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 Objectives (students will be able to):

• Select a traditional roof style and create a roof

plan for a two-story house
• Calculate the pitch of a roof using a pitch ratio
• Define important vocabulary related to roof
 Definition:The exterior surface and its
supporting structures on the top of a
 A roof greatly affects the overall
appearance of a house
 Roof Systems
 Roof Framing Animation (Google SketchUp)
 Interior Framing (Rafters)
 Roof Types (Gable vs. Hip)
 Gable Roof
 Gable Roof
• Pros: Easy to build, sheds water well, provides for
ventilation, and can be applied to most house designs
• Cons: Extra wall leading up to the gable is more
expensive to build. Can collapse from wind.
 Hip Roof
 Hip Roof
• Pros: Aesthetically-pleasing. Could be cheaper than
gable roof because there is less exterior wall and more
roof material. More wind-resistant.
• Cons: Slightly more difficult to build than a Gable Roof.
Does not provide as well for ventilation
 Flat Roof
• Pros: Most economical to build
• Cons: Adds little to a design. Requires a “build-up” or
membrane roof covering. Bad idea for rainy or snowy
 Shed Roof
• Similar to a flat roof, but has pitch. Frequently used for
additions or with other roof styles.
 Oneof the main reasons for having a roof is to
keep out rainwater and snow. This is done by
providing a slope (pitch) to angle the roof.

 Figuring out the slope:

• In Europe & Australia: They define the pitch in degrees.
So a 5 degree pitch is pretty flat, and a 45 degree pitch is
fairly steep.
• In the USA: We refer to the slope of the roof as the ratio of
the rise over the run. The ratio always uses 12” as the run
Section through the Roof
How to calculate roof pitch


How to calculate roof pitch

X 5
156 12

156 5 12 ____
How to calculate roof pitch


How to calculate roof pitch

 The pitch angle determines what material can and
can't be used for the roof sheeting. For example, if
you want to use corrugated iron sheeting, there is a
minimum pitch specified by the manufacture (it
may be 5 degrees). Similarly, with roof tiles, it
could be 15 degrees. Architects usually check the
material specifications before designing the roof

 If the structure is built in an area with high rainfall

or snowfall, be wary of almost flat roofs. Roofs with
less of a slope are better for warm, drier climates.
 Roof Ventilation Methods
 Gable Type Ventilators
 Eaves
• The overhang of the roof at the wall
• Perform valuable functions apart from the appearance.
They protect the walls from bad weather.
• Eaves overhang the exterior walls 12”

• Nail Plated Timber Trusses

• All Steel Roof Construction

 Exposed rafters on interior
 Chimney Placement
 Chimney Placement
 How to draw a chimney on a roof plan
 Skylights
 Step 1: Open a new drawing. Save it in your folder and
name it: 2storyhouse-RoofPlan.dwg

 Step 2: Insert xrefs of first and second floor of house

 Step 3: Manage layers so that you can only see the walls
of the first and second floor (turn of all xref layers)

 Step 4: Put each floor on a new layer:

• First Floor = Default Cyan
• Second Floor = Default Red
 Step 5: Fit the second floor on top of the first floor (use
the stairs as a guide)
 Step 6: Using Layer 0, draw lines on top of the exterior
 Step 7: Use the offset tool to offset those lines 12” out
(b/c the eave is 12” from the walls)
 Step 8: Change the inside black lines to Hidden Lines
 Step 9: Hide the First Floor and Second Floor layers so
we can only see the Layer 0 (the roof). Decide where
ridges should go.

 Step 9: Hide the First Floor and Second Floor layers so
we can only see the Layer 0 (the roof). Decide where
ridges should go.

 Roof Basics:
 Roof Slide Presentation: