list.
The outcome must be measurable (quantifiable).
Control Group
The control group serves as the
standard of comparison in an
experiment.
The control group may be a “no
treatment” group.
All experiments should have a
control group.
Constants
The constants in an experiment are all the
factors that the experimenter attempts to
keep the same.

What are the constants in the bread


experiment?
Trials
There must be multiple trials of an experiment
for it to be considered valid.
Steps to the Scientific Method
5. Collect and Analyze Results:
Results Modify the
procedure if needed.
Confirm the results by retesting.
Include tables, graphs, and photographs.
Size of Baked Bread (LxWxH) cm3

Size of Bread Loaf (cm3)


Trials
Amt. of 1 2 3 Average
Sugar (g.) Size (cm3)

50 1296 1440 1296 1344


Control group

60 1404 1296 1440 1380

70 1638 1638 1560 1612

80 1404 1296 1296 1332

90 1080 1200 972 1084


Steps to the Scientific Method
6. Conclusion:
Conclusion Include a statement that accepts
or rejects the hypothesis.
Make recommendations for further study and
possible improvements to the procedure.
Steps to the Scientific Method
7. Communicate the Results:
Results Be prepared to
present the project to an audience.
Expect questions from the audience.