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CHAPTER 3

IMPLEMENTING CURRULUM
MODULE 4: THE TEACHER AS CURRICULUM
IMPLEMENTOR AND MANAGER

LESSON 1- IMPLEMENTING THE DESIGNED


CURRICULUM AS A CHANGE PROCESS
CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION
 Curriculum implementation means putting into practice the
written curriculum that has been designed in syllabi, course of
study, curricular guides, and subjects. It is a process wherein
the learners acquire the planned or intended knowledge,
skills, and attitudes that are aimed at enabling the same
learners to function effectively in society. (SADC MoE Africa,
2000)
 (Ornstein and Hunkins, 1998)Curriculum implementation as the
interaction between the curriculum that has been written
and planned and the persons (teachers) who are in charge
to deliver. To them, curriculum implementation implies the
following:

• Shift from what is current to a new or enhanced curriculum.


• Change in knowledge, actions, attitudes of the persons
involved.
• Change in behavior using strategies and resources.
• Change which requires efforts hence goals should be
achievable.
 (Loucks and Lieberman, 1983) Curriculum implementation as
a trying out of a new practice and what it looks like when
actually used like when actually used in a school system. It
simply means that implementation should bring the desired
change and improvement.
 In the classroom context, curriculum implementation means
“teaching” what has been written in the lesson plan.

 Implementing means using the plan as a guide to engage


with the learners in the teaching-learning process with the end
in view that learning has occurred and learning outcomes has
been achieved.

 It involves the different strategies of teaching with the support


instructional materials to go with the strategy.
 In a larger scale, curriculum implementation means putting
the curriculum into operation with the different
implementation agents.

 It takes place in a class, a school , a district, a division or the


whole educational system.

 In higher education curriculum implementation happens for


a course, a degree program, the institution, or the whole
higher education system.

 It requires time, money, personal interaction, personal


contacts, and support.
CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION AS A
CHANGE PROCESS
KURT LEVIN’S FORCE FIELD THEORY AND CURRICULUM CHANGE
Kurt Levin (1951), father of social psychology
Kevin’s Force Field Model
DRIVING FORCE E RESTRAINING FORCES
Q
Government Interaction U Fear of the Unknown
I
Society’s Value L Negative Attitude to Change
I
Technological Changes B Tradition Values
R
Knowledge Explosion I Limited Resources
U
Administrative Support M
Obsolete Equipment
 According to Levin, there are always two forces that oppose
each other. The driving force and the restraining force.

 When these two are equal, the state is equilibrium or


balance. There will be a status quo, hence there will be no
change. The situation or the condition will stay the same.

 When the driving forces overpowers the restraining force,


then change will occur.

 When the restraining force is stronger than driving force,


change is prevented.

 Change will be better if the restraining forces shall be


decrease rather than increasing the driving force.
CATEGORIES OF CURRICULUM CHANGE
McNeil in 1990 categorized curriculum change as follows:

1. Substitution- The current curriculum will be replaced or


substituted by a new one. Sometimes, we call this a complete
overhaul.

2. Alteration- There is a minor change to the current or existing


curriculum.
3. Restructuring- Building a new structure would mean major
change or modification in the school system, degree program
or educational system.

4. Perturbations- Changes that are disruptive, but teachers have


to adjust to them within fairly short time.

5. Value Orientation- It is a shift in the emphasis that the


teacher provides which are not within the mission or vision of he
school or vice versa.
3 IMPORTANT ELEMENTS IN THE PROCESS
OF CHANGE

1. DEVELOPMENTAL
 it should develop multiple perspective, increases integration,
and make learning autonomous, create a climate of
openness and trust, and appreciate, and affirm strengths of
the teacher.

 There should be a teacher support in trying new tasks,


reflection on the new experiences and challenge.
 There are simple stages in the developmental change
process for teachers. First stage is the orientation and
preparation. The initial use is very mechanical and
routinary.

 However, as the skills are honed and mastery of the


routine is established, refinement follows.

 This means adjustments are made to better meet the


needs of the learners and achieve the learning
outcomes.

 In this step, there will be a continuous reflection,


feedback and refinement.
2. PARTICIPATORY

 For curriculum implementation to succeed, it should be


participatory, specially because other stakeholders like peers,
school leaders, parents and curriculum specialist are
necessary.

 Characteristics of teachers styles, commitment, willingness to


change, skills, and readiness are critical to implementation.
 This should be coupled with organizational structure, principal
style, student population characteristics, and other factors.

 Trust among key players should also be sought as this is a


positive starting point.

 Involvement and anticipation encourage sense of ownership


and accountability. Participation builds a learning community
which is very necessary in curriculum implementation.
3. SUPPORTIVE

 Supportive implementation is required in the process of


change.

 Material support like supplies, equipment and conductive


learning environment like classrooms and laboratory should
be made available.
 Likewise, human support is very much needed. The school
leader or head should provide full school or institutional
support to the implementation of the new curriculum.

 They too have to train to understand how to address


curriculum change as part of their instructional as well as
management functions.
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REFERENCE
Bilbao, Dayagbil and Copuz (2015). Curriculum
Development for Teachers. Lorimar Publishing Inc.